Paragroup is a term used in population genetics to describe lineages within a haplogroup that are not defined by any additional unique markers. In human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups, paragroups are typically represented by an asterisk (*) placed after the main haplogroup. The term "paragroup" is a portmanteau of the terms paraphyletic haplogroup indicating that paragroups form paraphyletic subclades. Apart from the mutations that define the parent haplogroup, paragroups may not possess any additional unique markers. Alternatively pargroups may possess unique markers that have not been discovered. If a unique marker is discovered within a paragroup, the specific lineage is given a unique name and is moved out of the paragroup to form an independent subclade.
An example of a paragroup is Haplogroup DE*. It has the marker that defines Haplogroup DE, but not the markers that define Haplogroup DE's most common subclades, haplogroup D-M174 and haplogroup E. An example of a lineage within a paragroup that was assigned a new name is haplogroup E1b1b1g. This haplogroup was previously part of haplgroup E1b1b1* (also known as e3b* or E-M35*) until the marker M293 was discovered in 2008.
Another example is a member of the Y-DNA haplogroup R (defined by marker M207) may belong to the sub-haplogroup R1 (defined by marker M173) or R2 (defined by marker M124). Individuals with neither of these mutations would be categorised as belonging to group R*.
- The Y Chromosome Consortium, T. Y C. (2002). "A Nomenclature System for the Tree of Human Y-Chromosomal Binary Haplogroups". Genome Research (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press) 12 (2): 339–48. doi:10.1101/gr.217602. PMC 155271. PMID 11827954.
- Weale et al.; Shah, T; Jones, AL; Greenhalgh, J; Wilson, JF; Nymadawa, P; Zeitlin, D; Connell, BA et al. (2003). "Rare Deep-Rooting Y Chromosome Lineages in Humans: Lessons for Phylogeography". Genetics 165 (1): 229–34. PMC 1462739. PMID 14504230. More than one of
- Henn et al., BM; Gignoux, C; Lin, AA; Oefner, PJ; Shen, P; Scozzari, R; Cruciani, F; Tishkoff, SA et al. (2008). "Y-chromosomal evidence of a pastoralist migration through Tanzania to southern Africa". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) 105 (31): 10693–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.0801184105. PMC 2504844. PMID 18678889.
Evolutionary tree of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups
|Mitochondrial Eve (L)|
|Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups|