Civil War (comics)
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (October 2009)|
Cover of Civil War 7 (Jan 2007). Art by Steve McNiven.
|Publication date||July 2006 – January 2007|
|Main character(s)||Captain America
|Civil War||ISBN 0-7851-2179-X.|
"Civil War" is a 2006–2007 Marvel Comics crossover storyline built around a seven-issue limited series of the same name written by Mark Millar and penciled by Steve McNiven, which ran through various other titles published by Marvel at the time. The storyline builds upon the events that developed in previous Marvel crossovers, particularly "Avengers Disassembled", "House of M", "Decimation", and "Silent War". The tagline for the series is "Whose Side Are You On?"
The plot of the series follows a framework storyline in which the U.S. government passes a Superhero Registration Act ostensibly designed to have superpowered characters act under official regulation, somewhat akin to police officers. However, those opposed to the act, led by Captain America, find themselves in conflict with those in support of the act, led by Iron Man, with Spider-Man caught in the middle. The events of the series touch upon themes of liberty, moral responsibility, and civil order, with well-intentioned superhero characters finding themselves upon different sides. The series received polarizing reviews but was a commercial success, spawning many media adaptations.
- 1 Publication history
- 2 Plot
- 3 Other versions
- 4 Legacy
- 5 Reception
- 6 Comic tie-ins
- 7 In other media
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
The premise of Civil War involves the introduction of a Superhuman Registration Act in the United States. Similar acts have been used as literary devices in Uncanny X-Men, DC: The New Frontier, Powers, Watchmen, The Incredibles, and Astro City. Mark Millar, writer for the story, has said:
|“||I opted instead for making the superhero dilemma something a little different. People thought they were dangerous, but they did not want a ban. What they wanted was superheroes paid by the federal government like cops and open to the same kind of scrutiny. It was the perfect solution and nobody, as far as I'm aware, has done this before.||”|
The act requires any person in the United States with superhuman abilities to register with the federal government as a "human weapon of mass destruction," reveal their true identity to the authorities, and undergo proper training. Those who sign also have the option of working for S.H.I.E.L.D., earning a salary and benefits such as those earned by other American civil servants. Characters within the superhero community in the Marvel Universe split into two groups: one advocating the registration as a responsible obligation, and the other opposing the law on the grounds that it violates civil liberties and the protection that secret identities provide. A number of villains have also chosen to take sides, some choosing to side with the registration, others against it. Luke Cage (previously the second Power Man), an African American, compared registration to slavery, and did so to Iron Man's face. Others compared the act to the norms under which the police and soldiers operate.
The genesis for this idea sprang from conversations between Mark Millar, Brian Michael Bendis, and Bryan Hitch. Within the story, the adoption of sides by characters builds into the titular "civil war." Although the series can be read as allegorical commentary in the wake of 9/11 and the Patriot Act, writer Mark Millar has noted, "The political allegory is only for those that are politically aware. Kids are going to read it and just see a big superhero fight."
Mark Millar described the event as "a story where a guy wrapped in the American flag is in chains as the people swap freedom for security," agreeing that a "certain amount of political allegory" was present, but that the real focus of the book was on superheroes fighting each other. Contrasting it with the Ultimates, Millar stated that Civil War was "accidentally political because I just cannot help myself."[dead link]
Millar was also questioned about the perceived inequality in the presentation of the two sides. He responded, "it's pretty much Tony's side that gets the better rep all the way through" the Civil War book, but "the tie-in books demonized them a little." Tom Brevoort wrote extensively about the production of Civil War and, some time after the series was over, posted Millar's initial pitch document.
Marvel announced in August 2006 that some issues of the main Civil War series would be pushed back several months to accommodate artist Steve McNiven. The schedule had issue #4 being released one month late, in September, while issue #5 was released two months later, in November. Furthermore, various tie-in books including the Civil War: Front Line miniseries and tie-in issues of other comics were delayed several months so as not to reveal any plot developments.
In late November, Marvel announced another delay. Civil War #6, originally scheduled for release on December 20, was pushed back two weeks and released on January 4. Unlike the previous instance, only The Punisher War Journal #2 was delayed. In a final act of rescheduling, Civil War #7 was pushed back two weeks (from January 17 to January 31), and then pushed back again until February 21.
|This article needs additional citations for verification. (June 2011)|
Civil War follows the implementation and consequences of the Superhuman Registration Act, a legislative bill which required the mandatory registration of any person based in the United States with super powers. The act arose due to public pressure for accountability following a series of superhuman-related events causing significant damage and death within the Marvel universe, such as an attack on Manhattan in reprisal for Nick Fury's "Secret War", and the Hulk's rampage in Las Vegas which resulted in the death of 26 people. When the mutant population was drastically reduced in the aftermath of M-Day, itself caused by a mutant, anti-mutant hysteria caused by extremist groups caused a majority of the remaining mutants, known as the 198, to relocate to the Xavier Institute, and raised public support for the proposed act.
Public sentiment toward superheroes plummeted after an incident in Stamford, Connecticut, in which the New Warriors, a group of young superheroes and the focus of a reality TV show, botched an attempt to apprehend a group of supervillains in a quest for better ratings. In the resulting fight the villain Nitro used his explosive powers to destroy several city blocks, including an elementary school at the epicenter, resulting in the death of over 600 civilians, 60 of whom were children, with just Speedball of the Warriors and Nitro himself surviving. Although many high-profile superheroes assisted in the relief and rescue effort, there were a number of isolated revenge attacks, and support for registration rose.
The prospect of registration divided the superhuman community down the middle, with Tony Stark, the superhero Iron Man who had previously tried to halt the act, becoming the pro-registration figurehead, and Captain America leading the anti-registration group. Iron Man, with Mr. Fantastic and Henry Pym, argued that the changing political landscape meant that resisting the law was pointless, and that it is reasonable for heroes to have proper training and oversight, whereas Captain America, alongside Luke Cage and Falcon argued that heroes required secrecy in order to protect aspects of their 'normal' life, such as spouses and children, and to allow them to act in whatever means necessary against threats which the ordinary emergency services couldn't cope with. Although nominally a U.N. agency, S.H.I.E.L.D. assumed the brunt of enforcing the act under acting director Maria Hill.
The opposing sides initially traded propagandic victories, with the anti-registration heroes continuing to fight supervillains, leaving them restrained to be found by the authorities, whilst the pro-registration side attempted to locate and arrest any superperson who was not registered. The first major coup for either side came when Iron Man convinced Spider-Man to publicly reveal his identity, a secret the latter had worked hard to maintain. During this time many tie-in titles concerned with the war's impact on the wider Marvel universe were published. These detailed Wolverine's hunt for Nitro after fleeing the scene at Stamford, Cyclops' declaration of the X-Men and all remaining mutants as officially neutral, the effect of the war on other supergroups including the pro-registration Thunderbolts and the neutral Runaways, and the reaction of the criminal element (many of whom fled to Canada).
The conflict escalated when Captain America led the anti-registration heroes, known as the Secret Avengers, into an ambush by the pro-registration forces. While shaking hands with Iron Man before a peaceful discussion of the crisis, Captain America used a hidden device to disable Iron Man's armor and sucker-punched him. A public brawl between the pro and anti-registration forces ensued. During the battle, a clone of Thor was sent to assist in the arrest of the anti-registration heroes, but instead killed Goliath by blasting him through his chest. As the pro-registration heroes attempted to control the clone, the Secret Avengers retreated.
In order to contain the superpeople unwilling to register, Iron Man and Mr. Fantastic built a prison in the Negative Zone; it was dubbed "Project 42" because it was the 42nd project they had developed after the Stamford tragedy. Learning that people who did not agree to register would be imprisoned indefinitely and following a battle with Iron Man, Spider-Man quit the pro-registration side and joined Captain America's underground movement. Unknown to Spider-Man, Tony Stark was using his spider suit to secretly analyze his powers and develop ways to overcome them. The Punisher obtained the plans for Project 42 by covertly infiltrating the Baxter Building, home of the Fantastic Four.
The Secret Avengers and their allies reached Riker's Island penitentiary. Betrayed by Tigra, they were met by Iron Man and the pro-registration forces, and a number of supervillains who were being controlled by nanites. Hulkling used his shape-shifting ability to assume the role of Henry Pym and release the incarcerated heroes, leading to an all-out battle between the two sides.
During the fight Cloak teleported the battle to the centre of New York City, where the pro-registration forces were joined by the fixed Thor clone and Captain Marvel, and Namor led an army of Atlanteans to assist the Secret Avengers. Captain America targeted Iron Man, whose armor had been compromised by the Vision II. As Captain America was about to deliver a finishing blow, several non-superpowered emergency service personnel held him back. Wishing to avert further property damage and bloodshed, Captain America surrendered.
Two weeks later, the Fifty State Initiative was launched and the Mighty Avengers assembled as a team. Tony Stark was appointed Director of S.H.I.E.L.D., and Maria Hill was demoted to deputy status. Some heroes moved to Canada, while some stayed underground including the New Avengers. Many of the Secret Avengers were given amnesty by the government, while Captain America was placed in jail. Captain America was later apparently shot to death by Crossbones and Sharon Carter (the latter hypnotised by Dr. Faustus) outside the courthouse, marking the end of the Civil War.
- Captain America is apparently assassinated by Crossbones (acting on orders from the Red Skull) and S.H.I.E.L.D. agent Sharon Carter (who had been brainwashed by Doctor Faustus).
- The Avengers Initiative is created.
- Iron Man becomes the director of S.H.I.E.L.D.
- The New Avengers go underground. Iron Fist, Doctor Strange and Ronin (Clint Barton) join the team.
- Iron Man sets up his own team of Avengers (featured in the title The Mighty Avengers).
- Camp Hammond is built on the ruins of the Stamford Disaster.
- The Thunderbolts become a federal agency with Norman Osborn as its director.
- Mister Fantastic and the Invisible Woman take a leave of absence from the Fantastic Four, and are replaced by the Black Panther and Storm.
When Mister Fantastic was researching realities where the Civil War ended differently, he found one reality in which their Iron Man was actually Natasha Stark and she was legally wed to Captain America.
During an attempt by the reality-displaced Superior Spider-Man (Doctor Octopus' mind in Peter Parker's body) to reach back to his dimension as seen in the Spider-Verse storyline, he discovered an alternate dimension (Earth-TRN443) where a Civil War Iron Spider-Man lies dead (killed by Karn) prompting him to continue investigating the killings of Spider-men throughout the Multiverse.
In What If Civil War Ended Differently?, a stranger appears in front of Iron Man, who is visiting Captain America’s grave at Arlington National Cemetery. Tony Stark is told of two alternate ways the Civil War could have concluded:
- The first is detailed in, "What if Captain America led all the heroes against the Registration Act?" In this reality, Tony Stark dies of the Extremis virus, leaving the U.S. government to choose Steve Rogers as the spokesperson for heroes, who as in the regular universe opposes registration. Though he manages to delay its passing, the Stamford disaster occurs as in the 616 reality. Without Tony Stark to provide a fairer path for registration, the government's response is more extreme. Governmental forces led by Henry Peter Gyrich destroy the resistance and many heroes are slain.
- The second is detailed in, "What if Iron Man lost the Civil War?" In this reality, Iron Man asks for Cap's help in chapter three instead of threatening him, admitting his doubts about his actions rather than trying to justify them, and thus Cap does not use the hidden weapon in his glove to disable Tony's armor. The heroes unite to stop the out-of-control Thor clone, Ragnarok, which is released when Hill detects the weapon and assumes that Cap is still planning to use it. The resulting goodwill convinces Captain America to help run the program as he is the only one the heroes will trust with their secret identities.
The stranger is revealed to be Uatu, Earth 616's Watcher. Upon learning of the possibility of this alternate reality, Tony is devastated and weeps for the bright future he helped prevent.
In a special What If: Annihilation by David Hine and Mico Suayan, a cosmic war reaches Earth. The heroes unite to neutralize it, and many die in the first clashes. Captain America and Iron Man, after a final reconciliation, sacrifice themselves alongside Nova to deflect the full Annihilation Wave.
- The Civil War storyline will be featured in Secret Wars. It's location on Battleworld is referred to as the Warzone.
Tom Spurgeon took note of the difficulty in using costumed characters to send messages about real world issues: "When I was a kid, I liked it when Captain America saw a high government official commit suicide. I thought that was way deep, man. But I never go there when thinking about Watergate. While Millar's Captain America and I may both worry about civil rights...the moment this leads Cap to take out a battalion of Secret Agents to buttress his point, he's kind of lost to me as a potential partner-in-ideology."
According to a scholarly analysis presented at the 2007 Comic-Con International, this story's conflict is a natural outgrowth of what psychologist Erich Fromm called the basic human dilemma, the conflicting desires for both security and freedom, and "character motivations on both sides arise from positive human qualities because Fromm’s image of human nature is ultimately optimistic, holding that people on either side are struggling to find what is best for all."
Road To Civil War
- Civil War #1–7
- Civil War: Battle Damage Report
- Civil War: Choosing Sides
- Civil War: Chronicles #1–12
- Civil War: Front Line #1–11
- Civil War: Opening Shot Sketchbook
- Civil War: The Confession
- Civil War: The Initiative
- Civil War: The Return
- Civil War: War Crimes
- Civil War Poster Book
- Civil War: Young Avengers and Runaways #1–4
- Civil War: X-Men #1–4
- Civil War Files
- Amazing Spider-Man (2nd series) #532–538
- Black Panther (2nd series) #18–25
- Cable & Deadpool #30–32
- Captain America (5th series) #22–24
- Daily Bugle Special Edition: Civil War
- Fallen Son: The Death of Captain America
- Fantastic Four (3rd series) #538–542
- Friendly Neighborhood Spider-Man #11–16
- Heroes for Hire (2nd series) #1–3
- Iron Man (4th series) #13 & 14
- Iron Man / Captain America: Casualties of War
- Marvel Spotlight: Captain America Remembered
- Marvel Spotlight: Civil War Aftermath
- Ms. Marvel (2nd series) #6–8
- New Avengers (1st series) #21–25
- Punisher: War Journal (2nd series) #1–3
- Sensational Spider-Man (2nd series) #28–34
- She-Hulk (2nd series) #8
- Thunderbolts #103–105
- Wolverine (2nd series) #42–47
- X-Factor #8 & 9
From the Pages of Civil War
- Penance Relentless #1–5
Casualties of War
- Blade (3rd series) #5
- Ghost Rider (4th series) #8–11
- Moon Knight (3rd series) #7–9
- Winter Soldier: Winter Kills #1
- Wolverine (2nd series) #48
- Black Panther (2nd series) #26–30
- Fantastic Four (3rd series) #544–550
- Iron Man (2nd series) #15–18
- Moon Knight (3rd series) #11–13
- New Avengers (1st series) #28–31
- Punisher War Journal (2nd series) #6–11
- Captain America (5th series) #26–30
- Thunderbolts (1st series) #112–115
Related but not listed
- The 2006 Eternals relaunch has the Civil War play a fairly present background in the setting with Sprite appearing in pro-registration PSAs. In issue #3, Iron Man reminds Sersi to register. In issue #6, Iron Man and Hank Pym try to get the Eternals to register again, but they refuse. In the end, Zuras explains that the Eternals have no desire to meddle with humanity, and will stay out of their affairs, which Iron Man concedes as a fair compromise.
- Daredevil #87 leads into Civil War: Choosing Sides (one-shot).
- New X-Men #28 and She-Hulk #9 are indirectly, but strongly involved.
- In Black Panther #19–20 "World Tour" Black Panther meets with Doctor Doom, then the Inhumans, to discuss the Civil War (these are not listed as official tie-ins due to a marketing error).
- Marvel Comics Presents (vol. 2) #12 involves a patsy attempt to get Man-Thing to register with the government. The story was published late (October 2008 cover date), during Secret Invasion and the same month as Marvel Zombies 3, in which Man-Thing also appeared.
- The cover of Nextwave: Agents of H.A.T.E. #11 features a Civil War parody cover including a plaid background, the words "Not part of a Marvel Comics event," and Aaron Stack holding up a card reading "Mark Millar licks goats."
- Spider-Man and Power Pack #3 (March 2007) includes a parody entitled "Civil Wards," written by Marc Sumerak and illustrated by Chris Giarrusso.
- The final issue of Robert Kirkman's Marvel Team-Up opens with Peter Parker getting ready to travel to Washington with Iron Man.
- The third issue of the 2006 Union Jack miniseries also mentions Tony Stark and Peter Parker's trip to Washington.
- Incredible Hulk #100 includes a 12-page backup story dealing with Mister Fantastic's involvement with the Thor clone, and the repercussions of the Illuminati having exiled the Hulk into space.
- In Annihilation #4, the former Earth hero Nova is aware of the Civil War and is disappointed with the actions the heroes have taken, as they are not united against the threat of Annihilus.
- In Friendly Neighborhood Spider-Man #6–10, Spider-Man is seen wearing the new suit he got in The Road to Civil War.
- In Sensational Spider-Man #26–27, Spider-Man is seen wearing the new suit he got in The Road to Civil War.
- In Sensational Spider-Man #28–34, Spider-Man deals with the aftermath of revealing his identity.
|Civil War: Road to Civil War||Amazing Spider-Man #529–531; Fantastic Four #536–537; New Avengers: Illuminati||978-0785119746|
|Civil War||Civil War #1–7||978-0785121787|
|Civil War: Black Panther||Black Panther #19–25||978-0785122357|
|Civil War: Captain America||Captain America #22–24; Winter Soldier: Winter Kills||978-0785127987|
|Civil War Companion||Civil War Files; Civil War: Battle Damage Report; Marvel Spotlight: Mark Millar/Steve McNiven; Marvel Spotlight: Civil War Aftermath; Daily Bugle: Civil War Special Edition||978-0785125761|
|Civil War: Fantastic Four||Fantastic Four #538–543||978-0785122272|
|Civil War: Frontline, Vol. 1||Civil War: Frontline #1–6||978-0785123125|
|Civil War: Frontline, Vol. 2||Civil War: Frontline #7–11||978-0785124696|
|Civil War: Heroes for Hire||Heroes for Hire #1–5||978-0785141808|
|Civil War: Iron Man||Iron Man #13–14; Casualties of War; The Confession||978-0785123149|
|Civil War: Marvel Universe||Choosing Sides; The Return; The Initiative; She-Hulk #8||978-0785124702|
|Civil War: Ms. Marvel||Ms. Marvel #6–10; Ms. Marvel Special||978-0785123057|
|Civil War: New Avengers||New Avengers #21–25||978-0785124467|
|Civil War: Peter Parker, Spider-Man||Sensational Spider-Man #28–34||978-0785121893|
|Civil War: Punisher War Journal||Punisher War Journal #1–4||978-0785123156|
|Civil War: The Amazing Spider-Man||The Amazing Spider-Man #532–538||978-0785122371|
|Civil War: Thunderbolts||Thunderbolts #101–105||978-0785119470|
|Civil War: War Crimes||Civil War: War Crimes; Underworld #1–5||978-0785126522|
|Civil War: Wolverine||Wolverine #42–48||978-0785119807|
|Civil War: X-Men||Civil War: X-Men #1–4||978-0785123132|
|Civil War: X-Men Universe||X-Factor #8–9; Cable & Deadpool #30–32||978-0785122432|
|Civil War: Young Avengers & Runaways||Civil War: Young Avengers & Runaways #1–4||978-0785123170|
|Civil War: Script Book||Scripts to Civil War #1–7||978-0785127949|
|Civil War: What If...?||What If? Annihilation, Civil War, Planet Hulk, X-Men and Spider-Man Vs. Wolverine||978-0785130369|
In other media
Marvel adapted Civil War into a prose hardcover novel in July 2012 as the first of a series of four novels adapting some of Marvel's most significant fictional events. It was written by Stuart Moore, the writer of Namor: The First Mutant. The book expanded on the story and set the events during Barack Obama's first term in office, rather than George W. Bush's last term; Tony Stark makes reference to the Affordable Care Act when speaking to Spider-Man in the first chapter of the novel. The novel is set in the alternate timeline created by the controversial storyline "One More Day" and detailed in "One Moment in Time", as Spider-Man is depicted as never having married Mary Jane Watson, having never arrived on the day of their wedding. In the original comics version, Civil War was a lead-in to "One More Day", depicting May Parker's assassination on the orders of Wilson Fisk near the end of the main Civil War storyline.
- GraphicAudio produced an audiobook of the prose hardcover novel, the audiobook contains 6 CDs and features a full cast, music and sound effects. It was released on March 1, 2013 and is six hours long.
- In The Avengers: Earth's Mightiest Heroes episode "The Man Who Stole Tomorrow," the Negative Zone prison "42" makes an appearance although only to incarcerate supervillains. Like in the comics it was designated 42 because it was Tony Stark's and Reed Richards' 42nd idea for improving the world. Later in "Hail HYDRA!", Maria Hill states that she will talk to the President about registering with S.H.I.E.L.D. Notably unlike the comics, Tony Stark is against the idea of registering, as seen in his conversations with Hill in the episode "Alone Against A.I.M.", citing among other reasons the Good Samaritan principle.
- In Spider-Man: Web of Shadows, the game makes a reference to Civil War by showing a huge billboard displaying a Daily Bugle article talking about the Superhuman Registration Act and whether it will pass.
- The video game Marvel: Ultimate Alliance 2 features the Secret War first, and then the Civil War storyline. Like the comics, Nitro invokes the Civil War by blowing up a neighborhood in Stamford, Connecticut. After the accident, the player chooses sides in the war. What makes this different from the comics is that Iron Man loses control of the nanite-controlled villains resulting the villains combining into a nanite-based hive mind known as "the Fold" forcing Nick Fury to unite both sides to stop the Fold before everyone in the world is infected by the nanites. Because of the incident with the nanite-controlled villains, the Superhero Registration Act was temporarily suspended. After the Fold is defeated, there are two endings to this game depending on the side the players take. If the player completes the game on the Pro-Registration side, the Superhuman Registration Act gets amended so that superheroes can volunteer for the program and not have to reveal their secret identities. If the player completes the game on the Anti-Registration side, the Superhuman Registration Act is repealed.
- In the crossover fighting game, Marvel vs. Capcom 3: The Fate of Two Worlds, if Captain America defeats Iron Man as his last opponent, he says "And that was for Civil War!"; conversely, if Iron Man beats Captain America as his last opponent, he says "It's like Civil War all over again". There is also a trophy/achievement called "Whose Side Are You On?" described as "Bring about an end to the Civil War in an online match". This is awarded for having an online battle involving Captain America and Iron Man on opposite sides.
- In October 2014, Variety reported that the upcoming third Captain America film, set for release on May 6, 2016, would adapt the "Civil War" storyline for the Marvel Cinematic Universe and would feature Robert Downey, Jr. as Iron Man. Marvel confirmed this along with the appearance of Black Panther in the film portrayed by Chadwick Boseman, Marvel Studios president Kevin Feige explained that since superhero secret identities do not exist in the Marvel Cinematic Universe, the film will be more about world governments demanding accountability and oversight of superheroes instead of them forcibly revealing their true identity to the authorities.
- Civil War: Front Line
- Civil War: X-Men
- Civil War: Young Avengers/Runaways
- Avengers: The Initiative
- Civil War: The Initiative
- The Mighty Avengers
- "Civil War" (Press release). Marvel Comics. 2005-12-28.
- "classic.newsarama.com – Civil War & Peace of Mind with Mark Millar (Part 2)". Retrieved 2007-03-20.[dead link]
- "The Battle Outside Raging, Superheroes Dive In". The New York Times. 2006-02-20. Retrieved 2007-03-20.
- "classic.newsarama.com – Mark Millar's Civil War Post-Game Show". Newsarama. Retrieved 2007-03-20.[dead link]
- Tom Brevoort: Civil War Memorial, Marvel Universe, April 28, 2007
- "Newsarama Forum – Marvel's Civil War Delayed". Retrieved 2007-03-20.
- "Newsarama Forum – Civil War #6 Gets a Schedule Bump". Retrieved 2007-03-20.
- "Marvel Comics Catalog – Titles on Sale, Week of February 21, 2007". Retrieved 2007-03-20.
- "23 Amazing Spider-Man Pics". Allposters.com Blog. Retrieved February 13, 2015.
- Captain America vol. 5, #25 (April 2007)
- Civil War #7 (Feb 2007)
- New Avengers vol. 1, #27 (2007)
- Mighty Avengers #1 (2007)
- Avengers: The Initiative #1 (2007)
- Civil War #5 (2006)
- Fantastic Four #543; Black Panther vol. 4, #26 (2007)
- Dark Reign: Fantastic Four #2
- Superior Spider-Man #32
- What If? Civil War #1
- Annihilation Makes Things Civil: Hine talks "What If? Annihilation", Comic Book Resources, October 5, 2007
- Delusions of Civil War, Michael Netzer Online, June 17, 2006
- Freedom versus Security: The Basic Human Dilemma from 9/11 to Marvel’s Civil War. Retrieved on September 29, 2007.
- Civil War by Stuart Moore. Chapter one, page 22, hardcover edition; ISBN 978-0-7851-6035-9.
- Civil War by Stuart Moore. Chapter nineteen, page 191, hardcover edition; ISBN 978-0-7851-6035-9.
- Marvel Ultimate Alliance 2, NYC Comic-Con 09: Exclusive Taking Sides Trailer, Game Trailers, February 5, 2009
- Strom, Marc (October 28, 2014). "Marvel Pits Captain America & Iron Man in a Cinematic Civil War". Marvel.com. Archived from the original on October 28, 2014. Retrieved October 28, 2014.
- Siegel, Lucas (October 28, 2014). "Marvel Announces Black Panther, Captain Marvel, Inhumans, Avengers: Infinity War Films, Cap & Thor 3 Subtitles". Newsarama. Archived from the original on October 28, 2014. Retrieved October 28, 2014.
- Hayes, Britt (October 28, 2014). "How Will ‘Captain America: Civil War’ Work Without Secret Identities? Marvel’s Kevin Feige Explains". ScreenCrush. Retrieved October 28, 2014.
- Civil War at the Comic Book DB
- Civil War Covers
- Civil War Review | BGN Favourable review of Civil War