British Aerospace 125
|BAe 125 CC3 of No. 32 Squadron RAF|
|Role||Mid-size business jet|
|Manufacturer||de Havilland (design)
Hawker Siddeley (to 1977)
British Aerospace (1977–1993)
Hawker Beechcraft (2007-2013)
|First flight||13 August 1962|
|Primary users||Royal Air Force
Brazilian Air Force
The British Aerospace 125 (Originally the de Havilland DH125 Jet Dragon) is a twin-engine mid-size corporate jet, with newer variants now marketed as the Hawker 800. It was known as the Hawker Siddeley HS.125 until 1977. It was also used by the Royal Air Force as a navigation trainer (as the Hawker Siddeley Dominie T1) until January 2011, and was used by the United States Air Force as a calibration aircraft (as the C-29).
In 1961, de Havilland began working on a revolutionary small business jet, the DH.125 Jet Dragon, intended to replace the piston engined de Havilland Dove business aircraft and light transport. The DH.125 design was for a low-winged monoplane with a pressurised fuselage accommodating two pilots and six passengers. It was powered by two Bristol Siddeley Viper turbojets mounted on the rear fuselage. The slightly swept wing employed large slotted flaps and airbrakes to allow operation from small airfields. The first of two prototypes flew on 13 August 1962, with the second following on 12 December that year. The first production aircraft, longer and with a greater wingspan than the two prototypes, flew on 12 February 1963, with the first delivery to a customer on 10 September 1964.
The aircraft went through many designation changes during its service life. Hawker Siddeley had bought de Havilland the year before project start, but the old legacy brand and the "DH" designation was used throughout development. After the jet achieved full production, the name was finally changed to "HS.125". When Hawker Siddeley Aircraft merged with the British Aircraft Corporation to form British Aerospace in 1977, the name changed to BAe 125. Then, when British Aerospace sold its Business Jets Division to Raytheon in 1993, the jet acquired the name Raytheon Hawker. The fuselage, wings and tailfin are to this day fully assembled and partially equipped (primary and secondary flight controls) in Airbus UK's Broughton plant, on the outskirts of Chester, sub-assemblies are produced in Airbus UK's Buckley site. All these assembled components are then shipped to Wichita, Kansas in the United States, to where final assembly was transferred in 1996.
Over 1,000 aircraft have been built. On the 18th October 2012 the negotiations for the sale of Hawker Beechcraft had failed and the company decided to cease jet production and exited bankruptcy on its own on 19 February 2013, under a new name, Beechcraft Corporation
In 2013, the FAA modified 14 CFR part 91 rules to prohibit the operation of jets weighing 75,000 pounds or less that are not stage 3 noise compliant after December 31, 2015. The HS.125-1/2/3, -400 and -600 are listed explicitly in Federal Register 78 FR 39576. Any HS.125s that have not been modified by installing Stage 3 noise compliant engines or have not had "hushkits" installed for non-compliant engines will not be permitted to fly in the contiguous 48 states after December 31, 2015. 14 CFR §91.883 Special flight authorizations for jet airplanes weighing 75,000 pounds or less - lists special flight authorizations that may be granted for operation after December 31, 2015.
- DH.125 Series 1 - first version, powered by 3,000 lbf (13 kN) Viper 20 or 520 engines. Nine built, including two prototypes (43 ft 6 in (13.26 m) long, 44 ft (13.41 m) span) and seven production aircraft (47 ft 5 in (14.56 m) long, 47 ft (14.33 m) long.
- DH.125 Series 1A/1B - upgraded Bristol Siddeley Viper 521 or 522 engines with 3,100 lbf (14 kN) of thrust each, and five cabin windows instead of six. Series 1A for US FAA certification (62 built), Series 1B for sale elsewhere (13 built).
- HS.125 Series 2 - navigation trainer for Royal Air Force (20 built), with service designation Dominie T.1 - (Rolls-Royce Viper 301)
- HS.125 Series 3 - upgraded engines
- HS.125 Series 400 - upgraded engines
- HS.125 CC1 - Series 400 liaison aircraft for Royal Air Force
- HS.125 Series 600 - 3 ft 1 in (0.94 m) fuselage stretch to increase capacity to 14 passengers
- HS.125 CC2 - Series 600 liaison aircraft for Royal Air Force
- HS.125 Series 700 - Honeywell TFE731-3RH turbofan engines with 3,720 lbf (16.5 kN) of thrust each, first flight 19 June 1976
- BAe 125 CC3 - Series 700 liaison aircraft for Royal Air Force
- HS.125 Protector - Series 700-based maritime patrol aircraft with a search radar and cameras
- BAe 125 Series 800 - increased wingspan, streamlined nose, tailfin extension, increased fuel capacity, first corporate jet to feature an EFIS cockpit, upgraded engines, first flight 26 May 1983
- Hawker 800 - BAe 125-800 after 1993
- Hawker 800XP - TFE731-5BR1H turbofan engines with 4,660 lbf (20.7 kN) of thrust each
- Hawker 800SP and 800XP2 - New designation for 800A/B and 800XP aircraft when upgraded with aftermarket winglets
- Hawker 850XP - 800XP with factory installed winglets and interior updates
- Hawker 900XP - 850XP with Honeywell TFE731-50R turbofan engines for increased hot/high performance and longer range
- Hawker 750 - 800XP with a lightweight interior and heated baggage compartment in place of the ventral fuel tank
- C-29A - Series 800 for US military designed to replace the Lockheed C-140A, used by the Air Force to accomplish the combat flight inspection and navigation mission (C-FIN) at US airbases around the world, participated in Operation Desert Shield and Operation Desert Storm during the First Persian Gulf War.
- U-125 - Series 800-based flight inspection aircraft for Japan (similar to C-29A)
- U-125A - Series 800-based search and rescue aircraft for Japan, equipped with the APS-134LW radar system.
- BAe 125 Series 1000 - intercontinental version of the Series 800, 2 ft 9 in (0.84 m) fuselage stretch to increase capacity to 15, increased fuel capacity, Pratt & Whitney Canada PW-305 turbofans with 5,200 lbf (23 kN) thrust each, first flight 16 June 1990, 52 built
- Hawker 1000 - BAe 125-1000 after 1993
- Handley Page HP.130 - A 1965 proposal with boundary layer control wings (not built). It was to be powered by two Bristol Siddeley Viper 520s of 3,000 lbf (13 kN) thrust with a projected Maximum speed of Mach 0.8. This conversion was for laminar-flow research purposes.
Private operators, air taxi, shared ownership and corporate charter operators worldwide. Between 1965 and 1972 Qantas used two Series 3s for crew training.
- Turkmenistan Airlines on behalf of the government
- Biafran Air Force operated one aircraft
- Ghana Air Force - Former operator.
- Royal Air Force
Accidents and incidents
- On 22 November 1966, de Havilland DH.125 N235KC of Florida Commuter Airlines crashed into the sea 7.3 kilometres (3.9 nmi) off Grand Bahama International Airport, Freeport, Bahamas during an illegal flight from Miami, Florida.
- In July 1967, Air Hanson HS.125 (G-ASNU) carrying former Congolese president Moise Tshombe was hijacked and taken to Algeria.
- On 23 December 1967 a Hawker Siddeley HS.125 (registration: G-AVGW) of Court Line crashed shortly after taking off from Luton Airport, killing both pilots. The aircraft had been on a training flight. The crash occurred when the crew simulated an engine failure on takeoff. The HS 125 lost height rapidly and hit the roof of the nearby Vauxhall Motors factory. This resulted in a post-crash fire.
- On 26 May 1971, three Mercurius HS.125 aircraft belonging to the South African Air Force flew into Devil's Peak, Cape Town, while practising for a flypast for the 10th anniversary of the republic.
- On 20 November 1975, a British Aerospace BAe 125 overran the runway at Dunsfold Aerodrome after a bird strike on takeoff. The aircraft hit a car that was travelling along the A281 at the time and stopped in a nearby field, killing six people in the car and injuring one crew member out of nine passengers and crew.
- On 8 September 1987: a Brazilian Air Force Hawker Siddeley HS.125 registration FAB-2129 crashed upon takeoff from Carajás. All nine occupants died.
- On 7 August 1988, a BAe-125 owned by the Botswana Government was carrying the President of Botswana, Quett Masire, and his staff to a meeting in Luanda. An Angolan MiG-23 pilot fired two R-60 (AA-8) missiles at the plane. One missile hit the no. 2 engine, causing it to fall off the aircraft. The second missile then hit the falling engine. The crew was able to make a successful emergency landing on a bush strip at Cutio Bie.
- On 16 March 1991, a Hawker Siddeley charter aircraft carrying band members for Reba McEntire crashed into the side of Otay Mountain. The accident occurred shortly after takeoff from a municipal airport outside of San Diego, California. All eight band members aboard plus two pilots were killed in the crash believed to have been caused by poor visibility.
- On 18 January 1996, a government-owned BAe-125 crashed near Kano in Nigeria, killing all 14 people on board.
- On 3 January 2006, Russian aircraft (AVCOM - Moscow) crashed in Kharkiv, Ukraine into the Komsomolsk lake, three people died (crew).
- On 31 July 2008, East Coast Jets Flight 81 crashed on approach to an airport in Owatonna, Minnesota killing all eight passengers and crew.
- On 26 October 2009, S-Air Flight 9607, operated by BAe 125 RA-02807 crashed on approach to Minsk International Airport. All three crew and both passengers were killed.
Specifications (HS 125 Series 600)
Data from Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1976–77
- Crew: two
- Capacity: eight passengers (normal layout), 14 passengers in high density layout
- Length: 50 ft 6 in (15.39 m)
- Wingspan: 47 ft 0 in (14.33 m)
- Height: 17 ft 3 in (5.26 m)
- Wing area: 353.0 ft² (32.8 m²)
- Empty weight: 12,530 lb (5,683 kg)
- Max. takeoff weight: 25,000 lb (11,340 kg)
- Powerplant: 2 × Rolls-Royce Viper 601-22 turbojets, 3,750 lbf (16.7 kN) each
- Maximum speed: 522 mph (454 knot, 840 km/h) at 28,000 ft (8,500 m) (Max cruise)[clarification needed]
- Cruise speed: 464 mph (403 knot, 747 km/h) at 39,000 ft (11,900 m) (Econ cruise)
- Stall speed: 96 mph (83 knots, 155 km/h) (flaps down)
- Range: 1,796 mi (1,560 nmi, 2,891 km)max fuel and payload
- Service ceiling: 41,000 ft (12,500 m)
- Rate of climb: 4,900 ft/min (24.9 m/s)
- Related development
- Aircraft of comparable role, configuration and era
- Related lists
- List of active United Kingdom military aircraft
- List of aircraft of the RAF
- List of military aircraft of the United States
- "RAF's oldest aircraft retires". RAF News. 27 January 2011. Retrieved 11 March 2011.
- Jackson 1987, pp. 506–507.
- Jackson 1973, p. 277.
- Taylor 1965, pp. 148–149.
- Jackson 1973, pp. 280–281.
- Jackson 1973, pp. 277–281.
- Uruguay; AF orders two HS-125 for VIP flight - Dmilt.com, May 24, 2013
- "N235KC Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 22 June 2010.
- World News Flight 10 August 1967
- "The curious Mercurius". 2002-05-03. Retrieved 2010-03-23.
- "Report No: 1/1977. Report on the accident to Hawker Siddeley HS 125 Series 600B, G-BCUX near Dunsfold Aerodrome, Surrey, 20 November 1975". AAIB. 1977-02-08. Retrieved 2011-07-21.
- "Accident description FAB-2129". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 17 June 2011.
- Hatch, Paul (29 November – 5 December 1989). "World's Air Forces 1989". Flight International: p. 42.
- Granberry, Michael (1991-03-17). "8 Country Band Members Die in S.D. Air Crash". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 2009-08-25.
- "East Coast Jets N818MV". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 2011-07-02.
- "Crash during attempted go-around, East Coast Jets flight 81 (ref NTSB/AAR-11/01)". NTSB. Retrieved 2011-07-02.
- "Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved 27 October 2009.
- Taylor 1976, pp. 178–179.
- Donald, D.; Lake, J. (editors) (1996). Encyclopedia of world military aircraft. AIRtime Publishing. ISBN 1-880588-24-2.
- Jackson, A. J. (1973). British Civil Aircraft since 1919: Volume Two (Second ed.). London: Putnam. ISBN 0-370-10010-7.
- Jackson, A. J. (1987). De Havilland Aircraft since 1909 (Third ed.). London: Putnam. ISBN 0-85177-802-X.
- Taylor, John W. R. (1965). Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1965-66. London: Sampson Low, Marston & Company.
- Taylor, John W. R. (1976). Jane's All The World's Aircraft 1976–77. London: Jane's Yearbooks. ISBN 0-354-00538-3.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to British Aerospace BAe 125.|
- Hawker Beechcraft official site
- Farnborough 2012 News Day 3 Aviation Week pp52–53 tells the history of the 125
- Photos of this aircraft on Airliners.net
- Midland Air Museum. Home to the second prototype
- de Havilland Aircraft Heritage Centre. Home to the remains of the original prototype, G-AYRA, and third prototype, G-AYRC
- BBC News report on final sortie on retirement of the type, January 2011
- "Jet Dragon" a 1961 Flight article
- "D.H.125" a 1962 Flight article