Doctor Strange

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This article is about the superhero. For other uses, see Doctor Strange (disambiguation).
Doctor Strange
Doctor Strange, art by Steve Ditko
Publication information
Publisher Marvel Comics
First appearance Strange Tales #110 (July 1963)
Created by Steve Ditko
In-story information
Alter ego Stephen Vincent Strange
Team affiliations New Avengers
Illuminati
Defenders
The Order
Midnight Sons
Notable aliases Stephen Sanders
Vincent Stevens
Abilities Mastery of magic
Genius-level intellect
Skilled neurosurgeon
Trained martial artist

Doctor Stephen Vincent Strange, best known under his alias Doctor Strange, is a superhero that appears in comic books published by Marvel Comics. A former neurosurgeon, Strange serves as the Sorcerer Supreme, the primary protector of Earth against magical and mystical threats. Debuting in the Silver Age of comics, the character has been featured in several eponymous comics series and licensed derivative media including video games, an animated television show, films, and merchandise such as trading cards and figurines. A Marvel Studios live-action film adaptation, starring Benedict Cumberbatch in the titular role, is set for a 2016 theatrical release.

Publication history[edit]

1960s[edit]

Artist and plotter Steve Ditko and scriptwriter and editor Stan Lee have separately described the character, if not the name, as having been created by Ditko, who wrote in 2008, "On my own, I brought in to Lee a five-page, penciled story with a page/panel script of my idea of a new, different kind of character for variety in Marvel Comics. My character wound up being named Dr. Strange because he would appear in Strange Tales."[1]

In a 1963 letter to Jerry Bails, Lee called the character Ditko's idea, saying,

Steve Ditko, creator of Doctor Strange, circa 1945

Dr. Strange debuted in Strange Tales #110 (July 1963),[3] a split book shared with the feature The Human Torch. Doctor Strange appeared in issues #110–111 and #114 before the character's eight-page origin story appeared in #115 (Dec. 1963). Scripter Lee's take on the character was inspired by the Chandu the Magician radio program that aired on the Mutual Broadcasting System in the 1930s.[4]

With issue #135 (Aug. 1965), The Human Torch feature was replaced, and Dr. Strange began sharing Strange Tales with the espionage series Nick Fury, Agent of S.H.I.E.L.D.. Ditko drew Dr. Strange through issue #146 (July 1966), and during this period he and Lee introduced many of Strange's allies, such as his eventual lover Clea, who debuted, initially unnamed, in Strange Tales #126 (Nov. 1964); and enemies, such as the flame-headed Dormammu in that same issue, and Nightmare in #110.

Ditko's stories showcased surrealistic mystical landscapes and increasingly vivid visuals that helped make the feature a favorite of college students at the time. Comics historian Mike Benton wrote,

"People who read Doctor Strange thought people at Marvel must be heads [i.e. drug users]," recalled then-associate editor and former Doctor Strange writer Roy Thomas in 1971, "because they had had similar experiences high on mushrooms. But I don't use hallucinogens, nor do I think any artists do."[6]

As co-plotter and later sole plotter in the Marvel Method, Ditko took Strange into ever-more-abstract realms. In an epic 17-issue story arc in Strange Tales #130-146 (March 1965-July 1966), Ditko introduced the cosmic character Eternity, who personified the universe and was depicted as a silhouette whose outlines are filled with the cosmos.[7] As historian Bradford W. Wright described,

In keeping with Lee's emphasis on continuity, Strange guest-starred in Fantastic Four #27 (June 1964) and The Amazing Spider-Man Annual #2 (1965), and encountered the Norse god Loki, foster brother of Thor, in Strange Tales #123 (Aug. 1964).

The series continued with Lee dialoging Ditko's plots through Strange Tales #142, followed by Roy Thomas and Denny O'Neil (two issues each). Golden Age artist/writer Bill Everett succeeded Ditko as artist with issues #147-152, followed by Marie Severin through #160 and Dan Adkins through #168, the final issue before the Nick Fury feature moved to its own title and Strange Tales was renamed Doctor Strange.[9]

Splash page for the Doctor Strange story in Strange Tales #110 (July 1963). Art by Steve Ditko

Lee returned to write episodes in Strange Tales #151-157; followed by Thomas (#158-159); and two writers who did virtually no other Marvel work, Raymond Marais (#160-161) and Jim Lawrence (#162-#166). Another cosmic entity, the Living Tribunal, was introduced in issue #157 (June 1967) and the evil Umar, sister of Dormammu, in #150 (Nov. 1966).

Expanded to 20 pages per issue, the Doctor Strange solo series ran 15 issues, #169-183 (June 1968-Nov. 1969), continuing the numbering of Strange Tales.[9][10] Thomas wrote the run of new stories, joined after the first three issues by the art team of penciler Gene Colan and inker Tom Palmer through the end. Colan drastically altered the look of the series, as Thomas recounted: "…he had his own view of what these other worlds should look like. Everyone else sort of copied Ditko's versions of those extra dimensions, which were great and wonderful. When Gene came on, he didn't feel a real rapport with that, I guess, so his extra dimensions tended to be just blackness and smoke and things of that sort… Sometimes it was a little strange for a dimension Doc Strange had been to before to look different when drawn by Gene, but nobody complained."[11] In #177, Thomas and Colan attempted to boost sales by revamping Strange's appearance to more closely resemble those of other superheroes, giving him a form-fitting blue costume, a full-head mask and a secret identity as Dr. Stephen Sanders. The cancellation with #183 was abrupt (there was a "Next issue" blurb in the last issue), and outstanding storylines were resolved in Sub-Mariner #22 (Feb. 1970) and The Incredible Hulk vol. 2, #126 (April 1970).

Thomas recalled in 2000 that he returned to work a day late from a weekend comic book convention to find that Marvel production manager Sol Brodsky had assigned Doctor Strange to writer Archie Goodwin, newly ensconced at Marvel and writing Iron Man. Thomas convinced Brodsky to allow him to continue writing the title. "I got very possessive about Doctor Strange," Thomas recalled. "It wasn't a huge seller, but [by the time it was canceled] we were selling the low 40 percent range of more than 400,000 print run, so it was actually selling a couple hundred thousand copies [but] at the time you needed to sell even more."[12]

1970s-1990s[edit]

After plans were announced for a never-realized split book series featuring Doctor Strange and Iceman each in solo adventures,[13] Strange next appeared in the first three issues (December 1971-June 1972) of the quarterly showcase title Marvel Feature. He appeared in both the main story detailing the formation of superhero "non-team" the Defenders,[14] and the related back-up story. The character then starred in a revival solo series in Marvel Premiere #3-14 (July 1972-March 1974).[15] This arc marked the debut of another recurring foe, the entity Shuma-Gorath, created by writer Steve Englehart and artist Frank Brunner. In issues #8-10 (May-September 1973), Strange was forced to shut down the Ancient One's mind, causing his mentor's physical death. Strange then assumed the title of Sorcerer Supreme.[16] Englehart and Brunner created another multi-issue storyline featuring sorcerer Sise-Neg ("Genesis" spelled backward) going back through history, collecting all magical energies, until he reaches the beginning of the universe, becomes all-powerful and creates it anew, leaving Strange to wonder whether this was, paradoxically, the original creation. Stan Lee, seeing the issue after publication, ordered Englehart and Brunner to print a retraction saying this was not God but a god, to avoid offending religious readers. The writer and artist concocted a fake letter from a fictitious minister praising the story, and mailed it to Marvel from Texas. Marvel unwittingly printed the letter and dropped the retraction.[17]

Doctor Strange #177 (Feb. 1969), the debut of Strange's short-lived new look. Cover art by Gene Colan and Tom Palmer

The Marvel Premiere series segued to the character's second ongoing title, Doctor Strange: Master of the Mystic Arts, also known as Doctor Strange vol. 2, which ran 81 issues (June 1974-February 1987).[18] Doctor Strange #14 featured a crossover story with The Tomb of Dracula #44, another series which was being drawn by Gene Colan at the time.[19] In Englehart's final story, he sent Dr. Strange back in time to meet Benjamin Franklin.[20] In 2010, Comics Bulletin ranked Englehart's work on Doctor Strange with artists Brunner and Colan ninth on its list of the "Top 10 1970s Marvels."[21]

Strange met his allies Topaz in #75 (Feb. 1986) and Rintrah in #80 (Dec. 1986). The series ended with a cliffhanger as his home, the Sanctum Sanctorum was heavily damaged during a battle. Among the losses was Doctor Strange's entire collection of mystic books and other important artifacts. As a consequence, Strange was now considerably weaker and several spells designed to protect humanity from vampires and the evil serpent god Set expired.

The title was discontinued so that the character's adventures could be transferred to another split book format series, Strange Tales vol. 2, #1-19 (April 1987-October 1988), which was shared with street heroes Cloak and Dagger. This new Doctor Strange series resolved Strange's quest to reclaim his power and missing artifacts, as well as resurrect the Defenders, who had died in the last issue of that team's title.

Strange was returned to his own series, this time titled Doctor Strange: Sorcerer Supreme, which ran 90 issues (November 1988-June 1996).[22] The initial creative team was writer Peter B. Gillis and artists Richard Case and Randy Emberlin, with storylines often spanning multiple issues. Strange lost the title of "Sorcerer Supreme" in issues #48-49 (December 1992-January 1993) when he refused to fight a war on behalf of the Vishanti, the mystical entities that empower his spells. During this time the series became part of the "Midnight Sons" group of Marvel's supernatural comics,[23] and Doctor Strange found new sources of magical strength in the form of chaos magic,[24] as well as a magic construct he used as a proxy.[25] He would form the Secret Defenders with a rotating roster of heroes,[26] and reunite with the original Defenders. Strange regained his title in Doctor Strange: Sorcerer Supreme #80 (Aug. 1995).

Strange appeared, together with the Human Torch and the Thing in the one-shot publication Strange Tales vol. 3, #1 (Nov.1994).

The character was featured in several limited series. The first was Doctor Strange: The Flight of Bones #1-#4 (February-May 1999), with a series of spontaneous combustions by criminals instigated by old foe Dormammu. Strange was the catalyst for the creation of a trio of sorceresses in Witches #1-#4 (August-November 2004). The Strange limited series (November 2004-July 2005) by writers J. Michael Straczynski and Samm Barnes updated the character's origin.[27] Another limited series, Doctor Strange: The Oath #1-5 (December 2006-April 2007), written by Brian K. Vaughan and illustrated by Marcos Martin, focused on Strange's responsibilities as sorcerer and doctor.

Doctor Strange appeared in four graphic novels over the years: Doctor Strange: Into Shamballa (1986); Doctor Strange & Doctor Doom: Triumph and Torment (1989); Spider-Man/Dr. Strange: The Way to Dusty Death (1992); and Dr. Strange: What Is It That Disturbs You, Stephen? (1997).

2000s[edit]

Strange appeared as a supporting character for the bulk of the 2000s. He appeared regularly in Amazing Spider-Man under J. Michael Straczynski, before being cast into a time loop by Baron Mordu. He later appeared on and off in New Avengers, where he was stated as being part of the secret group known as Illuminati to deal with future threats to Earth. Ultimately Strange joined the team (and allowing them to use his home as a base) after the events of Civil War, which he sat out. Doctor Strange was critical of the federal Superhuman Registration Act and aided the anti-registration Avengers team led by Luke Cage.[28]

During the Bendis run, Doctor Doom attacked the Avengers and manipulated Scarlet Witch into decimating the mutant population; Doctor Strange's failure to stop the latter and his failure to realize Doom's hand in the former led to Strange renouncing his status as Sorcerer Supreme, with the Eye of Agomotto passing the mantle to Brother Voodoo.[29]

He was also featured in The Order, which spun out of the 2000 Defenders revival, and the Indefensible Defenders mini-series.

2010s[edit]

Doctor Strange appeared as a regular character throughout the 2010-2013 New Avengers series, from issue #1 (August 2010) through the final issue #34 (Jan. 2013).[30] Renamed Doctor Voodoo, the newly appointed Sorcerer Supreme sacrifices himself in order to stop the powerful mystical entity Agamotto from reclaiming the Eye.[31] The following issue, a guilt-ridden Strange, rejoining the New Avengers, offers the team his servant Wong to act as their housekeeper. Strange and Wong are seen working with improvised teams of Avengers in later incidents.[32] He eventually regains his position of Sorcerer Supreme when the ghost of Doctor Voodoo's brother, Daniel Drumm, attempts to attack Strange by possessing various Avengers and Strange manages to defeat him with the use of dark magic without being corrupted by it. The spirit of the Ancient One appears to Strange to inform him that his willingness to fight for the world even when not officially Sorcerer Supreme, coupled with his ability to use black magic when necessary and then avoid its corruptive influence, has proven that he deserves the mantle.[33]

He continues to appear in the pages of the 2013 incarnation of New Avengers, which focuses on the Illuminati as they deal with "Incursions", cases where two parallel Earths collide and cause the destruction of both universes. As such, the group have engaged in considerable acts of moral ambiguity in dealing with each impending incursion.[volume & issue needed] In addition, Doctor Strange has become the host to a dangerous demon after helping a wealthy couple whose son had become possessed; Strange ultimately offered to become the demon's host in exchange for sparing the child only for the child to die anyway. The demon ultimately possessed Strange when fighting a group of heroes from a world threatened by an incursion and kills most of those heroes, resulting in the Illuminati having to stop him.[volume & issue needed]

Fictional character biography[edit]

Born in 1930, Stephen Strange was the eldest child of Eugene and Beverly Strange. Two years later, Stephen's sister Donna was born at the family's Nebraska farm. At age eight, Strange was beset by demons controlled by apprentice sorcerer Karl Mordo, but was rescued by Mordo's mentor, the Ancient One, a millennia-old sorcerer who protected the Earth dimension as its Sorcerer Supreme, a role Strange was destined to inherit. At age eleven, a year or two after his brother Victor's birth, Strange aided an injured Donna, the experience inspiring him to pursue a medical career.[34]

After high school, Strange entered pre-med at a New York college. Later, home on vacation for his nineteenth birthday, Strange went swimming with Donna, who suffered a cramp and drowned. Finding her body after a desperate search, Strange felt a sense of personal failure that eroded his medical idealism. After earning his medical degree in record time, he entered a five-year residency at New York Hospital, where his rapid success made him arrogant. When his mother Beverly died near the end of his residency, a bereaved Strange grew distant from his work. His talent was unaffected, though, and he became a wealthy, celebrated neurosurgeon before he turned thirty. His egotism made him cold and callous, interested only in high fees. He saved the life of injured United Nations translator, Madeleine Revell; following a romance and proposal, she left him due to his increasingly materialist nature. Two years after Beverly's death, her husband Eugene fell ill; unable to face another family death, Stephen refused to visit his deathbed. A few days later, an outraged Victor berated Stephen for his apparent lack of grief, then rushed from Strange's apartment into the path of an oncoming car. Blaming himself, Strange placed Victor's body in cold storage, half-hoping that future breakthroughs could revive him.[35][36]

By 1963, Strange was in a car accident that severely damaged the nerves in his hands, ending his surgical career. Too vain to accept positions as a consultant or assistant, Strange sought a cure and pursued every available treatment, legitimate or not, soon depleting his fortune; in months he was reduced to a derelict, performing shady medical procedures that barely paid his bar tabs. After hearing rumors of the mystical Ancient One, a desperate Strange pawned his last possessions for a ticket to the East and found the Ancient One's Tibetan palace. At first annoyed when the Ancient One refused to cure him, Strange was later astonished to see the sorcerer attacked by mystic forces. Upon learning that the Ancient One was Earth's magical defender and that the attack on him came from his pupil Mordo, Strange tried to warn him, but Mordo mystically prevented Strange from doing so. For the sake of the Ancient One and the world, Strange acted unselfishly for the first time in years, vowing to learn magic himself so he could counter Mordo and his ilk. He offered himself as a disciple to the Ancient One, who accepted, having known of Mordo's treachery all along. The Ancient One spent years instructing Strange in the art of sorcery, teaching him how to tap the innate mystic powers of both himself and the world around him, as well as how to invoke the power of awesome entities, or Principalities, who resided in their own realms, most notably the three benign beings known as the Vishanti. A few years after Strange's arrival, Mordo left to seek greater power, and would often clash with Strange in the future. Strange's guilt over his earlier mistakes weighed heavily upon him over the years, and not all of his early recollections can be trusted.[37][38]

During his years of study and early activity, Strange befriended many sorcerers around the world, including Lord Julian Phyffe and Sir Clive Bentley of Great Britain; Cardinal Alfeo Spinosa and Count Carezzi of Italy; Omar Karindu, Rama Kaliph, and Turhan Barim of the Middle East; Wai Chee Yee and Sen-Yu of Asia; and Aleister Kane, Kenneth Ward, and Frank Brukner of America. Other immortal adventurers, such as Immortalis and Terror, Inc., regarded his ascent with skepticism. Strange also found allies among more earthly heroes, aiding the adventurer Black Fox in at least two adventures. No later than the 1970s, Strange returned to America, becoming a mystic consultant in New York's Greenwich Village. He was joined by Wong, the descendant of a line that had served the Ancient One for centuries, who became his servant and friend. Strange's earliest foes included the demonic Bottle Imp; a nightmarish manifestation of the entity KhLΘg; and the demon Nightmare, who preyed upon humanity's dreams and became one of Strange's bitterest enemies. Developing a mysterious reputation like the Ancient One before him, Strange became an occasional consultant to local and even federal authorities.[39][40][41][42]

Powers and abilities[edit]

Strange is a practicing magician who draws his powers from various mystical entities such as Agamotto, Cyttorak, the Faltine, Ikonn, Oshtur, Raggadorr, the Seraphim, and Watoomb,[volume & issue needed] and artifacts including the Cloak of Levitation which enables him to fly,[a] the Eye of Agamotto whose light is used to negate evil magic,[35] the Book of the Vishanti which contains knowledge of white magic,[43] and the Orb of Agamotto which is used as a crystal ball.[44]

In addition to his magical abilities, Strange is a skilled neurosurgeon, even though he can no longer practice due to minor nerve damage to his hands rendering him unable to perform the finer details of neurological operations,[35] and is trained in several different martial arts disciplines.[volume & issue needed]

Doctor Strange has been described as "the mightiest magician in the cosmos"[45] and "more powerful by far than any of your fellow humanoids" by Eternity, the sentience of the Marvel Universe.[46] He has held the title of Sorcerer Supreme from 1973 (with the death of the Ancient One[16]) to the present, except during an interruption from 1992[47] to 1995.[48] He relinquished the title once again in 2009,[29] but reclaimed it in 2012 when he proved himself willing to protect the world even without the title.[33]

Recalled issue[edit]

Jackson Guice's cover for Doctor Strange #15 (1990) used Christian music singer Amy Grant's likeness without her permission,[49] leading to a complaint saying that the cover gave the appearance that she was associating with witchcraft. A US District Court sealed an out-of-court settlement between Grant and Marvel in early 1991, with a consent decree in which Marvel did not admit to liability or wrongdoing.[50][51][52]

Other versions[edit]

The character has starred in several alternate universe titles. In the miniseries Marvel 1602 #1-#8 (November 2003-June 2004), Sir Stephen Strange is both the court physician and magician to Queen Elizabeth I. The title Spider-Man 2099 introduced a female version of Strange who shares her body with a demon in issue #33 (1995). The miniseries Strange #1-#6 (November 2004-April 2005), written by J. Michael Straczynski and Samm Barnes, with artwork by Brandon Peterson, reimagined the character's origin, allies and enemies in a contemporary setting.

In the miniseries Marvel Zombies #1-#5 (February-June 2006), Strange is infected with a zombie virus along with many other heroes. He reappears in the second sequel, Marvel Zombies 3 #1-#4 (December 2008-March 2009)

In the alternate future universe of the Marvel imprint MC2, Doctor Strange is no longer the Sorcerer Supreme, the title there held by Doc Magnus. Doctor Strange uses his remaining power to reform the superhero team the Defenders in A-Next #3 (1998) and to fight the Norse god of mischief, Loki, Last Hero Standing #4 (February 2005).

The Ultimate Marvel title Ultimate Marvel Team-Up introduced a version of the character called "Stephen Strange, Jr.," the son of the original Doctor Strange, in Ultimate Marvel Team-Up #12 (July 2002). The character was killed in battle by the Ultimate Marvel version of Dormammu in the miniseries Ultimatum #1-#5 (January-September 2009).

Two months before the debut of the sorcerer-hero Doctor Strange, Stan Lee (editor and story-plotter), Robert Bernstein (scripter, under the pseudonym "R. Berns"), and Jack Kirby (artist) introduced a criminal scientist and Ph.D. with the same surname (called "Carl Strange"). Making his sole appearance in the Iron Man story "The Stronghold of Dr. Strange" in Tales of Suspense #41 (1963), the character gained mental powers in a freak lightning strike.[53]

Collected editions[edit]

Various Doctor Strange stories have been collected into separate volumes.

In other media[edit]

Television[edit]

Doctor Strange in Spider-Man: The Animated Series (1994)
  • Peter Hooten starred as Dr. Stephen Strange in the live-action TV movie Dr. Strange, which premiered on Sept. 6, 1978. In this film, Stephen Strange was a psychiatry resident rather than an experienced neurosurgeon. John Mills appeared as Thomas Lindmer, whom director-writer Philip DeGuere added to the story as a stand-in for the Ancient One.[54]
  • The 1997 episode "Mind Over Anti-Matter" of The Incredible Hulk animated series features Doctor Strange, voiced by Maurice LaMarche. He helps She-Hulk at the time when an unnamed evil entity has possessed Hulk turning him into the Dark Hulk.
  • Doctor Strange appears in The Super Hero Squad Show episodes "Enter Dormammu", "A Brat Walks Among Us", "Night in the Sanctorum", "Invader from the Dark Dimension", and "Election of Evil", voiced by Roger Rose.[55]
  • Doctor Strange is featured in the Ultimate Spider-Man season one episode "Strange", voiced by Jack Coleman. He helps Spider-Man and Iron Fist at the time when Nightmare has placed everyone in Manhattan in a deep sleep. He appears in his astral form in season two episode "Journey of the Iron Fist" while visiting K'un-L'un. He appears in the season three episode "Cloak and Dagger".

Film[edit]

  • The 1992 film Doctor Mordrid began development as a Doctor Strange adaptation, but the studio's license expired before production began.[58][59] The project was rewritten to change the main character's name and slightly alter his origin.[58]
  • Doctor Strange has a brief non-speaking cameo in the film Planet Hulk. He and the members of the Illuminati regretfully inform Hulk of the decisions made to ensure his removal from Earth.

  • A movie version of Doctor Strange was initially listed as being in pre-production in 1986, with a script by Bob Gale, but the outing never materialized.[61] Savoy Pictures acquired the distribution rights and hired Wes Craven to write and direct a new Doctor Strange film in 1992[62] for a planned 1994 release date.[63] After Savoy went bankrupt Columbia Pictures purchased the film rights, and hired David S. Goyer to draft a new screenplay in 1995.[64] Goyer was subsequently replaced by Jeff Welch[65] and Michael France before Columbia placed Doctor Strange in turnaround in 2000, despite interest from directors Chuck Russell and Stephen Norrington.[66] Dimension Films picked up the project and brought Goyer back as both writer and director,[67] but Miramax Films acquired the film rights from Dimension in 2001,[68] and Goyer dropped out over other obligations.[69] Development stalled, but in 2003, Marvel announced a 2005 theatrical release date.[70] despite having no script that they were satisfied with by the following year. Producer Avi Arad expressed his enthusiasm to find an credible A-list writer to start from scratch on a new script.[71] Paramount Pictures acquired the rights from Miramax in April 2005, and considered Doctor Strange as either a $165 million tentpole, or a stripped-down $50 million film.[72] Guillermo del Toro was attached to direct in February 2008, having approached Neil Gaiman on the possibility of co-writing the script. The particular film adaptation never materialized.[73]

Video games[edit]

  • Doctor Strange appears as a playable character in Marvel Heroes.
  • Doctor Strange appears in Lego Marvel Super Heroes,[90] with James Horan reprising the role. In a bonus mission at the Sanctum Sanctorum, the Human Torch and the Invisible Woman arrive to help Doctor Strange when Dormammu traps Doctor Strange in a mirror. When the Human Torch and the Invisible Woman destroy the artifacts, Doctor Strange is freed as he helps them fight Dormammu and an army of skeletons. The heroes defeat Dormammu who is then sent back to the Dark Dimension.

Novels[edit]

  • In the 2006 novel Spider-Man: The Darkest Hours, Strange appears briefly as a fellow superhero from whom Spider-Man seeks assistance when struggling against three vengeful siblings of Morlun.

Merchandise[edit]

  • Doctor Strange was a playable character in the Galactic Guardians set of Marvel Heroclix.[94]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Ditko, Steve (w). ""Toyland": "Martin Goodman/Stan Lee"" The Avenging Mind (April 2008), Robin Snyder and Steve Ditko
  2. ^ Stan Lee letter to Jerry Bails, January 9, 1963 (first paragraph of P.S.), published in The Comic Reader (16) February 23, 1963. Letter reprinted online. Archived from the original on April 9, 2014.
  3. ^ Brevoort, Tom; DeFalco, Tom; Manning, Matthew, eds. (2008). Marvel Chronicle: A Year by Year History. Dorling Kindersley. ISBN 978-0-7566-4123-8.  DeFalco in "1960s" Brevoort, DeFalco & Manning 2008, p. 93

    "When Dr. Strange first appeared in Strange Tales #110, it was only clear that he dabbled in black magic and had the ability to project his consciousness into an astral form that could leave his physical body."

  4. ^ Daniels, Les (1991). Marvel: Five Fabulous Decades of the World's Greatest Comics. Harry N. Abrams. p. 114. ISBN 9780810938212. Inspired by the Mutual Network radio show Chandu the Magician, which [Stan] Lee had enjoyed during his childhood, Dr. Strange was in fact a more impressive character than Chandu. 
  5. ^ Benton, Mike (1991). Superhero Comics of the Silver Age: The Illustrated History. Dallas: Taylor Publishing Company. p. 63. ISBN 978-0-87833-746-0. 
  6. ^ Green, Robin (September 16, 1971). "Face Front! Clap Your Hands, You're on the Winning Team!". Rolling Stone (via fan site Green Skin's Grab-Bag) (91): page 31 of print version. Archived from the original on September 14, 2011. Retrieved September 14, 2011. 
  7. ^ "Strange Tales #134". Grand Comics Database.  "Indexer notes: Part 5 of 17. First mention of Eternity. Strange would finally find it in Strange Tales #138 (Nov. 1965)."
  8. ^ Wright, Bradford W. (2001). Comic Book Nation: Transformation of a Youth Culture. Johns Hopkins University Press. p. 213. ISBN 0-8018-7450-5. 
  9. ^ a b DeFalco in Brevoort, DeFalco & Manning 2008, p. 128

    "Hailing 1968 as the beginning of the 'Second Age of Marvel Comics,' and with more titles to play with, editor Stan Lee discarded his split books and gave more characters their own titles…Strange Tales #168 [was followed] by Dr. Strange #169."

  10. ^ Doctor Strange at the Grand Comics Database
  11. ^ Field, Tom (2005). Secrets in the Shadows: The Art & Life of Gene Colan. Raleigh, North Carolina: TwoMorrows Publishing. pp. 79–80. ISBN 978-1893905450. 
  12. ^ Thomas (interviewer) (Autumn 2000). "So You Want a Job, Eh? The Gene Colan Interview". Alter Ego 3 (6): 13–14. 
  13. ^ "Marvel News". Marvelmania Magazine (5): 30. 1970. 
  14. ^ Sanderson, Peter in Brevoort, DeFalco & Manning 2008, p. 151

    "[Roy] Thomas and artist Ross Andru reunited [Doctor] Strange, the Hulk, and Namor as a brand new Marvel superhero team—the Defenders."

  15. ^ Sanderson "1970s" Brevoort, DeFalco & Manning 2008, p. 156

    "Dr. Strange began a new series of solo adventures. He got off to an impressive start with [a] story scripted by Stan Lee and illustrated by Barry Windsor-Smith."

  16. ^ a b Englehart, Steve (w), Brunner, Frank (p), Crusty Bunkers (i). "Finally, Shuma-Gorath!" Marvel Premiere 10 (September 1973)
  17. ^ Cronin, Brian (December 22, 2005). "Comic Book Urban Legends Revealed #30". Comic Book Resources. Archived from the original on January 12, 2013. Retrieved December 26, 2008. We cooked up this plot—we wrote a letter from a Reverend Billingsley in Texas, a fictional person, saying that one of the children in his parish brought him the comic book, and he was astounded and thrilled by it, and he said, 'Wow, this is the best comic book I've ever read.' And we signed it 'Reverend so-and-so, Austin Texas'—and when Steve was in Texas, he mailed the letter so it had the proper postmark. Then, we got a phone call from Roy, and he said, 'Hey, about that retraction, I'm going to send you a letter, and instead of the retraction, I want you to print this letter.' And it was our letter! We printed our letter! 
  18. ^ Doctor Strange vol. 2 at the Grand Comics Database
  19. ^ Wolfman, Marv (w), Colan, Gene (p), Palmer, Tom (i). "His Name Is Doctor Strange" The Tomb of Dracula 44 (May 1976)
    Englehart, Steve (w), Colan, Gene (p), Palmer, Tom (i). "The Tomb of Dr. Strange!" Doctor Strange v2, 14 (May 1976)
    Sanderson "1970s" in Brevoort, DeFalco & Manning 2008, p. 175

    "The great Marvel artist Gene Colan was doing suberb work illustrating both Doctor Strange and The Tomb of Dracula. So it made sense for Strange writer Steve Englehart and Tomb author Marv Wolfman to devise a crossover story."

  20. ^ Sanderson "1970s" in Brevoort, DeFalco & Manning 2008, p. 174

    "The year 1976 was the 200th anniversary of the United States' Declaration of Independence. So it was appropriate that several of the major events in Marvel history that year dealt with political themes… In September, just before departing from Marvel for DC Comics, writer Steve Englehart sent Dr. Strange back through time to meet one of the men responsible for the Declaration of Independence, Benjamin Franklin.

  21. ^ Sacks, Jason (September 6, 2010). "Top 10 1970s Marvels". Comics Bulletin. Archived from the original on August 3, 2013. Retrieved August 3, 2013. 
  22. ^ Doctor Strange, Sorcerer Supreme at the Grand Comics Database
  23. ^ Doctor Strange: Sorcerer Supreme #60-68
  24. ^ Doctor Strange: Sorcerer Supreme #80-90
  25. ^ Doctor Strange: Sorcerer Supreme #60-75
  26. ^ Manning, Matthew K. "1990s" in Brevoort, DeFalco & Manning 2008, p. 262

    "Writer Roy Thomas and penciller Andre Coates created this new series that ran until 1995.

  27. ^ Manning "2000s" Brevoort, DeFalco & Manning 2008, p. 323

    "Scribes J. Michael Straczynski and Samm Barnes, with artist Brandon Peterson, retold Dr. Strange's mystical origin for a new generation of fans in this six-issue limited series.

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Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The blue "novice" version first appeared in Strange Tales #110 (1963), with the red "master" version first appearing in Strange Tales #127 (1964).

External links[edit]