Paragroup

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Paragroup is a term used in population genetics to describe lineages within a haplogroup that are not defined by any additional unique markers. In human Y-chromosome DNA haplogroups, paragroups are typically represented by an asterisk (*) placed after the main haplogroup.[1] The term "paragroup" is a portmanteau of the terms paraphyletic haplogroup indicating that paragroups form paraphyletic subclades.[1] Apart from the mutations that define the parent haplogroup, paragroups may not possess any additional unique markers. Alternatively pargroups may possess unique markers that have not been discovered. If a unique marker is discovered within a paragroup, the specific lineage is given a unique name and is moved out of the paragroup to form an independent subclade.

An example of a paragroup is Haplogroup DE*. It has the marker that defines Haplogroup DE, but not the markers that define Haplogroup DE's most common subclades, haplogroup D-M174 and haplogroup E.[2] An example of a lineage within a paragroup that was assigned a new name is haplogroup E1b1b1g. This haplogroup was previously part of haplgroup E1b1b1* (also known as e3b* or E-M35*) until the marker M293 was discovered in 2008.[3]

Another example is a member of the Y-DNA haplogroup R (defined by marker M207) may belong to the sub-haplogroup R1 (defined by marker M173) or R2 (defined by marker M124). Individuals with neither of these mutations would be categorised as belonging to group R*.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b The Y Chromosome Consortium, T. Y C. (2002). "A Nomenclature System for the Tree of Human Y-Chromosomal Binary Haplogroups". Genome Research (Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory Press) 12 (2): 339–48. doi:10.1101/gr.217602. PMC 155271. PMID 11827954. 
  2. ^ Weale, Michael E. et al. (2003). "Rare Deep-Rooting Y Chromosome Lineages in Humans: Lessons for Phylogeography". Genetics 165 (1): 229–34. PMC 1462739. PMID 14504230. 
  3. ^ Henn, BM et al. (2008). "Y-chromosomal evidence of a pastoralist migration through Tanzania to southern Africa". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America (PNAS) 105 (31): 10693–8. doi:10.1073/pnas.0801184105. PMC 2504844. PMID 18678889. 

Evolutionary tree of human mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplogroups

  Mitochondrial Eve (L)    
L0 L1–6
L1 L2 L3   L4 L5 L6
  M N  
CZ D E G Q   A S   R   I W X Y
C Z B F R0   pre-JT P  U
HV JT K
H V J T


Evolutionary tree of human Y-chromosome DNA (Y-DNA) haplogroups
MRC Y-ancestor
A00 A0'1'2'3'4
A0 A1'2'3'4
A1 A2'3'4
A2'3 A4=BCDEF
A2 A3 B CDEF
DE CF
D E C F
GHIJKLT
G HIJKLT
H IJKLT
IJ KLT
I J LT K
L T MPS X
MS P NO
QR N O
Q R
  1. ^ van Oven M, Van Geystelen A, Kayser M, Decorte R, Larmuseau HD (2014). "Seeing the wood for the trees: a minimal reference phylogeny for the human Y chromosome". Human Mutation 35 (2): 187–91. doi:10.1002/humu.22468. PMID 24166809.