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Artist's conception of a red dwarf star, the most common type of star in the Sun's stellar neighborhood, and in the universe. Although termed a red dwarf, the surface temperature of this star would give it an orange hue when viewed from close proximity

This list contains all known stars and brown dwarfs at a distance of up to 5 parsecs (16.3 light-years) from the Solar System, ordered by increasing distance. In addition to the Solar System, there are another 51 stellar systems currently known lying within this distance. These systems contain a total of 61 hydrogen-fusing stars and nine brown dwarfs. Despite the relative proximity of these objects to the Earth, only nine of them have an apparent magnitude less than 6.5, which means only about 13% of these objects can be observed with the naked eye.[1] Besides the Sun, only three are first-magnitude stars: Alpha Centauri, Sirius, and Procyon. All of these objects are located in the Local Bubble, a region within the Orion–Cygnus Arm of the Milky Way Galaxy.

List[edit]

Stars visible to the unaided eye have their magnitude shown in light blue below. The classes of the stars and brown dwarfs are shown in the color of their spectral types (these colors are derived from conventional names for the spectral types and do not represent the star's observed color). Many brown dwarfs are not listed by visual magnitude but are listed by near-IR J band magnitude. Some of the parallax and distance results are preliminary measurements.[2]

# Designation Stellar class Apparent magnitude (mV or mJ) Absolute magnitude (MV or MJ) Epoch J2000.0 Parallax[2][3]
mas(±err)
Distance[4]
Light-years (±err)
Additional
references
System Star Star # Right ascension[2] Declination[2]
Solar System Sun G2V[2] −26.74[2] 4.85[2] variable: the Sun travels along the ecliptic 0.000015 has eight planets
1 Alpha Centauri
(Rigil Kentaurus)
Proxima Centauri (V645 Centauri) 1 M5.5Ve 11.09[2] 15.53[2] 14h 29m 43s.0 −62° 40′.8 768.87(029)[5][6] 4.2421(16) [7]
α Centauri A (HD 128620) 2 G2V[2] 0.01[2] 4.38[2] 14h 39m 36s.5 −60° 50′.0 747.23(117)[5][8] 4.3650(68)
α Centauri B (HD 128621) 2 K1V[2] 1.34[2] 5.71[2] 14h 39m 35s.1 −60° 50′.2
2 Barnard's Star (BD+04°3561a) 4 M4.0Ve 9.53[2] 13.22[2] 17h 57m 48s.5 +04° 41′.6 546.98(1 00)[5][6] 5.9630(109)
3 Wolf 359 (CN Leonis) 5 M6.0V[2] 13.44[2] 16.55[2] 10h 56m 29s.2 +07° 00′.9 419.10(210)[5] 7.7825(390)
4 Lalande 21185 (BD+36°2147) 6 M2.0V[2] 7.47[2] 10.44[2] 11h 03m 20s.2 +35° 58′.2 393.42(070)[5][6] 8.2905(148)
5 Sirius
(α Canis Majoris)
Sirius A 7 A1V[2] −1.46[2] 1.42[2] 06h 45m 08s.9 −16° 43′.0 380.02(128)[5][6] 8.5828(289)
Sirius B 7 DA2[2] 8.44[2] 11.34[2]
6 Luyten 726-8 Luyten 726-8 A (BL Ceti) 9 M5.5Ve 12.54[2] 15.40[2] 01h 39m 01s.3 −17° 57′.0 373.70(270)[5] 8.7280(631)
Luyten 726-8 B (UV Ceti) 10 M6.0Ve 12.99[2] 15.85[2]
7 Ross 154 (V1216 Sagittarii) 11 M3.5Ve 10.43[2] 13.07[2] 18h 49m 49s.4 −23° 50′.2 336.90(178)[5][6] 9.6813(512)
8 Ross 248 (HH Andromedae) 12 M5.5Ve 12.29[2] 14.79[2] 23h 41m 54s.7 +44° 10′.5 316.00(110)[5] 10.322(36)
9 Epsilon Eridani (BD−09°697) 13 K2V[2] 3.73[2] 6.19[2] 03h 32m 55s.8 −09° 27′.5 309.99(079)[5][6] 10.522(27) believed to have two planets[9]
10 Lacaille 9352 (CD−36°15693) 14 M1.5Ve 7.34[2] 9.75[2] 23h 05m 52s.0 −35° 51′.2 303.64(087)[5][6] 10.742(31)
11 Ross 128 (FI Virginis) 15 M4.0Vn 11.13[2] 13.51[2] 11h 47m 44s.4 +00° 48′.3 298.72(135)[5][6] 10.919(49)
12 EZ Aquarii
(Gliese 866, Luyten 789-6)
EZ Aquarii A 16 M5.0Ve 13.33[2] 15.64[2] 22h 38m 33s.4 −15° 18′.1 289.50(440)[5] 11.266(171)
EZ Aquarii B 16 M? 13.27[2] 15.58[2]
EZ Aquarii C 16 M? 14.03[2] 16.34[2]
13 Procyon
(α Canis Minoris)
Procyon A 19 F5V-IV[2] 0.38[2] 2.66[2] 07h 39m 18s.1 +05° 13′.5 286.05(081)[5][6] 11.402(32)
Procyon B 19 DA[2] 10.70[2] 12.98[2]
14 61 Cygni 61 Cygni A (BD+38°4343) 21 K5.0V[2] 5.21[2] 7.49[2] 21h 06m 53s.9 +38° 45′.0 286.04(056)[5][6] 11.403(22) first star (other than Sun) to have its distance measured[10]
61 Cygni B (BD+38°4344) 21 K7.0V[2] 6.03[2] 8.31[2] 21h 06m 55s.3 +38° 44′.5
15 Struve 2398
(Gliese 725, BD+59°1915)
Struve 2398 A (HD 173739) 23 M3.0V[2] 8.90[2] 11.16[2] 18h 42m 46s.7 +59° 37′.8 283.00(169)[5][6] 11.525(69)
Struve 2398 B (HD 173740) 23 M3.5V[2] 9.69[2] 11.95[2] 18h 42m 46s.9 +59° 37′.7
16 Groombridge 34
(Gliese 15)
Groombridge 34 A (GX Andromedae) 25 M1.5V[2] 8.08[2] 10.32[2] 0h 18m 22s.9 +44° 01′.4 280.59(095)[5][6] 11.624(39)
Groombridge 34 B (GQ Andromedae) 25 M3.5V[2] 11.06[2] 13.30[2]
17 Epsilon Indi
(CPD−57°10015)
Epsilon Indi A 27 K5Ve[2] 4.69[2] 6.89[2] 22h 03m 21s.7 −56° 47′.2 275.84(069)[5][6] 11.824(30)
Epsilon Indi Ba 27 T1.0V 12.3 J[11] 22h 04m 10s.5 −56° 47′.0
Epsilon Indi Bb 27 T6.0V 13.2 J[11]
18 DX Cancri (G 51-15) 30 M6.5Ve 14.78[2] 16.98[2] 08h 29m 49s.5 +26° 46′.6 275.80(300)[5] 11.826(129)
19 Tau Ceti (BD−16°295) 31 G8Vp[2] 3.49[2] 5.68[2] 01h 44m 04s.1 −15° 56′.3 274.39(076)[5][6] 11.887(33)
20 GJ 1061 (LHS 1565) 32 M5.5V[2] 13.09[2] 15.26[2] 03h 35m 59s.7 −44° 30′.7 272.01(130)[12] 11.991(57) [13][14]
21 YZ Ceti (LHS 138) 33 M4.5V[2] 12.02[2] 14.17[2] 01h 12m 30s.6 −16° 59′.9 268.84(295)[5][6] 12.132(133)
22 Luyten's Star (BD+05°1668) 34 M3.5Vn 9.86[2] 11.97[2] 07h 27m 24s.5 +05° 13′.6 263.76(125)[5][6] 12.366(59)
23 Teegarden's star (SO025300.5+165258) 35 M6.5V 15.14[2] 17.22[2] 02h 53m 00s.9 +16° 52′.9 260.63(269)[12] 12.514(129) [14]
24 SCR 1845-6357 SCR 1845-6357 A 36 M8.5V[2] 17.39 19.41 18h 45m 05s.3 −63° 57′.8 259.45(111)[12] 12.571(54) [14]
SCR 1845-6357 B 36 T6[15] 13.3 J[11] 18h 45m 02s.6 −63° 57′.9
25 Kapteyn's Star (CD−45°1841) 38 M1.5V[2] 8.84[2] 10.87[2] 05h 11m 40s.6 −45° 01′ 06″ 255.27(086)[5][6] 12.777(43)
26 Lacaille 8760 (AX Microscopii) 39 M0.0V[2] 6.67[2] 8.69[2] 21h 17m 15s.3 −38° 52′.1 253.43(112)[5][6] 12.870(57)
27 Kruger 60
(BD+56°2783)
Kruger 60 A 40 M3.0V[2] 9.79[2] 11.76[2] 22h 27m 59s.5 +57° 41′.8 248.06(139)[5][8] 13.149(74)
Kruger 60 B (DO Cephei) 40 M4.0V[2] 11.41[2] 13.38[2]
28 DEN 1048-3956 42 M8.5V[2] 17.39[2] 19.37[2] 10h 48m 14s.7 −39° 56′.1 247.71(155)[12] 13.167(82) [16][17]
29 UGPS 0722-05 43 T9[2] 16.52 J[18] 07h 22m 27s.3 –05° 40′.5 246 13.259 [19]
30 Ross 614
(V577 Monocerotis, Gliese 234)
Ross 614A (LHS 1849) 44 M4.5V[2] 11.15[2] 13.09[2] 06h 29m 23s.4 −02° 48′.8 244.34(201)[5][8] 13.349(110)
Ross 614B (LHS 1850) 44 M5.5V 14.23[2] 16.17[2]
31 WISE 1541-2250 46 Y0.5 20.74 J[20] 15h 41m 51s.57 −22° 50′.4 238 [20] 13.704[20]
32 WISE 0350-5658 47 Y1 >22.8 J[20] 03h 50m −57° 0″ 238 [20] 13.704[20]
33 Wolf 1061 (Gliese 628, BD−12°4523) 48 M3.0V[2] 10.07[2] 11.93[2] 16h 30m 18s.1 −12° 39′.8 236.01(167)[5][6] 13.820(98)
34 Van Maanen's star (Gliese 35, LHS 7) 49 DZ7[2] 12.38[2] 14.21[2] 00h 49m 09s.9 +05° 23′.3 231.88(179)[5][6] 14.066(109)
35 Gliese 1 (CD−37°15492) 50 M3.0V[2] 8.55[2] 10.35[2] 00h 05m 24s.4 −37° 21′.5 229.20(107)[5][6] 14.231(66)
36 Wolf 424
(FL Virginis, LHS 333, Gliese 473)
Wolf 424 A 51 M5.5Ve 13.18[2] 14.97[2] 12h 33m 17s.2 +09° 01′.3 227.90(460)[5] 14.312(289)
Wolf 424 B 51 M7Ve 13.17[2] 14.96[2]
37 TZ Arietis (Gliese 83.1, Luyten 1159-16) 53 M4.5V[2] 12.27[2] 14.03[2] 02h 00m 13s.2 +13° 03′.1 224.80(290)[5] 14.509(187)
38 Gliese 687 (LHS 450, BD+68°946) 54 M3.0V[2] 9.17[2] 10.89[2] 17h 36m 25s.9 +68° 20′.4 220.49(082)[5][6] 14.793(55)
39 LHS 292 (LP 731-58) 55 M6.5V[2] 15.60[2] 17.32[2] 10h 48m 12s.6 −11° 20′.2 220.30(360)[5] 14.805(242)
40 Gliese 674 (LHS 449) 56 M3.0V[2] 9.38[2] 11.09[2] 17h 28m 39s.9 −46° 53′.7 220.25(159)[5][6] 14.809(107) has a planet[citation needed]
41 GJ 1245 GJ 1245 A 57 M5.5V[2] 13.46[2] 15.17[2] 19h 53m 54s.2 +44° 24′.9 220.20(100)[5] 14.812(67)
GJ 1245 B 57 M6.0V[2] 14.01[2] 15.72[2] 19h 53m 55s.2 +44° 24′.9
GJ 1245 C 57 M5.5 16.75[2] 18.46[2] 19h 53m 54s.2 +44° 24′.9
42 Gliese 440 (WD 1142-645) 60 DQ6[2] 11.50[2] 13.18[2] 11h 45m 42s.9 −64° 50′.3 216.57(201)[5][6] 15.060(140)
43 GJ 1002 61 M5.5V[2] 13.76[2] 15.40[2] 00h 06m 43s.8 −07° 32′.4 213.00(360)[5] 15.313(259)
44 Gliese 876 (Ross 780) 62 M3.5V[2] 10.17[2] 11.81[2] 22h 53m 16s.7 −14° 15′.8 212.59(196)[5][6] 15.342(141) has four planets[21]
45 LHS 288 (Luyten 143-23) 63 M5.5V[2] 13.90[2] 15.51[2] 10h 44m 21s.2 −61° 12′.6 208.95(273)[12] 15.610(204) [14]
46 WISE 1405+5534 64 Y0p 20.09 J[20] 14h 05m +55° 34′ 207 [20] 15.757[20]
47 Gliese 412 Gliese 412 A 65 M1.0V[2] 8.77[2] 10.34[2] 11h 05m 28s.6 +43° 31′.6 206.02(108)[5][6] 15.832(83)
Gliese 412 B (WX Ursae Majoris) 65 M5.5V[2] 14.48[2] 16.05[2] 11h 05m 30s.4 +43° 31′.3
48 Groombridge 1618 (Gliese 380) 67 K7.0V[2] 6.59[2] 8.16[2] 10h 11m 22s.1 +49° 27′.3 205.81(067)[5][6] 15.848(52)
49 AD Leonis 68 M3.0V[2] 9.32[2] 10.87[2] 10h 19m 36s.4 +19° 52′.2 204.60(280)[5] 15.942(218)
50 DENIS J081730.0-615520 69 T6 08h 17m -61° 9′ 203 [20] 16.067[20]
51 Gliese 832 70 M3.0V[2] 8.66[2] 10.20[2] 21h 33m 34s.0 −49° 00′.5 202.78(132)[5][6] 16.085(105) has a planet[citation needed]
52 LP 944-020 71 M9.0V[2] 18.50[2] 20.02[2] 03h 39m 35s.2 −35° 25′.7 201.40(420)[22] 16.195(338)
53 DEN 0255-4700 72 L7.5V[2] 22.92[2] 24.44[2] 02h 55m 03s.7 −47° 00′.9 201.37(389)[12] 16.197(313) [17]
# System Star Star # Stellar class Apparent magnitude (mV or mJ) Absolute magnitude (MV or MJ) Right ascension[2] Declination[2] Parallax[2][3]
mas(±err)
Distance[4]
Light-years (±err)
Additional
references
Designation Epoch J2000.0

Map of nearby stars[edit]

The following map shows all of the star systems within 14 light-years of the Sun (shown as Sol), except for two brown dwarfs discovered after 2009. Double and triple stars are shown "stacked", but the true location is the star closest to the central plane. Color corresponds to the table above.

Nearby Stars (14ly Radius).svg

Future and past[edit]

Distances of the nearest stars from 20,000 years ago until 80,000 years in the future

Ross 248, currently at a distance of 10.3 light-years, has a radial velocity of −81 km/s. In about 31,000 years it may be the closest star to the Sun for several millennia, with a minimum distance of 0.927 parsecs (3.02 light-years) in 36,000 years.[23] Gliese 445, currently at a distance of 17.6 light-years, has a radial velocity of −119 km/s. In about 40,000 years it will be the closest star for a period of several thousand years.[23]

Known Hipparcos stars that have passed or will pass within 5.1 light-years of the Sun within ±2 million years:[24]

Star name HIP# Minimum distance in light-years (parsecs) Approach date in kiloyears Current distance in light-years (parsecs) Stellar classification Mass in M Current apparent magnitude Constellation Right ascension Declination
Gliese 710 89825 0.14–0.27 ly (0.043–0.083 pc) 1320-1390 62.3 (19.1) K7V 0.4–0.6 9.6 Serpens 18h 19m 50.843s −01° 56′ 18.98″
Scholz's star and companion brown dwarf 0.59–1.17 ly (0.18–0.36 pc) –70 20 (6) M9+T5 0.15 18.3 Monoceros 07h 20m 03.20s −08° 46′ 51.2″
HIP 85605 85605[25] 0.13–0.65 ly (0.04–0.2 pc) (?) 240–470 22.2 (6.8)? K or M unknown 11.03[26] Hercules 17h 29m 36.24527s 24° 39′ 14.1204″
Gamma Microscopii[25] 103738 0.35–1.34 ly (0.11–0.41 pc) −3800 229±4 (70±1) G6III 2.5 4.68 Microscopium 21h 01m 17.46047s −32° 15′ 27.9574″
Proxima Centauri 70890 2.90 (0.890) 27.4 4.24 (1.29) M5Ve 0.15 11.05 Centaurus 14h 29m 42.949s −62° 40′ 46.14″
Alpha Centauri A 71683 2.97 (0.910) 28.4 4.36 (1.338) G2V 1.100[27] −0.01 Centaurus 14h 39m 36.495s −60° 50′ 02.31″
Alpha Centauri B 71681 2.97 (0.910) 28.4 4.36 (1.338) K1V 0.907[27] 1.33 Centaurus 14h 39m 35.080s −60° 50′ 13.76″
AC+79 3888 57544 3.45 (1.059) 46.0 17.6 (5.39) M4 0.15? 10.8 Camelopardalis 11h 47m 41.377s +78° 41′ 28.18″
Barnard's Star 87937 3.74 (1.148) 9.8 5.98 (1.834) sdM4 0.144 9.54 Ophiuchus 17h 57m 48.498s +04° 41′ 36.25″
Zeta Leporis 27288 4.16 (1.275) −861 70.2 (21.5) A2Vann 2.0 3.55 Lepus 05h 46m 57.341s −14° 49′ 19.02″
Lalande 21185 54035 4.65 (1.426) 20.5 8.32 (2.55) M2V 0.39 7.52 Ursa Major 11h 03m 20.194s +35° 58′ 11.55″
Gliese 208 26335 5.01 (1.537) −500 37.1 (11.38) K7 0.47 8.9 Orion 05h 36m 30.991s +11° 19′ 40.32″

The distance to HIP 85605 was probably underestimated by a factor of ten due to it being an optical double that is particularly problematic in the Hipparcos data reduction.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Weaver, Harold F. (1947). "The Visibility of Stars Without Optical Aid". Publications of the Astronomical Society of the Pacific. 59 (350): 232–243. Bibcode:1947PASP...59..232W. doi:10.1086/125956. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap aq ar as at au av aw ax ay az ba bb bc bd be bf bg bh bi bj bk bl bm bn bo bp bq br bs bt bu bv bw bx by bz ca cb cc cd ce cf cg ch ci cj ck cl cm cn co cp cq cr cs ct cu cv cw cx cy cz da db dc dd de df dg dh di dj dk dl dm dn do dp dq dr ds dt du dv dw dx dy dz ea eb ec ed ee ef eg eh ei ej ek el em en eo ep eq er es et eu ev ew ex ey ez fa fb fc fd fe ff fg fh fi fj fk fl fm fn fo fp fq fr fs ft fu fv fw fx fy fz ga Research Consortium on Nearby Stars, GSU (2007-09-17). "The One Hundred Nearest Star Systems". RECONS. Retrieved 2007-11-06.  External link in |journal= (help)
  3. ^ a b Parallaxes given by RECONS are a weighted mean of values in the sources given, as well as measurements by the RECONS program.
  4. ^ a b From parallax.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah ai aj ak al am an ao ap General Catalogue of Trigonometric Parallaxes.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab Hipparcos Catalogue.
  7. ^ Burgasser et al. 2000
  8. ^ a b c Visual binary orbits and masses post Hipparcos, Staffan Söderhjelm, Astronomy and Astrophysics 341 (January 1999), pp. 121–140.
  9. ^ Janson, M.; et al. (2008), "A comprehensive examination of the ε Eridani system. Verification of a 4 micron narrow-band high-contrast imaging approach for planet searches", Astronomy and Astrophysics, 488 (2): 771–780, Bibcode:2008A&A...488..771J, arXiv:0807.0301Freely accessible, doi:10.1051/0004-6361:200809984  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  10. ^ Bessel, F. W. (1839). "Bestimmung der Entfernung des 61sten Sterns des Schwans. Von Herrn Geheimen - Rath und Ritter Bessel". Astronomische Nachrichten (in German). 16 (5-6): 65. Bibcode:1839AN.....16...65B. doi:10.1002/asna.18390160502. (page 92) Ich bin daher der Meinung, daß nur die jährliche Parallaxe = 0"3136 als das Resultat der bisherigen Beobachtungen zu betrachten ist  A parallax of 313.6 mas yields a distance of 10.4 light years
  11. ^ a b c Chris Gelino, Davy Kirkpatrick, Adam Burgasser. "DwarfArchives.org: Photometry, spectroscopy, and astrometry of M, L, and T dwarfs". caltech.edu. Retrieved 2012-06-10.  (main page)
  12. ^ a b c d e f Systems with their first accurate trigonometric parallaxes measured by RECONS
  13. ^ The solar neighborhood IV: discovery of the twentieth nearest star, Todd J. Henry, Philip A. Ianna, J. Davy Kirkpatrick, Hartmut Jahreiss, The Astronomical Journal 114, #1 (July 1997), pp. 388–395. doi:10.1086/118482
  14. ^ a b c d The Solar Neighborhood. XVII. Parallax Results from the CTIOPI 0.9 m Program: 20 New Members of the RECONS 10 Parsec Sample, Todd J. Henry, Wei-Chun Jao, John P. Subasavage, Thomas D. Beaulieu, Philip A. Ianna, Edgardo Costa, René A. Méndez, The Astronomical Journal 132, #6 (December 2006), pp. 2360–2371. doi:10.1086/508233
  15. ^ The very nearby M/T dwarf binary SCR 1845-6357, Markus Kasper, Beth A. Biller, Adam Burrows, Wolfgang Brandner, Jano Budaj, and Laird M. Close, Astronomy and Astrophysics 471, #2 (August 2007), pp. 655–659. doi:10.1051/0004-6361:20077881
  16. ^ The Solar Neighborhood. XIII. Parallax Results from the CTIOPI 0.9 Meter Program: Stars with μ >= 1.0" yr-1 (Motion sample), Wei-Chun Jao, Todd J. Henry, John P. Subasavage, Misty A. Brown, Philip A. Ianna, Jennifer L. Bartlett, Edgardo Costa, René A. Méndez, The Astronomical Journal 129, #4 (April 2005), pp. 1954–1967. doi:10.1086/428489
  17. ^ a b The Solar Neighborhood. XIV. Parallaxes from the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory Parallax Investigation—First Results from the 1.5 m Telescope Program, Edgardo Costa, René A. Méndez, W.-C. Jao, Todd J. Henry, John P. Subasavage, Misty A. Brown, Philip A. Ianna, and Jennifer Bartlett, The Astronomical Journal 130, #1 (July 2005), pp. 337–349. doi:10.1086/430473
  18. ^ Lucas; Tinney; Ben Burningham; Leggett; Pinfield; Richard Smart; Jones; Federico Marocco; Barber (2010). "The discovery of a very cool, very nearby brown dwarf in the Galactic plane". arXiv:1004.0317v2Freely accessible [astro-ph.SR]. 
  19. ^ Lucas, Philip W. (2010). "Discovery of a very cool brown dwarf amongst the ten nearest stars to the Solar System". arXiv:1004.0317Freely accessible [astro-ph.SR].  Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help); Unknown parameter |version= ignored (help)
  20. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Kirkpatrick, J. Davy (2012). "Further Defining Spectral Type "Y" and Exploring the Low-mass End of the Field Brown Dwarf mass Function". arXiv:1205.2122Freely accessible [astro-ph.SR].  Unknown parameter |coauthors= ignored (|author= suggested) (help); Unknown parameter |version= ignored (help)
  21. ^ Rivera, Eugenio J.; et al. (2010). "The Lick-Carnegie Exoplanet Survey: A Uranus-mass Fourth Planet for GJ 876 in an Extrasolar Laplace Configuration". The Astrophysical Journal. 719 (1): 890–899. Bibcode:2010ApJ...719..890R. arXiv:1006.4244Freely accessible. doi:10.1088/0004-637X/719/1/890.  Unknown parameter |month= ignored (help)
  22. ^ CCD astrometry of southern very low-mass stars, C. G. Tinney, Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society 281, #2 (July 1996), pp. 644–658.
  23. ^ a b The Close Approach of Stars in the Solar Neighborhood
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