Windows-1251

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Windows-1251
MIME / IANAwindows-1251
Alias(es)cp1251 (Code page 1251)
Language(s)Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Bulgarian, Serbian Cyrillic, Macedonian, English
Created byMicrosoft
StandardWHATWG Encoding Standard
Classificationextended ASCII, Windows-125x
Other related encoding(s)Amiga-1251, KZ-1048,
RFC 1345's "ECMA-Cyrillic"

Windows-1251 is an 8-bit character encoding, designed to cover languages that use the Cyrillic script such as Russian, Ukrainian, Belarusian, Bulgarian, Serbian Cyrillic, Macedonian and other languages.

It is the second most-used single-byte character encoding in the world, and most used of those supporting Cyrillic. As of November 2021, 0.6% of all websites use Windows-1251.[1][2] However, it is used by 7.9% of Russian (.ru) websites,[3][4][5] where it is the second most popular choice after UTF-8. In Linux, the encoding is known as cp1251.[6] IBM uses code page 1251 (CCSID 1251 and euro sign extended CCSID 5347) for Windows-1251.[7][8][9][10][11][12][13]

Windows-1251 and KOI8-R (or its Ukrainian variant KOI8-U) are much more commonly used than ISO 8859-5 (which is "used by less than 0.1% of websites").[14] In contrast to Windows-1252 and ISO 8859-1, Windows-1251 is not closely related to ISO 8859-5.

Unicode is preferred to Windows-1251 or other Cyrillic encodings in modern applications, especially on the Internet, making UTF-8 the dominant encoding for web pages. (For further discussion of Unicode's complete coverage, of 436 Cyrillic letters/code points, including for Old Cyrillic, and how single-byte character encodings, such as Windows-1251 and KOI8-R, cannot provide this, see Cyrillic script in Unicode.)

Character set[edit]

The following table shows Windows-1251. Each character is shown with its Unicode equivalent and its Alt code.

Windows-1251[15]
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
0x NUL SOH STX ETX EOT ENQ ACK BEL BS HT LF VT FF CR SO SI
1x DLE DC1 DC2 DC3 DC4 NAK SYN ETB CAN EM SUB ESC FS GS RS US
2x  SP  ! " # $ % & ' ( ) * + , - . /
3x 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 : ; < = > ?
4x @ A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O
5x P Q R S T U V W X Y Z [ \ ] ^ _
6x ` a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o
7x p q r s t u v w x y z { | } ~ DEL
8x Ђ Ѓ ѓ Љ Њ Ќ Ћ Џ
9x ђ љ њ ќ ћ џ
Ax NBSP Ў ў Ј ¤ Ґ ¦ § Ё © Є « ¬ SHY ® Ї
Bx ° ± І і ґ µ · ё є » ј Ѕ ѕ ї
Cx А Б В Г Д Е Ж З И Й К Л М Н О П
Dx Р С Т У Ф Х Ц Ч Ш Щ Ъ Ы Ь Э Ю Я
Ex а б в г д е ж з и й к л м н о п
Fx р с т у ф х ц ч ш щ ъ ы ь э ю я
  Differences from Windows-1252

Kazakh variant[edit]

An altered version of Windows-1251 was standardised in Kazakhstan as Kazakh standard STRK1048, and is known by the label KZ-1048. It differs in the rows shown below:

KZ-1048 (STRK1048-2002)[16]
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
8x Ђ Ѓ ѓ Љ Њ Қ Һ Џ
9x ђ љ њ қ һ џ
Ax NBSP Ұ ұ Ә ¤ Ө ¦ § Ё © Ғ « ¬ SHY ® Ү
Bx ° ± І і ө µ · ё ғ » ә Ң ң ү
  Differences from Windows-1251

Amiga variant[edit]

Amiga-1251
MIME / IANAAmiga-1251
Alias(es)Ami1251
Language(s)English, Russian
Classificationextended ASCII
Based onWindows-1251, ISO-8859-1, ISO-8859-15

Russian Amiga OS systems used a version of code page 1251 which matches Windows-1251 for the Russian subset of the Cyrillic letters, but otherwise mostly follows ISO-8859-1. This version is known as Amiga-1251,[17] under which name it is registered with the IANA.[18]

Amiga-1251[17]
0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
8x XXX XXX BPH NBH IND NEL SSA ESA HTS HTJ VTS PLD PLU RI SS2 SS3
9x DCS PU1 PU2 STS CCH MW SPA EPA SOS XXX SCI CSI ST OSC PM APC
Ax NBSP ¡ ¢ £ [a] ¥ ¦ § Ё © [b] « ¬ SHY ® ¯
Bx ° ± ² ³ ´ µ · ё ¹ º » ¼ ½ ¾ ¿
  Different from Windows-1251 to match ISO-8859-1
  Different from both Windows-1251 and ISO-8859-1
  1. ^ Matching ISO-8859-15; at a different location than in Windows-1251
  2. ^ Present in Windows-1251, but in a different location (absent from ISO-8859-1/15)

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Historical trends in the usage of character encodings, October 2021". Retrieved 2021-10-07.
  2. ^ "Frequently Asked Questions".
  3. ^ "Distribution of Character Encodings among websites that use .ru". w3techs.com. Retrieved 2021-11-21.
  4. ^ "Distribution of Character Encodings among websites that use Russian". w3techs.com. Retrieved 2021-10-07.
  5. ^ "Distribution of Character Encodings among websites that use Russian Federation". w3techs.com. Retrieved 2021-11-05.
  6. ^ "cp1251(7) - Linux manual page". man7.org. Retrieved 2018-07-01.
  7. ^ "Code page 1251 information document". Archived from the original on 2016-03-03.
  8. ^ "CCSID 1251 information document". Archived from the original on 2014-11-29.
  9. ^ "CCSID 5347 information document". Archived from the original on 2014-11-29.
  10. ^ Code Page CPGID 01251 (pdf) (PDF), IBM
  11. ^ Code Page CPGID 01251 (txt), IBM
  12. ^ International Components for Unicode (ICU), ibm-1251_P100-1995.ucm, 2002-12-03
  13. ^ International Components for Unicode (ICU), ibm-5347_P100-1998.ucm, 2002-12-03
  14. ^ "Usage Statistics of Character Encodings for Websites". w3techs.com. Archived from the original on 2012-05-30.
  15. ^ Steele, Shawn (1998). CP1251 to Unicode table. Unicode Consortium. CP1251.TXT.
  16. ^ Whistler, Ken (2007). KZ-1048 to Unicode. Unicode Consortium. KZ1048.TXT.
  17. ^ a b Malyshev, Michael (2003). "Amiga-1251 to Unicode table". Registration of new charset [Amiga-1251]. IANA.
  18. ^ "Character Sets". IANA.

Further reading[edit]

  • Kornai, Andras; Birnbaum, David J.; da Cruz, Frank; Davis, Bur; Fowler, George; Paine, Richard B.; Paperno, Slava; Simonsen, Keld J.; Thobe, Glenn E.; Vulis, Dimitri; van Wingen, Johan W. (1993-03-13). "CYRILLIC ENCODING FAQ Version 1.3". Retrieved 2020-06-24.

External links[edit]