Ruby on Rails
|Original author(s)||David Heinemeier Hansson|
|Initial release||August 2004|
184.108.40.206 / 5 May 2021
|Type||Web application framework|
Ruby on Rails' emergence in 2005 greatly influenced web app development, through innovative features such as seamless database table creations, migrations, and scaffolding of views to enable rapid application development. Ruby on Rails' influence on other web frameworks remains apparent today, with many frameworks in other languages borrowing its ideas, including Django in Python, Catalyst in Perl, Laravel, CakePHP and Yii in PHP, Grails in Groovy, Phoenix in Elixir, Play in Scala, and Sails.js in Node.js.
David Heinemeier Hansson extracted Ruby on Rails from his work on the project management tool Basecamp at the web application company also called Basecamp (37Signals at the time). Hansson first released Rails as open source in July 2004, but did not share commit rights to the project until February 2005. In August 2006, the framework reached a milestone when Apple announced that it would ship Ruby on Rails with Mac OS X v10.5 "Leopard", which was released in October 2007.
Rails version 2.3 was released on March 15, 2009, with major new developments in templates, engines, Rack and nested model forms. Templates enable the developer to generate a skeleton application with custom gems and configurations. Engines give developers the ability to reuse application pieces complete with routes, view paths and models. The Rack web server interface and Metal allow one to write optimized pieces of code that route around Action Controller.
On December 23, 2008, Merb, another web application framework, was launched, and Ruby on Rails announced it would work with the Merb project to bring "the best ideas of Merb" into Rails 3, ending the "unnecessary duplication" across both communities. Merb was merged with Rails as part of the Rails 3.0 release.
Rails 3.2 was released on January 20, 2012 with a faster development mode and routing engine (also known as Journey engine), Automatic Query Explain and Tagged Logging. Rails 3.2.x is the last version that supports Ruby 1.8.7. Rails 3.2.12 supports Ruby 2.0.
Rails 4.0 was released on June 25, 2013, introducing Russian Doll Caching, Turbolinks, Live Streaming as well as making Active Resource, Active Record Observer and other components optional by splitting them as gems.
Rails 4.1 was released on April 8, 2014, introducing Spring, Variants, Enums, Mailer previews, and secrets.yml.
Rails 5.0 was released on June 30, 2016, introducing Action Cable, API mode, and Turbolinks 5.
Rails 220.127.116.11 was released on August 10, 2016, with Exclusive use of rails CLI over Rake and support for Ruby version 2.2.2 and above.
Rails 5.2 was released on April 9, 2018, introducing new features that include ActiveStorage, built-in Redis Cache Store, updated Rails Credentials and a new DSL that allows for configuring a Content Security Policy for an application.
Rails 5.2.2 was released on December 4, 2018, introducing numerous bug fixes and several logic improvements.
Rails 6.0 was released on August 16, 2019, making Webpack default, adding mailbox routing, a default online rich-text editor, parallel testing, multiple database support, mailer routing and a new autoloader.
Rails 6.1 was released on December 9, 2020, adding per-database connection switching, horizontal database sharding, eager loading of all associations, Delegated Types as an alternative to single-table inheritance, asynchronous deletion of associations, error objects, and other improvements and bug fixes.
|Version||Release Date||Compatible Ruby Version(s)|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 1.0||December 13, 2005||1.8.6|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 1.2||January 19, 2007||1.8.6|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 2.0||December 7, 2007||1.8.6|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 2.1||June 1, 2008||1.8.6|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 2.2||November 21, 2008||1.8.7 recommended; 1.8.6 possible|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 2.3||March 16, 2009||1.8.7 recommended; 1.8.6 and 1.9.1 possible|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 3.0||August 29, 2010||1.9.3 recommended; 1.8.7 and 1.9.2 possible|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 3.1||August 31, 2011||1.9.3 recommended; 1.8.7 and 1.9.2 possible|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 3.2||January 20, 2012||1.9.3 recommended; 1.8.7 and 1.9.2 possible|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 4.0||June 25, 2013||2.0 preferred; 1.9.3 or newer required|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 4.1||April 8, 2014||2.0 preferred; 1.9.3 or newer required|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 4.2||December 19, 2014||2.0 preferred; 1.9.3 or newer required|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 5.0||June 30, 2016||2.2.2 or newer|
|Old version, no longer maintained: 5.1||May 10, 2017||2.2.2 or newer|
|Older version, yet still maintained: 5.2||April 9, 2018||2.2.2 or newer|
|Older version, yet still maintained: 6.0||August 16, 2019||2.5.0 or newer|
|Current stable version: 6.1||December 9, 2020||2.5.0 or newer|
|Future release: 7.0||TBA||3.0 preferred; 2.7.0 or newer|
Like other web frameworks, Ruby on Rails uses the model–view–controller (MVC) pattern to organize application programming.
In a default configuration, a model in the Ruby on Rails framework maps to a table in a database and to a Ruby file. For example, a model class User will usually be defined in the file 'user.rb' in the app/models directory, and linked to the table 'users' in the database. While developers are free to ignore this convention and choose differing names for their models, files, and database table, this is not common practice and is usually discouraged in accordance with the "convention-over-configuration" philosophy.
A controller is a server-side component of Rails that responds to external requests from the web server to the application, by determining which view file to render. The controller may also have to query one or more models for information and pass these on to the view. For example, in an airline reservation system, a controller implementing a flight-search function would need to query a model representing individual flights to find flights matching the search, and might also need to query models representing airports and airlines to find related secondary data. The controller might then pass some subset of the flight data to the corresponding view, which would contain a mixture of static HTML and logic that use the flight data to create an HTML document containing a table with one row per flight. A controller may provide one or more actions. In Ruby on Rails, an action is typically a basic unit that describes how to respond to a specific external web-browser request. Also, note that the controller/action will be accessible for external web requests only if a corresponding route is mapped to it. Rails encourages developers to use RESTful routes, which include actions such as create, new, edit, update, destroy, show, and index. These mappings of incoming requests/routes to controller actions can be easily set up in the routes.rb configuration file.
Ruby on Rails includes tools that make common development tasks easier "out-of-the-box", such as scaffolding that can automatically construct some of the models and views needed for a basic website. Also included are WEBrick, a simple Ruby web server that is distributed with Ruby, and Rake, a build system, distributed as a gem. Together with Ruby on Rails, these tools provide a basic development environment.
Ruby on Rails is most commonly not connected to the Internet directly, but through some front-end web server. Mongrel was generally preferred[by whom?] over WEBrick in the early days, but it can also run on Lighttpd, Apache, Cherokee, Hiawatha, Nginx (either as a module – Phusion Passenger for example – or via CGI, FastCGI or mod_ruby), and many others. From 2008 onward, Passenger replaced Mongrel as the most-used web server for Ruby on Rails. Ruby is also supported natively on IBM i.
Since version 2.0, Ruby on Rails offers both HTML and XML as standard output formats. The latter is the facility for RESTful web services.
Ruby on Rails 3.2 is the last series of releases that support Ruby 1.8.7.
Ruby on Rails is separated into various packages, namely ActiveRecord (an object-relational mapping system for database access), Action Pack, Active Support and Action Mailer. Prior to version 2.0, Ruby on Rails also included the Action Web Service package that is now replaced by Active Resource. Apart from standard packages, developers can make plugins to extend existing packages. Earlier Rails supported plugins within their own custom framework; version 3.2 deprecates these in favor of standard Ruby "gems".
Ruby on Rails is often installed using RubyGems, a package manager which is included with current versions of Ruby. Many free Unix-like systems also support installation of Ruby on Rails and its dependencies through their native package management system.
Philosophy and design
The Rails Doctrine is an enduring enabler that guides the philosophy, design, and implementation of the Ruby on Rails framework.
"Convention over Configuration" means a developer only needs to specify unconventional aspects of the application. For example, if there is a class Sale in the model, the corresponding table in the database is called sales by default. It is only if one deviates from this convention, such as calling the table "products sold", that the developer needs to write code regarding these names. Generally, Ruby on Rails conventions lead to less code and less repetition.
"Don't repeat yourself" means that information is located in a single, unambiguous place. For example, using the ActiveRecord module of Rails, the developer does not need to specify database column names in class definitions. Instead, Ruby on Rails can retrieve this information from the database based on the class name.
"Fat models, skinny controllers" means that most of the application logic should be placed within the model while leaving the controller as light as possible.
In March 2007, David Heinemeier Hansson filed three Ruby on Rails-related trademark applications to the USPTO. These applications regard the phrase "RUBY ON RAILS", the word "RAILS", and the official Rails logo. As a consequence, in the summer of 2007, Hansson denied permission to Apress to use the Ruby on Rails logo on the cover of a new Ruby on Rails book written by some authoritative community members. The episode gave rise to a polite protest in the Ruby on Rails community. In response to this criticism, Hansson replied:
I only grant promotional use [of the Rails logo] for products I'm directly involved with. Such as books that I've been part of the development process for or conferences where I have a say in the execution. I would most definitely seek to enforce all the trademarks of Rails.
Rails running on Matz's Ruby Interpreter (the de facto reference interpreter for Ruby) had been criticized for issues with scalability. These critics often mentioned various Twitter outages in 2007 and 2008, which spurred Twitter's partial transition to Scala (which runs on the Java Virtual Machine) for their queueing system and other middleware. The user interface aspects of the site continued to run Ruby on Rails until 2011 when it was replaced due to concerns over performance
In 2011, Gartner Research noted that despite criticisms and comparisons to Java, many high-profile consumer web firms are using Ruby on Rails to build scalable web applications. Some of the largest sites running Ruby on Rails include Airbnb, Cookpad, GitHub, Scribd, Shopify, and Basecamp. As of January 2016, it is estimated that more than 1.2 million web sites are running Ruby on Rails.
In March 2012, security researcher Egor Homakov discovered a mass assignment vulnerability that allowed certain Rails applications to be remotely exploited, and demonstrated it by non-maliciously hacking GitHub after his earlier attempts at responsible disclosure were dismissed.
On September 24, 2013, a session cookie persistence security flaw was reported in Ruby on Rails. In a default configuration, the entire session hash is stored within a session cookie known as CookieStore, allowing any authenticated session possessing the session cookie to log in as the target user at any time in the future. As a workaround, administrators are advised to configure cookies to be stored on the server using mechanisms such as ActiveRecordStore.
Researchers Daniel Jackson and Joseph Near developed a data debugger they called "Space" that can analyze the data access of a Rails program and determine if the program properly adheres to rules regarding access restrictions. On April 15, 2016, Near reported that an analysis of 50 popular Web applications using Space uncovered 23 previously unknown security flaws.
- "Rails 1.0: Party like it's one oh oh!". weblog.rubyonrails.org. Retrieved 2017-03-01.
- "Release v18.104.22.168 · rails/rails · GitHub". Retrieved 16 December 2019.
- "Getting Started with Rails: What Is Rails?". guides.rubyonrails.org. Retrieved 10 August 2014.
- Goswami, Shubham. "Django vs Ruby on Rails – The Choice for Mobile App Development". appsearch.org. Retrieved 28 November 2020.
- Grimmer, Lenz−− (February 2006). "Interview with David Heinemeier Hansson from Ruby on Rails". MySQL AB. Archived from the original on February 25, 2013. Retrieved 2008-06-08.
- Hansson, David (August 7, 2006). "Ruby on Rails will ship with OS X 10.5 (Leopard)". weblog.rubyonrails.org. Retrieved 2008-06-08.
- Hansson, David (March 16, 2009). "Rails 2.3: Templates, Engines, Rack, Metal, much more!". weblog.rubyonrails.org.
- "The day Merb joined Rails". rubyonrails.org. 2008-12-27. Archived from the original on 2013-02-09.
- "Ruby on Rails 3.0 Release Notes — Ruby on Rails Guides". edgeguides.rubyonrails.org. Retrieved 2017-05-24.
- "Ruby on Rails 3.0 goes modular". sdtimes.com. 2010-02-10. Retrieved 2010-08-06.
- "Ruby on Rails 3.1 Release Notes". guides.rubyonrails.org. 2012-09-01.
- "Ruby on Rails 3.2 Release Notes". guides.rubyonrails.org. 2012-09-01.
- "Rails/master is now 4.0.0.beta". weblog.rubyonrails.org. 2012-09-01.
- Rails 3.2.x is now compatible with Ruby 2.0.0 by sikachu · Pull Request #9406 · rails/rails · GitHub. Github.com. Retrieved on 2014-05-30.
- "Rails 4.0: Final version released!". weblog.rubyonrails.org. 2013-06-25. Retrieved 2017-05-24.
- "Rails 4.1.0: Spring, Variants, Enums, Mailer previews, secrets.yml". weblog.rubyonrails.org.
- "Rails 4.2: Active Job, Asynchronous Mails, Adequate Record, Web Console, Foreign Keys". weblog.rubyonrails.org. Retrieved 5 Dec 2015.
- "Rails 5.0: Action Cable, API mode, and so much more". weblog.rubyonrails.org. Retrieved 19 Nov 2016.
- "Rails 5.2.0 FINAL: Active Storage, Redis Cache Store, HTTP/2 Early Hints, CSP, Credentials". weblog.rubyonrails.org. Retrieved 9 April 2018.
- rafaelfranca (2018-12-04). "Rails 5.2.2 has been released!". weblog.rubyonrails.org. Retrieved 2019-01-04.
- dhh (2019-08-19). "Rails 6.0: Action Mailbox, Action Text, Multiple DBs, Parallel Testing, Webpacker by default, and Zeitwerk". weblog.rubyonrails.org. Retrieved 2019-11-12.
- eileencodes (2020-12-09). "Rails 6.1: Horizontal Sharding, Multi-DB Improvements, Strict Loading, Destroy Associations in Background, Error Objects, and more!". weblog.rubyonrails.org. Retrieved 2020-12-28.
- "Ruby/Rails Compatibility Matrix". devalot.com. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
- "Upgrading Ruby on Rails". guides.rubyonrails.org. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
- "Upgrading Ruby on Rails". edgeguides.rubyonrails.org. Retrieved 5 March 2021.
- "Rails 1.0: Party like it's one oh oh!". weblog.rubyonrails.org. Retrieved June 9, 2010.
- "Rails 1.2: REST admiration, HTTP lovefest, and UTF-8 celebrations" Archived 2012-11-02 at the Wayback Machine. weblog.rubyonrails.org. Retrieved June 9, 2010.
- "Rails 2.0: It's done!". weblog.rubyonrails.org. Retrieved June 9, 2010.
- Rails 2.1: Time zones, dirty, caching, gem dependencies, caching, etc Archived 2012-11-02 at the Wayback Machine. weblog.rubyonrails.org. Retrieved June 9, 2010.
- "Rails 2.2: i18n, HTTP validators, thread safety, JRuby/1.9 compatibility, docs". weblog.rubyonrails.org. Retrieved June 9, 2010.
- "Rails 2.3: Templates, Engines, Rack, Metal, much more!". weblog.rubyonrails.org. Retrieved June 9, 2010.
- "Rails 3.0: It's ready!". weblog.rubyonrails.org. Retrieved August 30, 2010.
- "bumping to 3.1.0". Github.com.
- "Preparing for 3.2.0 release". Github.com.
- "Rails 4 in 30'". blog.wyeworks.com.
- "Rails 6.2 is now Rails 7.0". github.com.
- Sean Lynch (2007-12-15). "fairleads: Rails 2.0 and Scaffolding Step by Step". Fairleads.blogspot.com. Retrieved 2017-05-24.
- "Ruby on Rails: Deploy". rubyonrails.org. Archived from the original on 2009-07-07. Retrieved 2012-12-03.
- Maxcer, Chris. "PowerRuby Brings Enterprise Ruby on Rails Support to IBM i". iPro Developer. Archived from the original on 9 October 2013. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- "Rails 3.0: It's ready!". weblog.rubyonrails.org. Retrieved 2010-08-30.
Rails 3.0 has been designed to work with Ruby 1.8.7, Ruby 1.9.2, and JRuby 1.5.2+.
- "Rails 3.2.0.rc2 has been released!". weblog.rubyonrails.org. 2012-09-01.
- "Ruby on Rails: Download". rubyonrails.org. Archived from the original on 2009-12-12.
- "Getting Started with Rails". guides.rubyonrails.org. Retrieved 2014-03-10.
- ""Ruby on Rails" Trademark Status". USPTO. Retrieved 2007-08-01.
- ""Rails" Trademark Status". USPTO. Retrieved 2007-08-01.
- "Rails Logo Trademark Status". USPTO. Retrieved 2007-08-01.
- Forde, Pete (2007-07-23). "Beginning Rails: From Novice to Professional". Archived from the original on August 5, 2007. Retrieved 2007-08-01.
- Cooper, Peter (2007-07-24). "David Heinemeier Hansson says No to Use of Rails Logo". Retrieved 2007-08-01.
- "5 Question Interview with Twitter Developer Alex Payne". radicalbehavior.com. 2007-03-29. Archived from the original on April 23, 2009. Retrieved 2014-11-04.
By various metrics Twitter is the biggest Rails site on the net right now. Running on Rails has forced us to deal with scaling issues - issues that any growing site eventually contends with – far sooner than I think we would on another framework.
- Steve Jenson; Alex Payne & Robey Pointer interview (2009-04-03). "Twitter on Scala". artima.com. Retrieved 2009-07-18.
We had a Ruby-based queuing system that we used for communicating between the Rails front ends and the daemons, and we ended up replacing that with one written in Scala. The Ruby one actually worked pretty decently in a normal steady state, but the startup time and the crash behavior were undesirable.
- "Twitter jilts Ruby for Scala". theregister.co.uk. 2009-04-01. Retrieved 2009-07-18.
By the end of this year, Payne said, Twitter hopes to have its entire middleware infrastructure and its APIs ported to the new language. Ruby will remain, but only on the front end. "We're still happy with Rails for building user facing features... performance-wise, it's fine for people clicking around web pages. It's the heavy lifting, asynchronous processing type of stuff that we've moved away from."
- Ryan King (2009-09-25). "Twitter on Ruby". Evan Weaver. Retrieved 2009-09-29.
We use Scala for a few things at Twitter, but the majority of the site is Ruby.
- "Twitter Search is Now 3x Faster". Twitter. Retrieved June 6, 2014.
- "Here's Why Ruby On Rails Is Hot". Business Insider. Archived from the original on December 21, 2011. Retrieved February 10, 2012.
- "Ruby on Rails Usage Statistics". trends.builtwith.com. Retrieved 2016-01-04.
- "Ruby on Rails Token Usage Statistics". trends.builtwith.com. Retrieved 2016-01-04.
- Protalinski, Emil. "How GitHub handled getting hacked". Zdnet.com. Retrieved 2017-05-24.
- Brook, Chris (2013-09-25). "Security Issue in Ruby on Rails Could Expose Cookies". Threat Post. The Kaspersky Lab Security News Service. Retrieved 2014-06-04.
- "Patching up Web applications". MIT News. Retrieved 2016-04-21.
- Ruby, Sam; Thomas, Dave; Hansson, David (March 28, 2009). Agile Web Development with Rails (Third ed.). Pragmatic Bookshelf. p. 850. ISBN 1-934356-16-6.
- Laurent, Simon St.; Dumbill, Edd (November 28, 2008). Learning Rails (First ed.). O'Reilly Media. p. 442. ISBN 0-596-51877-3.
- Lenz, Patrick (May 1, 2008). Simply Rails 2 (Second ed.). SitePoint. p. 450. ISBN 0-9804552-0-0.
- Tate, Bruce; Hibbs, Curt (August 22, 2006). Ruby on Rails: Up and Running (First ed.). O'Reilly Media. p. 182. ISBN 0-596-10132-5.
- Holzner, Steve (November 29, 2006). Beginning Ruby on Rails (First ed.). Wrox. p. 380. ISBN 0-470-06915-5.
- Allan Hardy, Jeffrey; Carneiro Jr, Cloves; Catlin, Hampton (July 20, 2007). Beginning Ruby on Rails E-Commerce: From Novice to Professional (First ed.). Wrox. p. 361. ISBN 1-59059-686-2.
- Clark, Mike (May 15, 2008). Advanced Rails Recipes (First ed.). Pragmatic Bookshelf. p. 464. ISBN 0-9787392-2-1.
|Wikibooks has more on the topic of: Ruby on Rails|