Curva

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For the Bolivian municipality, see Curva Municipality.

Curva (plural: curve) is an Italian term or name for curved stands of seating located at sports stadiums, particularly in Italy; so named, originally, due to their curved or bending shape. The curva plays an integral part in the culture of Ultràs and European football.

Composition[edit]

Inter Fans in Curva Nord Milano

The majority of stands referred to as a "curva" are located behind the goals in their respective stadiums and contain the most vocal supporters within them, often known as Ultràs. They are usually curved in shape, in some form whether minor or major, often due to the presence of a running track around the pitch.[1] The Stadio Giuseppe Meazza provides an example of two prominent stands referred to as "curva", "Curva Nord" and "Curva Sud", which contain only minor curves at their corners, while the Stadio Olimpico provides an example of two completely curved stands. A curva may extend from one corner flag to another or be located centrally behind the goal, bordered by two separate corner sections for ticketing or organizational purposes.[2]

Significance[edit]

S.S. Lazio Fans in Curva Nord

Being home to the most openly passionate supporters in a stadium, the curva is usually the focal point of a club's support. It is often the scene of dramatic choreographed displays of support and occasionally, disapproval for a team or club.[3] These displays often take on an importance of their own, particularly in games involving rivals where both sets of supporters aim to outdo each other.[4] In certain countries, particularly those where sports clubs and supporters are extremely reflective of the local culture, the curva can become quite politicized in nature.[4] Therefore, it's not uncommon for a curva to be split into individual factions or groups, either solely or partially, based on politics, and for one group to hold significant control of the curva and its inhabitants on match days. Ultrà groups within a curva often benefit from this degree of relative uniformity, when there are issues regarding supporters' rights and the commercialization of sports and football in particular.

Locations[edit]

A.S. Roma Fans in Curva Sud

Austria[edit]

Stadium Club Stand
Gerhard Hanappi Stadium SK Rapid Wien Block West

Bulgaria[edit]

Stadium Club Stand
Georgi Asparuhov Stadium Levski Sofia Sektor B / Juzhnata Tribuna / South Stand
Bulgarian Army Stadium CSKA Sofia Sektor G / Severnata Tribuna / North Stand
Hristo Botev Stadium (Plovdiv) Botev Plovdiv Tribuna Iztok / Tribune East / East Stand
Lokomotiv Stadium (Plovdiv) Lokomotiv Plovdiv Tribuna Besika / Tribune Bessica / North Stand

Bosnia and Herzegovina[edit]

Stadium Club Stand
Stadion Grbavica Željezničar Sektor C/Jug
Stadion Asim Ferhatović Hase Sarajevo Sjever
Stadion pod Bijelim Brijegom Zrinjski Istok/Stajanje

Croatia[edit]

Stadium Club Stand
Stadion Maksimir Dinamo Zagreb North Stand / Sjever
Stadion Poljud HNK Hajduk Split North Stand / Sjever
Stadion Kantrida HNK Rijeka West Stand / Zapad
Stadion Gradski Vrt NK Osijek South-East Stand / Jugoistok
Stadion Alde Drosine NK Istra 1961 North Stand / Sjever

Cyprus[edit]

Stadium Club Stand
GSP Stadium AC Omonia Nicosia North Stand/Gate-9
GSP Stadium APOEL FC South Stand/AU79
Tsirion Stadium AEL Limassol East Stand/Gate-3
Tsirion Stadium Apollon Limassol West Stand/Gate-1
Antonis Papadopoulos Stadium Anorthosis Famagusta FC South Stand/Mahites

Denmark[edit]

Stadium Club Stand
Energi Nord Arena Aalborg BK Vesttribunen
Blue Water Arena Esbjerg fB Nordvestkurve
Brøndby Stadion Brøndby IF Sydsiden (earlier Faxetribunen)
Parken FC Copenhagen Sektion 12
TRE-FOR Park Odense BK Stiften
Atletion Aarhus GF Speakers Corner

Egypt[edit]

Stadium Club Stand
Cairo International Stadium Al Ahly SC Ultras Ahlawy/Talta Chimal
Cairo International Stadium Zamalek SC Ultras White Knights/Curva Sud

Finland[edit]

Stadium Club Stand
Helsinki Olympic Stadium Finland national football team Pohjoiskaarre

France[edit]

Stadium Club Stand
Stade Armand Cesari SC Bastia Est/Petrignani
Stade Chaban-Delmas Girondins de Bordeaux Virage Sud
Stade Vélodrome Olympique de Marseille Virage Nord/Sud
Parc des Princes Paris Saint-Germain FC Kop of Boulogne/Virage Auteuil

Germany[edit]

Eintracht Frankfurt fans in Nordwestkurve
Stadium Club Stand
Signal Iduna Park Borussia Dortmund Südtribüne/Gelbe Wand
Olympiastadion/Allianz Arena Bayern München Südkurve
Volkswagen Arena Wolfsburg Nordkurve
Commerzbank-Arena Eintracht Frankfurt Nordwestkurve
Max Morlock Stadion 1. FC Nürnberg Nordkurve
AWD-Arena Hannover 96 Nordkurve
Weserstadion Werder Bremen Ostkurve
Olympiastadion Hertha BSC Ostkurve Hertha BSC
Veltins-Arena FC Schalke 04 Nordkurve
Borussia Park Borussia Mönchengladbach Nordkurve

Greece[edit]

Gate 13
Stadium Club Stand
Karaiskaki Stadium Olympiacos F.C. Gate 7
Apostolos Nikolaidis Panathinaikos F.C. Gate 13
Toumba Stadium PAOK F.C. Gate 4
Nikos Goumas Stadium AEK Athens F.C. Gate 21
Kleanthis Vikelidis Stadium Aris F.C. Gate 3
Kaftanzoglio Stadium Iraklis Thessaloniki F.C. Autonomous Gate 10
Alkazar Stadium AEL 1964 F.C. Gate 1
Genti Koule OFI Crete Snakes Gate 4

Indonesia[edit]

Stadium Club Stand
Gelora Bung Karno Stadium Persija Jakarta Curva Nord Persija
Maguwoharjo Stadium PSS Sleman Brigata Curva Sud
Gelora Bung Tomo Stadium Persebaya 1927 Green Nord
Gelora Delta Sidoarjo Stadium Deltras F.C. Curva North
Mandala Krida Stadium PSIM Yogyakarta Mataram Independent 1929
Rumbai Stadium PSPS Pekanbaru Curva Nord
Surajaya Stadium Persela Lamongan Curva Boys 1967
Persikabo Stadium Persikabo Bogor Curva Sud
Wijayakusuma Stadium PSCS Cilacap Curva Nord Squadra 1950
Benteng Stadium Persita Tangerang North Legion
Brawijaya Stadium Persik Kediri Curva Nord
Kanjuruhan Stadium Arema Cronous F.C. Aremania Gate 4
Batik City Stadium Persip Pekalongan Curva Sud BBC
Gelora Bumi Kartini Stadium Persijap Jepara Curva Nord Syndicate
Goentoer Darjono Stadium Persibangga Purbalingga Braling Mania Curva Nord
Sultan Agung Stadium Persiba Bantul Curva Nord Famiglia X 1967
Letjen Haji Sudirman Stadium Persibo Bojonegoro Curva Nord 1949
Manahan Stadium Persis Solo F.C. Curva Nord
Merpati Stadium Persikad Depok Curva Nord
Madya Stadium PPSM Kartika Nusantara Gate 3
Haji Agus Salim Stadium Semen Padang F.C. Curva Sud UWS

Italy[edit]

Stadium Club Stand
Juventus Arena Juventus F.C. Curva Sud / Curva Scirea
Arena Garibaldi Pisa Calcio Curva Nord Maurizio Alberti
San Siro F.C. Internazionale Milano Curva Nord Milano
San Siro A.C. Milan Curva Sud
Stadio Artemio Franchi ACF Fiorentina Curva Fiesole
Stadio Atleti Azzurri d'Italia Atalanta B.C. Curva Pisani
Stadio Ennio Tardini Parma F.C. Curva Nord
Stadio Luigi Ferraris Genoa C.F.C. Gradinata Nord
Stadio Luigi Ferraris U.C. Sampdoria Gradinata Sud
Stadio Marc'Antonio Bentegodi Hellas Verona F.C. Curva Sud
Stadio Olimpico S.S. Lazio Curva Nord
Stadio Olimpico A.S. Roma Curva Sud
Stadio Olimpico (Torino) Torino F.C. Curva Maratona
Stadio Renato Dall'Ara Bologna F.C. 1909 Curva Bulgarelli
Stadio San Paolo S.S.C. Napoli Curva A/Curva B
Stadio San Nicola A.S. Bari Curva Nord
Stadio Nicola Ceravolo FC Catanzaro Curva Massimo Capraro
Stadio Sant'Elia Cagliari Calcio Curva Nord
Stadio Mario Rigamonti Brescia Calcio Curva Nord
Stadio Friuli Udinese Calcio Curva Nord
Stadio Franco Ossola A.S. Varese 1910 Curva Nord

Malaysia[edit]

Stadium Country Stand
Stadium Nasional Bukit Jalil Malaysia national football team Curva 1Q
Shah Alam Stadium Selangor FA Green Curva Nord - UltraSel
Stadium Perak Perak FA (Silvermania Curva)
Stadium Negeri Sarawak FA Curva Distrixtigabelas
Darul Makmur Stadium Pahang FA Curva Sebelas - Elephant Army(EA)
Tan Sri Dato Haji Hassan Yunos Stadium Johor Darul Takzim F.C. Boys Of Straits (B.O.S.)
Sultan Muhammad IV Stadium Kelantan F.C. Gate H Boys (G.H.B.)
Tuanku Abdul Rahman Stadium (STAR) Negeri Sembilan FA Kona 4C -Ultras Nogori(UN9)

|}

Morocco[edit]

Stadium Club Stand
Stade Mohamed V Raja Casablanca Curva Sud
Stade Mohamed V Wydad Casablanca Winners 2005 /Curva Nord

Netherlands[edit]

Stadium Club Stand
Amsterdam Arena AFC Ajax Zuid
De Kuip Feyenoord Gerard Meijer Tribune

Poland[edit]

Stadium Club Stand
Stadion GOSiR Arka Gdynia Górka
Stadion Miejski Lech Poznań Kocioł[disambiguation needed]
Polish Army Stadium Legia Warszawa Żyleta

Portugal[edit]

Stadium Club Stand
Estádio da Luz S.L. Benfica Topo Sul
Estádio José Alvalade Sporting Clube de Portugal Curva Sul

Romania[edit]

Stadium Club Stand
Stadionul Steaua FC Steaua Bucureşti Peluza Nord
Stadionul Steaua FC Steaua Bucureşti Peluza Sud
Stadionul Giuleşti FC Rapid Bucureşti Peluza Nord 1996
Stadionul Dan Păltinişanu FC Timişoara Curva Sud
Stadionul Stefan cel Mare FC Dinamo Bucureşti Peluza Catalin Haldan / Peluza Sud
Stadionul Ilie Oana FC Petrolul Ploiesti Lupii Galbeni / Peluza I
Stadionul Ilie Oana FC Petrolul Ploiesti Peluza Latina

Russia[edit]

Stadium Club Stand
Petrovsky Stadium FC Zenit Saint Petersburg Virazh(Virage)

[1](Russian)

Stadium Club Stand
Lokomotiv Stadium FC Spartak Moscow Tribuna B(Tribune B)

Scotland[edit]

Stadium Club Stand
Celtic Park Celtic Block 111
Ibrox Stadium Rangers Section BF1

Serbia[edit]

Stadium Club Stand
Stadion Crvena Zvezda Crvena Zvezda North Stand / Sever
Stadion Partizan FK Partizan South Stand / Jug
Stadion Čair FK Radnički Niš South Stand / Jug
Stadion Karađorđe FK Vojvodina North Stand / Sever
Omladinski Stadion OFK Beograd South Stand / Jug

Spain[edit]

Stadium Club Stand
Estadio Vicente Calderón Atlético de Madrid Fondo Sur
Estadio Santiago Bernabéu Real Madrid Fondo Sur
Estadio Manuel Ruiz de Lopera Real Betis Gol Sur
Estadio Ramón Sánchez Pizjuán Sevilla Gol Norte
Estadi RCDE RCD Espanyol Gol Cornellà
Estadio Mestalla Valencia Curva Nord Mario Alberto Kempes
La Rosaleda Málaga CF Frente Bokeron / Brigadas Sur

Sweden[edit]

Stadium Club Stand
Friends Arena AIK Norra stå
Tele2 Arena Hammarby IF E1 Ultras

Tunisia[edit]

Stadium Club Stand
Rades ES Tunis Curva sud ' 94
Menzah Club African curva nord 95
15 October Club Athlétique Bizertin Curva cabiste
Stade Olympique de Sousse ES Sahel Curva nord

Turkey[edit]

Stadium Club Stand
BJK İnönü Stadı Beşiktaş J.K. Kapalı Tribün
Şükrü Saracoğlu Stadium Fenerbahçe SK Türk Telekom Tribünü

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Specific
  1. ^ "Football in Rome". Italy Heaven. Retrieved 2009-07-09. 
  2. ^ "LO STADIO OLIMPICO". Retrieved 2009-07-09. 
  3. ^ Micheal Lehane (2004-01-07). "Soccer: Roma Therapy". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 2009-07-09. 
  4. ^ a b "Il Derby della Capitale". CBC News. Retrieved 2009-07-09. 
General
  • Testa, A. and Armstrong, G. (2008). “Words and actions: Italian ultras and neo-fascism” Social Identities, vol. 14 (4), pp. 473 – 490
  • Testa, A. (2009) “UltraS: an Emerging Social Movement”, Review of European Studies, vol. 1 (2), 54–63
  • Testa, A. (2010). Contested Meanings: the Italian Media and the UltraS. Review of European Studies, vol 2(1), 15–24
  • Testa, A. and Armstrong, G. (in press; November 2010). Football, Fascism and Fandom: The UltraS of Italian Football, A&C (Bloomsbury), London, Black Publishers.