Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Allameh Tabatabaei)
Jump to: navigation, search
Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i
Muhammad Husayn Tabatabaei.jpg
Allameh Tabataba'i
Born 16 March 1903
Tabriz, Iran
Died 7 November 1981(1981-11-07) (aged 78)
Qom, Iran
Region Iranian Scholar
School Shia Twelver
Main interests
Philosophy, Mysticism, Tafsir and Hadith [1]
Notable ideas
interpretation (Tafsir) of Quran with Quran

Muhammad Husayn Tabataba'i or Seyed Mohammad Hossein Tabataba'i (Persian: علامه سید محمد حسین طباطبائی‎, 16 March 1903 – 7 November 1981) was one of the most prominent thinkers of philosophy and contemporary Shia Islam.[1] He is famous for Tafsir al-Mizan, the Quranic exegesis.[4]

Biography[edit]

He received his earlier education in his native city, mastering the elements of Arabic and the religious sciences. and at about the age of twenty set out for the great Shiite university of Najaf to continue more advanced studies.[5] he studied at Najaf, under masters such as Mirza 'Ali Qadhi (in gnosis), Mirza Muhammad Husain Na'ini, Shaykh Muhammad Husain Isfahani (in Fiqh and Jurisprudence), Sayyid Abu'l-Qasim Khwansari (in Mathematics), as well as studying the standard texts of Avicenna's Shifa, the Asfar of Sadr al-Din Shirazi, and the Tamhid al-qawa'id of Ibn Turkah. Along with Sayyid Husayn Badkuba'i, he was a student of two of the most famous masters of the time, Sayyid Abu'l-Hasan Jilwah and Aqa 'Ali Mudarris Zunuzi.

In his later years he would often hold study sessions with Henry Corbin and Seyyed Hossein Nasr, in which not only the classical texts of divine wisdom and gnosis were discussed, but also a whole cycle of what Nasr calls comparative gnosis, in which in each session the sacred texts of one of the major religions, containing mystical and gnostic teachings, such as the Tao Te Ching, the Upanishads and the Gospel of John, were discussed and compared with Sufism and Islamic gnostic doctrines in general.

Tabataba'i, was a philosopher, a prolific writer, and an inspiring teacher to his students who devoted much of his life to Islamic studies. Many of his students were among the ideological founders of the Islamic Republic of Iran, namely Murtaza Motahhari, Muhammad Beheshti, and Martyr Mofatteh. Others like Hossein Nasr and Hasanzadeh Amuli remained and continued their studies in the intellectual non-political sphere.

Published works[edit]

It was in Najaf where Tabataba'i developed his major contributions in the fields of Tafsir (interpretation), philosophy, and history of the Shi'a faith. In philosophy the most important of his works is Usul-i falsafeh va ravesh-e-realism (The Principles of Philosophy and the Method of Realism), which has been published in five volumes with explanatory notes and the commentary of Morteza Motahhari. If Ayatollah Haeri is considered the reviver of Qom's hawza in an organizational sense, Tabataba'i's contributions to the field of tafsir, philosophy and mysticism represent the intellectual revitalization of the hawza with lasting implications for the curriculum.[1]

His other major philosophical work is a voluminous commentary of Asfār al-'arba'eh, the magnum opus of Mulla Sadra who was the last of the great Persian (Iranian) Muslim thinkers of the medieval age. Apart from these he also wrote extensively on philosophical topics. His humanist approach is underlined by his three books on: the nature of man - before the world, in this world, and after this world. His philosophy is focused upon the sociological treatment of human problems. His two other works, Bidāyat al-hikmah and Nihāyat al-hikmah, are considered among works of high order in Islamic philosophy.

Several treatises on the doctrines and history of the Shi'a remain from him as well.[1] One of these comprises his clarifications and expositions about Shi'a faith in reply to the questions posed by the famous French orientalist Henry Corbin. Another of his books on this topic Shi'ah dar Islam was translated into English by Seyyed Hossein Nasr under the title Shi'a Islam, with the help of William Chittick as a project of Colgate University.[1] These books are claimed to serve as an excellent conduit by which popular misconceptions about the Shi'a faith may be removed further paving the way for a better ecumenical understanding amongst the various Muslim schools of thought.

His written books number forty-four titles overall; three of which are collections of his articles on various aspects of Islam and the Qur'an.

List of publications[1][edit]

  • Shi'a Islam (Persian: Shi’ah dar islam‎)
  • The Principles of Philosophy and the Method of Realism (Persian: Usul-i-falsafeh va ravesh-i-ri'alism‎) in five volumes, with the commentary of Murtada Mutahhari.
  • Glosses al-kifayah (Persian: Hashiyahi kifayah‎). Glosses upon the new edition of the Asfar of Sadr al-Din Shirizi Mulla Sadra appearing under the direction of 'Allameh Tabataba'i of which seven volumes have appeared.
  • Dialogues with Professor Corbin (Persian: Mushabat ba Ustad Kurban‎) Two volumes based on conversations carried out between 'Allameh Tabataba'i and Henry Corbin of which the first volume was printed as the yearbook of Maktab-i tashayyu’, 1339 (A.H. Solar)
  • Risalah dar hukumat-i islami, (Treatise on Islamic Government).
  • Hashiyah-i kifayah (Glosses upon al-Kifayah).
  • Risalah dar quwwah wafi'(Treatise on Potentiality and Actuality).
  • Risalah dar ithbat-i dha~t (Treatise on the Proof of the Divine Essence).
  • Risalah dar sifat (Treatise on the Divine Attributes).
  • Risalah dar ata (Treatise on the Divine Acts).
  • Risalah dar wasa'il (Treatise on Means).
  • Risalah dar insan qabl al-dunya (Treatise on Man before the World)
  • Risalah dar insan fi al-dunya (Treatise on Man in the World).
  • Risalah dar insan ba'd al-dunya (Treatise on Man after the World).
  • Risalah dar nubuwwat (Treatise on Prophecy).
  • Risalah dar wilayat (Treatise on Initiation).
  • Risalah dar mushtaqqat (Treatise on Derivatives).
  • Risalah dar burhan (Treatise on Demonstration).
  • Risalah dar mughalatah (Treatise on Sophism).
  • Risalah dar tahlil (Treatise on Analysis).
  • Risalah dar tarkib (Treatise on Synthesis).
  • Risalah dar i’tibarat (Treatise on Contingents).
  • Risalah dar nubuwwat wa manamat (Treatise on Prophecy and Dreams)
  • Manza’mah dar rasm-i- khatt-i-nasta’liq (Poem on the Method of Writing the Nasta’liq Style of Calligraphy).
  • Ali wa al-falsafat al-ilahiya (Ali and Metaphysics)
  • Qur'an dar Islam (The Qur'an in Islam).

Poetry[edit]

Allameh Tabataba'i was also an accomplished poet. He composed his poetry mainly in Persian, but occasionally in Arabic as well. He was also the author of numerous articles and essays.

کیش مهر

همي گويم و گفته ام بارها .... بود کيش من مهر دلدارها

پرستش به مستي است در کيش مهر .... برونند زين جرگه هشيارها

به شادي و آسايش و خواب و خور .... ندارند کاري دل افگارها

به جز اشک چشم و به جز داغ دل .... نباشد به دست گرفتارها

کشيدند در کوي دلدادگان .... ميان دل و کام، ديوارها

چه فرهادها مرده در کوهها .... چه حلاجها رفته بر دارها

چه دارد جهان جز دل و مهر يار .... مگر توده هايي ز پندارها

ولي رادمردان و وارستگان .... نبازند هرگز به مردارها

مهين مهر ورزان که آزاده اند .... بريزند از دام جان تارها

به خون خود آغشته و رفته اند .... چه گلهاي رنگين به جوبارها

بهاران که شاباش ريزد سپهر .... به دامان گلشن ز رگبارها

کشد رخت،سبزه به هامون و دشت .... زند بارگه ،گل به گلزارها

نگارش دهد گلبن جويبار .... در آيينه ي آب، رخسارها

رود شاخ گل در بر نيلفر .... برقصد به صد ناز گلنارها

درد پرده ي غنچه را باد بام .... هزار آورد نغز گفتارها

به آواي ناي و به آهنگ چنگ .... خروشد ز سرو و سمن، تارها

به ياد خم ابروي گل رخان .... بکش جام در بزم مي خوارها

گره را ز راز جهان باز کن .... که آسان کند باده، دشوارها

جز افسون و افسانه نبود جهان .... که بستند چشم خشايارها

به اندوه آينده خود را مباز .... که آينده خوابي است چون پارها

فريب جهان مخور زينهار .... که در پاي اين گل بود خارها

پياپي بکش جام و سرگرم باش .... بهل گر بگيرند بيکارها

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f "Google Scholar Page". 
  2. ^ An Introduction to the al-Mizan
  3. ^ * Jahanbaglu, Ramin (1998). Zire asmanhaye jahan (Below the skies of the world), An interview with Dariush Shayegan. Nashr Farzan. ISBN 964-6138-13-6. , (in Persian)[1]
  4. ^ Biography of Allamah Sayyid Muhammad Husayn Tabatabaei by amid Algar, University of California, Berkeley, Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Oxford Centre for Islamic Studies.
  5. ^ Nasr, Seeyed Hosein in the preface to the book of Shiite in Islam by Allameh tabatabaei, 2005, p. 37

External links[edit]

Some of his works