User:Gk202/Industrial Exhibitions

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Industrial Exhibitions are displays of manufactured goods intended to promote new technologies or fine craftsmanship. Their precedents lie in medieval trade fairs but their immediate context lay in the challenges posed by the industrial revolution.

Society of the Arts, England, 1761[edit]

Founded in England in 1754, the Society for the Encouragement of Arts, Manufactures, and Commerce (also known as the Society of Arts and from 1908 the Royal Society of Arts) was dedicated to promoting technological change that would create work for the poor and it pursued this by offering 'Premiums for such Productions, Inventions, or Improvements, as shall tend to the employing of the Poor and the Increase of Trade.'[1] In 1761 the Society held an 'Exhibition [...] of Agricultural and other Machines, for which the Society [...] offered prizes.'[2] However, there was not established in England a regular series of industrial exhibitions whereas in several other European countries there were.


Revolutionary France[edit]

In revolutionary France, the government inherited from the monarchy the direction of three sets of manufacturing establishments: the porcelain works at Sèvres, the Gobelins tapestry manufactory of Paris, and the Savonerrie carpet manufactory of the Quai de Chaillot, near Paris. In 1797, the Directory (the revolutionary government of France) appointed Marquis d-Avèze (1756-1848) as commissioner to these enterprises. The revolution had much disrupted their royal and aristocratic patronage and to promote sales, the Marquis planned an exhibition of their works at the Chateau of St. Cloud. A subsequent decree of the Directory banned the nobility from France and, fleeing for his life, the Marquis interrupted his plans until calmer days in early 1798 when, back again in Paris, he realised his ambition with a display at the Maison d'Orsay, rue de Varennes, of porcelain, tapestry, and carpets, but also beautiful furniture, clocks, watches, silks, and bookbinding.[3] Later that same year, the return of Napoleon from conquests in Italy provided the occasion for a further and this time more fully public industrial exhibition in Paris, the Exposition publique des produits de l'industrie française (19-21 September 1798).[4] François de Neufchâteau (1750-1828), Minister of the Interior, had announced the event as "a new kind of spectacle: a public Exposition of the products of French industry." [5] To stage the spectacle a temporary Temple of Industry was constructed on the Champ de Mars and here the products of 110 inventors and industrialists were put on display. Neufchâteau claimed that the military glory of France relied upon the dynamism of its industries.

Napoleonic France[edit]

Unlike the 1761 exhibition in London, the 1798 exhibitions in Paris did instigate a series of industrial exhibitions in France, in other countries under Napoleonic rule, and more generally in Europe. Under Napoleon three further industrial expositions were held in Paris (1801, 1802, 1806) with the primary purpose of asserting France's industrial supremacy over the United Kingdom.[6] Th exhibitions of 1801 and 1802 were held on the courtyard of the Louvre but the largest (1806) returned to the Champ de Mars. This was the first exposition to have an international flavour including, as it did, products from the many European countries under French rule.[7]

1750s - 1790s - 1800s - 1820s - 1840s - 1850s - 1860s - 1870s - 1880s - 1890s - 1900s - 1910s - 1920s - 1930s - 1940s - 1950s - 1960s - 1970s - 1980s - 1990s - 2000s - 2010s - 2020s

1760s[edit]

  • 1761 - Exhibition of Agricultural and other Machines, Society of Arts, London, England.

1790s[edit]

  • 1791 - Habsburg Monarchy First industrial exhibition in Prague, Klementinum, in 1791 - considerable sophistication of manufacturing methods[8]
  • 1798 - Exhibition of luxury goods at the Maison d'Orsay, Paris, France.[9].
  • 1798 - L'Exposition publique des produits de l'industrie française, Paris, France.[10]

1800s[edit]

  • 1801 - France Paris, France - Second Exposition (1801). After the success of the exposition of 1798 a series of expositions for French manufacturing followed (1801, 1802, 1806, 1819, 1823, 1827, 1834, 1844, 1849) until the first properly international (or universal) exposition in France in 1855[11].
  • 1802 - France Paris, France - Third Exposition (1802)
  • 1806 - France Paris, France - Fourth Exposition (1806)

1810s[edit]

1820s[edit]

1830s[edit]

1840s[edit]

1850s[edit]

1860s[edit]

1870s[edit]

1880s[edit]

1890s[edit]

1900s[edit]

1910s[edit]

1920s[edit]

1930s[edit]

1940s[edit]

1950s[edit]

1960s[edit]

1970s[edit]

1980s[edit]

1990s[edit]

2000s[edit]

2010s[edit]

2020s[edit]

See also[edit]

External links[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ RSA Journal 140 (1991) 342.
  2. ^ Henry Trueman Wood, A History of the Royal Society of Arts (London: John Murray, 1913) 402.
  3. ^ George Dodd (ed.), Cyclopaedia of the industry of all nations (London: Charles Knight, 1851) iv.
  4. ^ "Arthur Chandler, 'The First Industrial Exposition: L'Exposition publique des produits de l'industrie française, Paris, 1798'". Retrieved 25 April 2011. 
  5. ^ "Arthur Chandler, 'The First Industrial Exposition: L'Exposition publique des produits de l'industrie française, Paris, 1798'". Retrieved 25 April 2011. 
  6. ^ "Arthur Chandler, 'The Napoleonic Expositions: Paris: 1801, 1802, 1806'". Retrieved 25 April 2011. 
  7. ^ "Arthur Chandler, 'The Napoleonic Expositions: Paris: 1801, 1802, 1806'". Retrieved 25 April 2011. 
  8. ^ "THE ERA OF ENLIGHTENMENT". Retrieved 11 March 2011. 
  9. ^ F. C. Danvers, 'International Exhibitions,' Quarterly Journal of Science 4:4 (October 1867) 488-499.
  10. ^ "Arthur Chandler, The First Industrial Exposition: L'Exposition publique des produits de l'industrie française, Paris, 1798". Retrieved 25 April 2011. 
  11. ^ 'Sketch of the French Expositions,' Hogg's Instructor New Series 6 (1851) 372-373.
  12. ^ Raimondo Riccini, 'Tracce di design. La produzione di oggetti fra tecnica e arti applicate,' in Giorgio Bigatti and Sergio Onger (eds), Arti technologi pogeto: Le exposizioni d'industria in Italia prima dell'Unità (Milan: FrancoAngeli, 2007) 257-276, 266.
  13. ^ Giudicio della Regia Camera di Agricoltura e di commercio di Torino sui prodotti dell'Industria de'R. Stati ammessi alla Pubblica esposizione dell'anno 1838 nelle sale del Real Castello del Valentino (Turin: Chirio e Mina, 1838).
  14. ^ Quarta esposizione di Industria e Belle arti al Real Valentino. Giudizio della Regia Camera di Agricoltura e di commercio di Torino, e notizie sulla patria industria, compilate da Carlo Ign. Giulio, relatore centrale (Turin: Stamperia Reale, 1844).
  15. ^ Giudizio della Regia Camera di Agricoltura e di commercio di Torino sulla quinta Esposizione di industria e di belle arti al Castello del Valentino nel 1850 et notizie sulla patria industria (Turin: 1851).
  16. ^ Album descrittivo dei principali oggetti esposti nel Real Castello de Valentino in occasione della sesta Esposizione nazionale i prodotti d'industria nell'anno 1858 (Turin: presso Ufficio dei brevetti d'inveznione con Gabinetto di disegno industriale e litografico, 1858).
  17. ^ "CORK INTERNATIONAL EXHIBITION - 1902". Retrieved 5 February 2011. 

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