Haole (//; Hawaiian [ˈhɔule]), in the Hawaiian language, is generally used to refer to an individual that fits one (or more) of the following: "White person, American, Englishman, Caucasian; American, English; formerly, any foreigner; foreign, introduced, of foreign origin, as plants, pigs, chickens." The origins of the word predate the 1778 arrival of Captain James Cook (which is the generally accepted date of first contact with westerners), as recorded in several chants stemming from antiquity. Its use historically has ranged from descriptive to racist invective.
Haole first became associated with the children of Caucasian immigrants in the early 1820s. It unified the self-identity of these Hawaii-born children whose parents were as much culturally different as they were similar. With the first three generations of Haole playing key roles in the rise of the economic and political power shifts that have lasted through the current day, "Haole" evolved into a term that was often used in contempt. It evolved further to racial meaning, replacing "malihini" (newcomer) in addressing people of Caucasian descent who move to Hawaii from the U.S. mainland by the 1860s. A 1906 phrase book sometimes translates it to "English (language)".
A common popular etymology claim is that the word is derived from hāʻole, literally meaning "no breath". Some Hawaiians[who?] say that because foreigners did not know or use the honi, a Polynesian greeting by touching nose-to-nose and inhaling or essentially sharing each other's breaths, and so the foreigners were described as "breathless." The implication is not only that foreigners are aloof and ignorant of local ways, but also literally have no spirit or life within.
Some linguists believe that this etymology is erroneous, however, for these reasons:
- There are innumerable citations from Hawaiian showing that haole simply means "foreign." For example, haole popolo means a dark-skinned foreigner, haole pake means Chinese foreigner. The term haole is found in ancient Hawaiian chants which pre-date European contact to refer to newcomers from elsewhere in Polynesia.
- The Lorrin Andrews Dictionary of 1865 refers to a white-haired pig as puaa haole.
- The word 'breath' is hā (with a macron or kahakō over the a), not plain ha. The word 'not' is ʻole, with a glottal stop or ʻokina, not ole, which means "fang." In spoken Hawaiian, vowel length is contrastive, and these are major differences in pronunciation. However, they would not appear in Hawaiian dictionaries using the older form of Hawaiian spelling, which did not use kahakō or ʻokina (considered a consonant) to indicate vowel length and glottal stops. Only modern dictionaries show the kahakō and ʻokina. It is possible that the folk etymology was created by someone with only a dictionary knowledge of Hawaiian, using an older dictionary.
However, as the word predates the first written Hawaiian dictionary by centuries, and pronunciations have evolved over that time, the debate continues, and each camp has its adherents.
The Andrews Dictionary of 1865 shows the pronunciation of the word as ha-o-le.
St. Chad Piianaia, a Hawaiian educated in England, said the word haole implies thief or robber (from hao, thief, and le, lazy). In 1944, Hawaiian scholar Charles Kenn wrote, "In the primary and esoteric meaning, haole indicates a race that has no relation to one's own; an outsider, one who does not conform to the mores of the group; one that is void of the life element because of inattention to natural laws which make for the goodness in man. In its secondary meaning, haole ... implies a thief, a robber, one not to be trusted. ... During the course of time, meanings of words change, and today, in a very general way, haole does not necessarily connote a negative thought ... The word has come to refer to one of Nordic descent, whether born in Hawaii or elsewhere."
Native Hawaiian Professor Fred Beckley said, "The white people came to be known as ha-ole (without breath) because after they said their prayers, they did not breathe three times as was customary in ancient Hawaii."
Similarly, an early Christian is quoted, "Before the missionaries came, my people used to sit outside their temples for a long time meditating and preparing themselves before entering. Then they would virtually creep to the altar to offer their petition and afterwards would again sit a long time outside, this time to 'breathe life' into their prayers. The Christians, when they came, just got up, uttered a few sentences, said Amen, and were done. For that reason my people called them haoles, 'without breath,' or those who failed to breathe life into their prayers."
The word has been adopted on many of the Pacific Islands to refer to non-local individuals. In practice, though, the word is not so highly charged in many of the other islands, such as Guam or Saipan. Other Polynesian languages, such as Tongan and Samoan, use the word pālangi or papālangi (ultimately linked to a word meaning Western European, or a Frank, see farangi).
An alleged tradition in some schools is Kill Haole Day, in which non-white school children harass or assault white children on the last day of school prior to summer. The practice has led to the introduction of hate crime legislation intended to discourage it. A similar incident was depicted in the 1998 film Beyond Paradise. It was mentioned in an opinion of the 9th U.S. Circuit Court of Appeals in 2010. Others claim that the day is an urban myth, since most reports are based on hearsay.
- Mary Kawena Pukui and Samuel Hoyt Elbert (2003). "lookup of haole ". in Hawaiian Dictionary. Ulukau, the Hawaiian Electronic Library, University of Hawaii Press. Retrieved November 24, 2010.
- KE KUMU HAWAII 12 Nowemapa (1834) an article printed in a missionary newspaper describing a recital by haole children in November 1834, with Hawaiian royalty, the American Consulate, ship captains, other notable persons of Oahu, and many missionaries in attendance.
- HOME RULE REPUBALIKA 6 Nowemapa 1901 p.4
- Mary Kawena Pukui and Samuel Hoyt Elbert (2003). "lookup of malihini ". in Hawaiian Dictionary. Ulukau, the Hawaiian Electronic Library, University of Hawaii Press. Retrieved November 24, 2010.
- Mark Twain (1966) . A. Grove Day, ed. Letters from Hawaii. pp. 202–203. ISBN 978-0-8248-0288-2.
- John Harris Soper (1906). Hawaiian Phrase Book: No Huaolelo a Me Na Olelo Kikeki Na Ka Olelo Beritania a Me Ka Olelo Hawaii. The Hawaiian news company. p. 64.
- Lorrin Andrews (1865). "lookup of Haole". Dictionary of the Hawaiian Language. Honolulu. ISBN 0-89610-374-9.
- Charles W. Kenn (August 1944 page=16). "What is a Haole?". Paradise of the Pacific.
- Madeleine L'Engle (1980). Walking on Water. Harold Shaw. pp. 181–182. ISBN 0-87788-919-8. Mother Alice Kaholusuna quoted.
- Craig Gima (March 24, 1999). "‘Kill haole day’ linked to hate-crime bill". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved November 24, 2010.
- Burl Burlingame (April 13, 1999). "‘Paradise’ goes beyond believable". Honolulu Star-Bulletin. Retrieved November 24, 2010.
- Nov 15, 2010 (November 15, 2010). "Judges cite 'Kill Haole Day'". Honolulu Star Advertiser. Retrieved November 24, 2010.
- Cataluna, Lee. "'Kill Haole Day' myth diverts attention from real problems". Honolulu Star Advertiser 16 Nov 2010. Retrieved 4 June 2013.
- Elvi Whittaker (1986). The Mainland Haole: The White Experience in Hawaiʻi. New York: Columbia University Press.
- Ohnuma, Keiko (2002). "Local Haole - A Contradiction in Terms? The dilemma of being white, born and raised in Hawai'i". Cultural Values 6 (3): 273–285. doi:10.1080/1362517022000007211.
- Judy Rohrer (1997). "Haole Girl: Identity and White Privilege in Hawaiʻi". Social Process in Hawaiʻi 38: 140–161.
- Judy Rohrer (2006). ""Got Race?" The Production of Haole and the Distortion of Indigeneity in the Rice Decision". The Contemporary Pacific 18 (1): 1–31. doi:10.1353/cp.2005.0102.
- Judy Rohrer (2010). Haoles in Hawaiʻi. Honolulu: University of Hawaiʻi Press.
|Look up haole in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
- Pākehā, the equivalent term in the Maori language
- John Young
- Isaac Davis
- List of terms for white people in non-Western cultures
- List of ethnic slurs