Amir Khan (singer)
|Birth name||Amir Khan|
|Also known as||Sur Rang|
15 August 1912|
|Died||13 February 1974
|Genres||Indian classical music
|Occupation(s)||Hindustani Classical Vocalist|
|Labels||EMI, HMV, Music Today, Inreco, Ninaad, Navras, Columbia, The Twin|
Ustad Amir Khan (Hindi: अमीर ख़ान, pronounced [əˈmiːr ˈxaːn]); 15 August 1912 – 13 February 1974) was a well-known Indian classical vocalist. He is considered one of the most influential figures in Hindustani classical music, and the founder of the Indore gharana.
Early life and background
Amir Khan was born in a family of musicians in Indore, India. His father, Shahmir Khan, a sarangi and veena player of the Bhendibazaar gharana, served at the court of the Holkars of Indore. His grandfather, Change Khan, was a singer in the court of Bahadurshah Zafar. Amir Ali's mother died when he was nine years old. He had a younger brother, Bashir, who went on to become a sarangi player at the Indore station of All India Radio.
He was initially trained in the sarangi by his father. However, seeing his interest in vocal music, his father gradually devoted more time to vocal training, focusing on the merukhand technique. Amir Ali was exposed at an early age to many different styles, since just about every musician who visited Indore would come to their house, and there would be mehfils at their place on a regular basis. He also learned the basics of tabla playing from one of his maternal uncles, who was a tabla player.
Amir Khan moved to Bombay in 1934, and there he gave a few concerts and cut about half a dozen 78-rpm records. These initial performances were not well received. Following his father's advice, in 1936 he joined the services of Maharaj Chakradhar Singh of Raigadh Sansthan in Madhya Pradesh. He performed at a music conference in Mirzapur on behalf of the Raja, with many illustrious musicians present, but he was hooted off the stage after only 15 minutes or so. The organizer suggested singing a thumri, but he refused, saying that his mind was never really inclined towards thumri. He stayed at Raigadh for only about a year. Amir Khan's father died in 1937. Later, Khansahib lived for some time in Delhi and Calcutta, but after the partition of India he moved back to Bombay.
Amir Khan had a rich baritone open-throated voice with a three-octave range, and could move equally effortlessly in any octave. He developed his own gayaki (singing style), influenced by the styles of Abdul Waheed Khan (vilambit tempo), Rajab Ali Khan (taans) and Aman Ali Khan (merukhand). This unique style, known as the Indore Gharana, blends the spiritual flavour and grandeur of dhrupad with the ornate vividness of khyal. The style he evolved was a unique fusion of intellect and emotion, of technique and temperament, of talent and imagination, that no other musician has been able to match. Unlike other artists he never made any concessions to popular tastes, but always stuck to his pure, almost puritanical, highbrow style.
Amir Khansahib presented an aesthetically detailed badhat (progression) in ati-vilambit laya (very slow tempo) using bol-alap with merukhandi patterns, followed by gradually speeding up sargams with various ornamentations, taans and bol-taans with complex and unpredictable movements and jumps while preserving the raga structure, and finally a madhyalaya or drut laya (medium or fast tempo) chhota khyal or a ruba'idar tarana. He helped popularize the tarana, as well as khyalnuma compositions in the Dari variant of Persian. While he was famous for his use of merukhand, he did not do a purely merukhandi alap but rather inserted merukhandi passages throughout his performance.
Khansahib often used the taals Jhoomra and Ektaal, and generally preferred a simple theka (basic tabla strokes that define the taal) from the tabla accompanist. Even though he had been trained in the sarangi, he generally performed khyals and taranas with only a six-stringed tanpura and tabla for accompaniment. Sometimes he had a subdued harmonium accompaniment, but he almost never used the sarangi.
While he could do traditional layakari (rhythmic play), including bol-baant, which he has demonstrated in a few recordings, he generally favored a swara-oriented and alap-dominated style, and his layakari was generally more subtle. His performances had an understated elegance, reverence, restrained passion and an utter lack of showmanship that both moved and awed listeners. According to Kumarprasad Mukhopadhyay's book "The Lost World of Hindustani Music", Bade Ghulam Ali Khan's music was extroverted, exuberant and a crowd-puller, whereas Amir Khan's was an introverted, dignified darbar style. Amir Khansahib believed that poetry was important in khyal compositions, and with his pen name, Sur Rang ("colored in swara"), he has left several compositions.
He believed in competition between the genres of classical music and film and other popular music, and he felt that classical renderings needed to be made more beautiful while remaining faithful to the spirit and grammar of the raga. He used to say, "नग़मा वही नग़मा है जो रूह सुने और रूह सुनाए" (music is that which originates from the heart and touches the soul).
Characteristics of his style include:
- slow-tempo, leisurely raga development
- improvisation mostly in lower and middle octaves
- tendency towards serious and expansive ragas
- emphasis on melody
- clarity of notes
- judicious use of pause between improvisations
- bol alap and sargam using merukhand patterns
- sparing application of murki
- use of kan swaras (acciaccatura) in all parts of performance
- controlled use of embellishments to preserve introspective quality
- rare use of tihai
- careful enunciation of text of bandish
- actual bandish as sung may or may not include antara
- multiple laya jatis in a single taan
- mixture of taan types in a single taan
- use of ruba'idar tarana (considered similar to chhota khyal)
Besides singing in concerts, Amir Khan also sang film songs in ragas, in a purely classical style, most notably for the films Baiju Bawra, Shabaab and Jhanak Jhanak Payal Baaje. This attempt to introduce classical music to the masses through films significantly boosted Khansahib's visibility and popularity. He also sang a ghazal Rahiye Ab Aisi Jagah for a documentary on Ghalib.
Khansahib's disciples include Amarnath, A. Kanan, Ajit Singh Paintal, Akhtar Sadmani, Amarjeet Kaur, Bhimsen Sharma, Gajendra Bakshi, Hridaynath Mangeshkar, Kamal Bose, Kankana Banerjee, Mukund Goswami, Munir Khan, Pradyumna Kumud Mukherjee and Poorabi Mukherjee, Shankar Mazumdar, Singh Brothers, Srikant Bakre and Thomas Ross. His style has also influenced many other singers and instrumentalists, including Bhimsen Joshi, Gokulotsavji Maharaj, Mahendra Toke, Prabha Atre, Rashid Khan, Ajoy Chakrabarty, Rasiklal Andharia, Sanhita Nandi, Shanti Sharma, Nikhil Banerjee, the Imdadkhani gharana, and Sultan Khan. Although he referred to his style as the Indore Gharana, he was a firm believer of absorbing elements from various gharanas.
Amir Khan's first marriage was to Zeenat, sister of the sitar player, Vilayat Khan. From this marriage, which eventually failed and ended in separation, he had a daughter, Farida. His second marriage was to Munni Bai, who gave birth to a son, Akram Ahmed. Around 1965, Khansaheb married Raisa Begum, daughter of the thumri singer, Mushtari Begum of Agra. He had expected that Munni Begum would accept the third wife; however, Munni disappeared and it is rumored that she committed suicide. With Raisa he had a son, Haider Amir, later called Shahbaz Khan.
Khansahib died a premature death in a car accident in Calcutta on 13 February 1974 aged 61, and was buried at Calcutta's Gobra cemetery.
- Baiju Bawra (Music director: Naushad)
- Kshudhita Pashan (Music director: Ali Akbar Khan)
- 'Kaise Kate Rajni' (raga Bageshree, with Protima Banerjee)
- 'Piya Ke Aavan Ki' (thumri in raga Khamaj)
- 'Dheemta Dheemta Derena' (tarana in raga Megh)
- Shabaab (Music director: Naushad)
- 'Daya Kar He Giridhar Gopal' (raga Multani)
- Jhanak Jhanak Payal Baje (Music director: Vasant Desai)
- Title song 'Jhanak Jhanak Payal Baje' (raga Adana)
- Goonj Uthi Shehnai (ragamala with Bismillah Khan)
- Shuddh Sarang
- 'Jogiya Mere Ghar Aaye' (raga Lalit)
78 rpm recordings
- Puriya Kalyan
- Suha Sughrai
- Todi tarana
Public and private recordings
- Abhogi - three versions
- Adana - longer performance of 'Jhanak Jhanak Payal Baje' title song, one other version
- Ahir Bhairav - three versions
- Amirkhani (similar to Vachaspati)
- Bageshree - four versions
- Bageshree Kanada - three versions
- Bairagi - two versions
- Basant Bahar
- Bhatiyar - four versions
- Bihag - three versions
- Bilaskhani Todi - two versions
- Chandni Kedar
- Chandramadhu - two versions
- Charukeshi - two versions
- Darbari - ten versions
- Deshkar - four versions
- Gaud Malhar
- Gaud Sarang
- Gujari Todi - three versions
- Hansadhwani - three versions
- Hem Kalyan
- Hijaz Bhairav (a.k.a. Basant Mukhari) - three versions
- Hindol Basant
- Hindol Kalyan
- Jansanmohini - five versions
- Jog - three versions
- Kafi Kanada
- Kalavati - four versions
- Kausi Kanada - two versions
- Komal Rishabh Asavari - three versions
- Lalit - seven versions
- Malkauns - three versions
- Maru Kalyan
- Marwa - three versions
- Megh - three versions
- Miya Malhar
- Multani - two versions
- Nat Bhairav - two versions
- Pancham Malkauns
- Puriya - three versions
- Puriya Kalyan
- Rageshree - two versions
- Ramdasi Malhar - two versions
- Ramkali - two versions
- Ram Kalyan (a.k.a. Priya Kalyan or Anarkali)
- Shahana - three versions
- Shuddh Kalyan - two versions
- Shuddh Sarang (with drut section in Suha)
- Suha Sughrai
- Todi - three versions
- Yaman Kalyan - three versions
Awards and recognitions
- Sangeet Natak Akademi Award in 1967
- Presidential Award in 1971
- Padma Bhushan in 1971
- Swar Vilas from Sur Singar Sansad in 1971
- Amir Khan recordings on www.sarangi.info
- on YouTube, produced in 1970 by the Films Division of India
- Dr. Ibrahim Ali's analysis of Amir Khan's gayaki
- Tribute from the ITC Sangeet Research Academy
- Forgotten Patterns - Preview of an article on Amir Khan by his disciple Thomas Ross
- LP cover images (DEAD)
- Pandit Nikhil Banerjee's article on Amir Khan (DEAD)
- Extracts from Pandit Amarnath's lec-dem on Amir Khan's gayaki (DEAD)
- Ustad Amir Khan (1912-1974) (scroll down) (DEAD)
- Amarnath, Pandit (2008). Indore ke masihā: Paṇḍita Amaranathaji dwara Ustad Amir Khan sahab ke sansmaran (in Hindi). Pandit Amarnath Memorial Foundation. ISBN 978-81-7525-934-8.
- Kumāraprasāda Mukhopādhyāẏa (2006). The Lost World of Hindustani Music. Penguin Books India. pp. 95–. ISBN 978-0-14-306199-1.
- Chawla, Bindu (26 April 2007). "Stirring Compassion of Cosmic Vibration". The Times Of India.
- Review of music CD "The Legend Lives on... Ustad Amir Khan", by Deepa Ganesh
- "Amir Khan: In Memoriam", by Suresh Chandvankar, Society of Indian Record Collectors, Mumbai
- "Ustad Amir Khan", from "Great Masters of Hindustani Music" by Susheela Misra
- Thomas W. Ross (Spring–Summer 1993). "Forgotten Patterns: "Mirkhand" and Amir Khan". Asian Music. University of Texas Press. 24 (2): 89–109. JSTOR 834468.
- "Pleasing only in parts". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 25 November 2005.
- Amir Khan - Tribute to a Maestro, from the ITC Sangeet Research Academy
- 'We got Ustad Amir Khan to sing a ghazal', part of an article on Kaifi Azmi by filmmaker M. S. Sathyu
- "Beatstreet". The Hindu. Chennai, India. 3 November 2008.
- "Sangeet Natak Akademi Awards - Hindustani Music - Vocal". Sangeet Natak Akademi. Archived from the original on 2012-02-17. Retrieved 2010-10-02.
- "Padma Awards". Ministry of Communications and Information Technology (India). Retrieved 2009-05-16.
- Banerjee, Meena (4 March 2010). "Immortal maestro". The Hindu. Chennai, India.
- Modern Rag Creations
- "Padma Awards" (PDF). Ministry of Home Affairs, Government of India. 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 November 2014. Retrieved 21 July 2015.