Hampshire County, West Virginia
|Hampshire County, West Virginia|
Location in the state of West Virginia
West Virginia's location in the U.S.
|Founded||December 13, 1753|
|Named for||Hampshire, England|
|• Total||645 sq mi (1,671 km2)|
|• Land||640 sq mi (1,658 km2)|
|• Water||4.2 sq mi (11 km2), 0.7%|
|• Density||37.4/sq mi (14/km²)|
|Time zone||Eastern: UTC-5/-4|
Hampshire County is a county located in the State of West Virginia. As of the 2010 census, the population was 23,964. Its county seat is Romney, West Virginia's oldest town (1762). The county was created by the Virginia General Assembly in 1754, from parts of Frederick and Augusta counties (Virginia) and is the oldest county in the state of West Virginia. The county lies in both West Virginia's Eastern Panhandle and Potomac Highlands regions.
- 1 Name
- 2 History
- 3 Geography
- 4 Demographics
- 5 Parks and recreation
- 6 Education
- 7 Communities
- 8 Notable people associated with Hampshire County
- 9 See also
- 10 References
- 11 Bibliography
- 12 Hampshire County external links
Although its creation was authorized in 1754, Hampshire County was not actually organized until 1757  because the area was not considered safe due to the outbreak of the French and Indian War (1754–1763). According to Samuel Kercheval's A History of the Valley of Virginia (1833), the county was named in honor of its several prize hogs. The story goes that Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron (1693–1781), who owned the Royal Grant to the area, came upon some very large hogs in Winchester and asked where they had been raised. He was told that they were from the South Branch Potomac River Valley (now Hampshire County). He remarked that when a county was formed west of Frederick that he would name it in honor of the county Hampshire, England, famous for its very fat hogs.
Earliest European settlers
Romney was initially settled by hunters and traders around 1725. In 1738, John Pearsall (or Pearsoll) and his brother Job built homes and in 1758 a fort (Fort Pearsall) for defense against Native Americans in present-day Romney. Their settlement was then known as Pearsall's Flats. In 1748, Thomas Fairfax, 6th Lord Fairfax of Cameron sent a surveying party, including 16 year-old George Washington, to survey his lands along the Potomac and South Branch Potomac rivers. Washington spent three summers and falls surveying Lord Fairfax's Northern Neck estate, which included all of the present-day Eastern Panhandle of West Virginia. In April 1748, he laid off several lots in an area known as the Trough, about ten miles (16 km) south of Romney, and he is known to have been in present-day Romney on October 19, 1749. Oral traditions claimed that Washington laid present-day Romney out into lots at that time, but written records from that era indicate that Romney was surveyed and laid out into lots by James Genn prior to Washington's arrival. Genn was also employed by Lord Fairfax.
18th century Hampshire County
In 1756, Fort Pearsall was constructed on Job Pearsall's plantation for protection against Native American raids and George Washington provisioned and garrisoned the Fort at various times until 1758. At that time, there were at least 100 people living in the general area. Following the end of hostilities in the area, Lord Fairfax recognized that more settlers would be interested in moving into the area and that he could earn some extra revenue by selling plots in the town. He sent a survey party to Romney in 1762 to formally lay out the town into 100 lots. At that time, he renamed the town Romney, in honor of the Cinque Ports city on the English Channel in Kent.
Confusion ensued for several decades concerning land ownership within the town as counterclaims were made by the original settlers and those who purchased lots laid out by Lord Fairfax's surveyors.
The first meeting of the Hampshire County Court was held in 1757, at Fort Pleasant, now Old Fields in Hardy County, and was presided by the Right Honorable Thomas Bryan Martin, Lord Fairfax's nephew. By that time, Hampshire County's population had fallen dramatically as most of the settlers had fled the county in fear of the Native Americans. The only families remaining lived near Fort Pearsall, near present-day Romney, and Fort Edwards, at present-day Capon Bridge on the Cacapon River. The vast majority of the remaining settlers, however, were in the vicinity of present Old Fields-Moorefield-Petersburg and were protected by the several forts in the area, including Fort Pleasant
Once the Native Americans were defeated at the Battle of Point Pleasant in 1774 settlers, once again, returned to the county. By 1790, when the first national census was taken, Hampshire County had 7,346 residents, making it the second most populous county in the present state of West Virginia at that time. Berkeley was the most populous county, with 19,713 people. There were nine counties that comprised the present state, with a total population of 55,873 people.
During the Whiskey Rebellion in 1794, many Hampshire County men volunteered to serve under Major General Daniel Morgan to put down the insurrection. The men most likely volunteered at Moorefield in Hardy County and then marched north to Cumberland, Maryland. Approximately 1,200 of the 12,950 men under Morgan's command came from the area that would later become West Virginia.
The early missionaries helped to sustain the religious faith of the early European inhabitants. In 1775 two Baptist missionaries among a group of settlers moved to the Cacapon and organized the first European church in the county. In 1771 the work of the Methodist Episcopal Church was begun, in which later developments led to the formation of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. In 1753 Hampshire County had been formed into a parish by the Protestant Episcopal Church and from 1772 to until his death in 1777 Rev. Nathaniel Manning served on the Glebe near present day Moorefield. In 1787 a Primitive Baptist church was established at North River. Soon after the American Revolution there was preaching by the Presbyterians at different points in the county. In 1792 a Presbyterian church was organized at Romney and another, Mount Bethel Church, at Three Churches.
The wide lowlands of Hampshire County certainly invited agriculture, and fields of wheat and tobacco surrounded the important truck-patch of the settler. The rolling uplands offered pasturage for horses, cattle, sheep, and hogs, which were driven across country to market at Winchester. The streams abounded in fish and the mountains contained not only game but timber and stone for early settlers' homes. The limestone was burned for lime at Bloomery Gap, where remains of old lime-kilns give evidence of an early industry. Soon it was discovered that some of the strata contained iron ore. Much of it was transported to present-day Keyser, from an area along South Branch Potomac River south of the present limits of the county. In Bloomery Gap, a ruined furnace still stands, mute evidence of another former industry. In the early days the increasing population stimulated not only farming and grazing but every industry of a new country.Hampshire County was also known for its many gunmakers,located on or near the main road from Winchester to Romney.Among them were,Henry Topper,Jacob Kline,George Young, Benjamin Shane,George Glaze,William Britton and the Sheetz Family.
19th century Hampshire County
The building of the Northwestern Turnpike (U.S. Route 50) was an integral part of the development of Hampshire County. General Daniel Morgan first suggested the road be built in 1748, but his recommendations were not acted upon until the 1830s. Colonel Claudius Crozet, a Frenchman who had previously worked for Napoleon Bonaparte, engineered the road which connected Parkersburg with Winchester, Virginia. The turnpike traversed Hampshire County stretching through the communities of Capon Bridge, Loom, Hanging Rock, Pleasant Dale, Augusta, Frenchburg, Shanks, and Romney. Through the years, Romney became an important rest stop for travelers on the turnpike. This aided the local economy as hotels and taverns began to appear in the area.
During the American Civil War, the Hampshire Guards and Frontier Riflemen joined the Confederate Army. Although there were no major battles in Hampshire County, Romney changed hands at least fifty-six times during the war. It was often a case of one army evacuating the area allowing the opposing army to move into the town. This places Romney second behind Winchester as the town that changed hands the most during the American Civil War. On June 11, 1861, it changed hands twice in the same day. Some local Hampshire County historians speculate that Romney actually changed hands more than Winchester but there are no surviving records to support the claim.
- Allegany County, Maryland (north)
- Morgan County (northeast)
- Frederick County, Virginia (east)
- Hardy County (south)
- Mineral County (west)
- Bloomery Magisterial District
- Capon Bridge municipality
- Capon Magisterial District
- Gore Magisterial District
- Mill Creek Magisterial District
- Romney Magisterial District
- Romney municipality
- Sherman Magisterial District
- Springfield Magisterial District
Rivers and streams
- Potomac River
- Cacapon River
- Little Cacapon River
- North Branch Potomac River
- South Branch Potomac River
- South Branch Mountain, 3028 feet (922 m)
- Pinnacle Ridge, 2844 feet (866.85 m)
- Nathaniel Mountain, 2739 feet (834 m)
- Mill Creek Mountain, 2648 feet (807 m)
- Cacapon Mountain, 2618 feet (797 m)
- Spring Mountain, 2436 feet (742.49 m)
- Spring Gap Mountain, 2237 feet (681 m)
- North River Mountain, 2149 feet (655 m)
- Cooper Mountain, 2028 feet (618 m)
- Baker Mountain, 2024 feet (616 m)
- Patterson Creek Mountain, 2005 feet (611 m)
- Sideling Hill, 1930 feet (588 m)
- Little Cacapon Mountain, 1575 feet (480 m)
- Ice Mountain, 1489 feet (453 m)
- The Devil's Nose, 1121 feet (341 m)
Other geological formations
Hampshire County maps
- Hampshire County's Original Boundaries
- Civil War Era Hampshire County
- Hampshire County in 1880
- Hampshire County in 1888
- WVDEP Modern Hampshire County Road Map
- Hampshire County in the 1755 Fry & Jefferson Map
As of the census of 2000, there were 20,203 people, 7,955 households, and 5,640 families residing in the county. The population density was 32 people per square mile (12/km²). There were 11,185 housing units at an average density of 17 per square mile (7/km²). The racial makeup of the county was 98.04% White, 0.83% Black or African American, 0.24% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 0.02% Pacific Islander, 0.12% from other races, and 0.59% from two or more races. 0.55% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.
There were 7,955 households out of which 31.30% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.70% were married couples living together, 9.50% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.10% were non-families. 24.60% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.60% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49 and the average family size was 2.94.
In the county, the population was spread out with 25.10% under the age of 18, 7.10% from 18 to 24, 27.60% from 25 to 44, 25.60% from 45 to 64, and 14.60% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 99.70 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 97.30 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $31,666, and the median income for a family was $37,616. Males had a median income of $28,884 versus $19,945 for females. The per capita income for the county was $14,851. About 12.90% of families and 16.30% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.70% of those under age 18 and 13.10% of those age 65 or over.
Parks and recreation
- Central Hampshire Park, Augusta
- Green Spring Recreational Park, Green Spring
- Hampshire Park & 4-H Camp, Romney
- Romney Recreation Center, Romney
- Shanks Roadside Park, Shanks
Wildlife management areas
- Edwards Run Wildlife Management Area
- Fort Mill Ridge Wildlife Management Area
- Nathaniel Mountain Wildlife Management Area
- Short Mountain Wildlife Management Area
- South Branch Wildlife Management Area
- Wardensville Wildlife Management Area
- Maranatha Christian Academy
- Slanesville Christian School
Cities and towns
- Barnes Mill
- Blues Beach
- Bubbling Spring
- Capon Lake
- Capon Springs
- Capon Springs Station
- Cold Stream
- Davis Ford
- Dillons Run
- Forks of Cacapon
- Green Spring
- Hanging Rock
- High View
- Hooks Mills
- Little Cacapon
- Millesons Mill
- Neals Run
- North River Mills
- Pin Oak
- Pleasant Dale
- Raven Rocks
- South Branch Depot
- Three Churches
- Yellow Spring
Notable people associated with Hampshire County
- Jesse B. Aikin, Shape note "singing master"
- Stephen Ailes, U.S. Secretary of the Army
- William Armstrong, U.S. Congressman from Virginia
- John Rinehart Blue, West Virginia House Delegate
- George Edwin Brill, USPIS postal inspector
- James Caudy, Frontiersman and "Indian fighter"
- Edna Brady Cornwell, First Lady of West Virginia
- John J. Cornwell, 15th Governor of West Virginia
- Marshall S. Cornwell, Newspaper publisher, poet, and author
- William B. Cornwell, railroad and timber executive
- John Collins Covell, WVSDB principal
- Samuel Lightfoot Flournoy, West Virginia State Senator
- William Foreman, Early American military leader
- Henry Bell Gilkeson, West Virginia State Legislator
- Henepola Gunaratana, Bhavana Society founder
- John J. Jacob, 4th Governor of West Virginia
- Howard Hille Johnson, WVSDB founder and educator
- Gabriel Jones, Burgess and Hampshire County Clerk of Court
- Jonah Edward Kelley, Medal of Honor recipient
- Herman G. Kump, 19th Governor of West Virginia
- James Sloan Kuykendall, West Virginia House Delegate
- Charles S. Lawrence, IFT Executive Vice President
- Thomas Bryan Martin, Burgess and Hampshire County judge
- Angus William McDonald, Confederate States Army Colonel
- Cornelia Peake McDonald, American diarist
- Marshall McDonald, United States Fish Commissioner
- Jerry Mezzatesta, West Virginia House Delegate
- Alexander W. Monroe, West Virginia House Speaker
- Ann Pancake, Author
- Catherine Pancake, Filmmaker
- Sam Pancake, Actor
- Isaac Parsons (1752–1796), Virginia House Delegate
- Isaac Parsons (1814–1862), Virginia House Delegate
- Lee Hawse Patteson, First Lady of West Virginia
- Ruth Rowan, West Virginia House Delegate
- Mary Ann Shaffer, American writer
- Richard Stafford, Pioneer
- Howard Llewellyn Swisher, American businessperson, real estate developer, and historian
- Felix Walker, U.S. Congressman from North Carolina
- Alexander White, U.S. Congressman from Virginia
- Christian Streit White, Hampshire County Clerk of Court
- Francis White, U.S. Congressman from Virginia
- John Baker White, Hampshire County Clerk of Court
- John Baker White, West Virginia Board of Control member
- Robert White, West Virginia Attorney General
- Robert White, West Virginia State Senator
- Charles M. Williams, Harvard Business School professor
- Andrew Wodrow, Hampshire County Clerk of Court
- Joshua Soule Zimmerman, West Virginia House Delegate
Media related to Hampshire County, West Virginia at Wikimedia Commons
- Edwards Run Wildlife Management Area
- Fort Mill Ridge Wildlife Management Area
- List of historical highway markers in Hampshire County, West Virginia
- List of placenames in Hampshire County, West Virginia
- List of secondary state highways in Hampshire County, West Virginia
- Short Mountain Wildlife Management Area
- South Branch Wildlife Management Area
- USS Hampshire County (LST-819)
- National Register of Historic Places listings in Hampshire County, West Virginia
- "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 10, 2014.
- "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
- Lewis, Virgil (1896). History and Government of West Virginia (1st ed.). New York NY: Werner School Book Company. p. 58. (WV County Founding Dates and Etymology). Other editions available at ASIN B009CI6FRI and Google Books.
- "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. 2011-02-12. Retrieved 2011-04-23.
- "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 10, 2014.
- "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Retrieved January 10, 2014.
- "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 10, 2014.
- "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 10, 2014.
- "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2011-05-14.
- Brannon, Selden W. (1976). Historic Hampshire: A Symposium of Hampshire County and Its People, Past and Present. Parsons, West Virginia: McClain Printing Company. ISBN 978-0-87012-236-1. OCLC 3121468.
- Federal Writers' Project (1937). Historic Romney 1762–1937. Romney, West Virginia: Federal Writers' Project, The Town Council of Romney, West Virginia. OCLC 2006735.
- Hampshire County Extension Homemakers (1991). Hampshire County, West Virginia: A Pictorial History. Marceline, Missouri: Hampshire County Extension Homemakers, Walsworth Publishing Company. ISBN 978-1-60354-047-6. OCLC 51940415.
- Kercheval, Samuel (1833). A History of the Valley of Virginia. Winchester, Virginia: Samuel H. Davis.
- Maxwell, Hu; Swisher, Howard Llewellyn (1897). History of Hampshire County, West Virginia From Its Earliest Settlement to the Present. Morgantown, West Virginia: A. Brown Boughner, Printer. OCLC 680931891.
- Munske, Roberta R.; Kerns, Wilmer L.; The Hampshire County 250th Anniversary Committee (2004). Hampshire County, West Virginia, 1754–2004. The Hampshire County 250th Anniversary Committee. ISBN 978-0-9715738-2-6. OCLC 55983178.
||Allegany County, Maryland||Morgan County|
|Mineral County||Frederick County, Virginia|