List of ancient cities in Illyria

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Distribution of cities in antiquity in the border of southern Illyria with Greeks and Thracians

This is a list of ancient cities in Illyria, towns, villages, and fortresses by Illyrians, Veneti, Liburni, Romans, Celts, Thracians, Dacians or Greeks located in or near Illyrian lands. A number of cities in Illyria and later Illyricum were built on the sites or close to the sites of pre-existing Illyrian settlements, though that was not always the case. Some settlements may have a double entry e.g. Greek Pola and Roman Pietas Julia, and some toponyms are reconstructed.

Illyrian settlements[edit]

Dalmatian[edit]

Liburnian[edit]

Liburnia in the age of the Roman conquest

Venetic[edit]

Greek cities[edit]

Greek cities and Emporia in the Adriatic
Tribes and cities in southern Illyris and Epirus

Celtic settlements[edit]

Roman cities[edit]

Roman provinces, Illyricum, Dalmatia and Pannonia on the left side of the map

Roman Macedon[edit]

A small part of the Roman province of Macedonia included Illyria Graeca, or Epirus Nova.

Roman Italia[edit]

A very small part of the province of Italia included Istria.

Roman Pannonia[edit]

Roman Dalmatia[edit]

Roman Dardania[edit]

Dacian[edit]

Thracian[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Stipčević, Aleksandar, The Illyrians-History and Culture, 1974, Noyess Press
  2. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 174, "... 174 Greek lllvrians Bassania, a town under Roman control. Anicius was based at Apollonia where, in addition to Roman forces, there were 2000 infantry ..."
  3. ^ The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 3, Part 1: The Prehistory of the Balkans, the Middle East and the Aegean World, Tenth to Eighth Centuries BC by John Boardman, I. E. S. Edwards, N. G. L. Hammond, and E. Sollberger, 1982, page 629, "... Partho, ancestress of the Parthini who held the middle and upper valley of the Shkumbi."
  4. ^ Fistani, F., 1983. "L'agglomération fortifiée illyrienne de Kratul", Iliria 13:1, pages 109-118
  5. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 223, "Among the southern Illyrians the deposits which provided Damastion (Strabo 7.7, 8), somewhere in the Ohrid region, with a silver coinage may be the same ones that attracted Corinthian..."
  6. ^ In An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis by Mogens Herman, ISBN 0-19-814099-1, 2004, "As a long-distance trading community, Aigina was not an active coloniser, but colonised Kydonia (no. 968) in 519, Adria (no. 75) c.C61, and Damastion in Illyria after 431 (Strabo 8.6.16)."
  7. ^ Gruen, Erich S. (1986). The Hellenistic world and the coming of Rome. University of California Press. p. 381. ISBN 978-0-520-05737-1. Retrieved 5 July 2011. 
  8. ^ J. Wilkes. The Illyrians. Blackwell, 1995, p. 133.
  9. ^ Classica et mediaevalia. Dansk selskab for oldtids- og middelalderforskning. 1954. Retrieved 5 July 2011. 
  10. ^ Winnifrith, Tom (2002). Badlands, borderlands: a history of Northern Epirus/Southern Albania. Duckworth. p. 33. ISBN 978-0-7156-3201-7. Retrieved 5 July 2011. 
  11. ^ Stipčević, Aleksandar (1977). The Illyrians: history and culture. Noyes Press. p. 99. ISBN 978-0-8155-5052-5. Retrieved 5 July 2011. 
  12. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 133, "... fortress has remained in use until modern times. Similarly few traces are now to be seen of Illyrian defences at Meteon (Medun), Olcinium (Ulcinj) and Rhizon ..."
  13. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, p. 120, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 177, "... who appears to have ruled after 168 Bc at Queen Teuta's old stronghold Rhizon (Risan). His silver issues are rare, but bronze coins, without the royal title, occur on Hvar, both ..."
  14. ^ Épire, Illyrie, Macédoine: mélanges offerts au professeur Pierre Cabanes by Danièle Berranger, Pierre Cabanes, Danièle Berranger-Auserve, page 130
  15. ^ Rome and the Mediterranean: books XXXI-XLV of The history of Rome from its ... - page 581 by Livy, Henry Bettenson - 1976, ISBN 0-14-044318-5, "Next he arrived at Scodra, the centre of resistance to the Romans not merely because ... it was by far the best-fortified town of the tribe of the Labeates..."
  16. ^ The Illyrians by John Wilkes, page 213, "The list of Roman settlements includes some of the [...] Scodra..."
  17. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 172, "... his ally. In midwinter 170/169 BC, Perseus launched a successful raid on the Illyrian Penestae and captured their chief town Uscana..."
  18. ^ The classical gazetteer: a dictionary of ancient geography, sacred and profane by William Hazlitt, 1851, "Epicaria a town of the Cavii in Illyria."
  19. ^ a b The Cambridge Ancient History, Volume 8: Rome and the Mediterranean to 133 BC by A. E. Astin, ISBN 0-521-23448-4, 1990, page 92
  20. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, Page 188, "... after whom the Roman province Dalmatia was named, their own name being derived from their principal settlement Delminium near Duvno. Beyond the Dinara, Delmatae occupied the plains of Livno, Glamoc, and Duvno, ..."
  21. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 197, "... Illyricum 197 Promona, where the war-leader Verzo had stationed most of his army of 12,000 men. After some fighting the citadel was taken, ..."
  22. ^ a b Excavations at Salona, Yugoslavia, 1969-1972: conducted for the Department of Classics, Douglass College, Rutg, by Christoph W. Clairmont, 1975, ISBN 0-8155-5040-5, page 4, "If we are correct in our interpretation of the earliest finds from Salona, the emporion, even if very small, was a settlement in a strategic position..."
  23. ^ a b c Dalmatia by J. J. Wilkes, 1969, page 227, "In this area were three small communities of the Delmatae Pituntium(Podstrana) Nareste(Jenesice) and Oneum (Omis)..."
  24. ^ Dictionary of Greek and Roman Geography by William Smith, 1856, page 748."Andetrium"
  25. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 190
  26. ^ a b The Illyrians (The Peoples of Europe) by John Wilkes, 1996, page 190
  27. ^ S. Čače, Broj liburnskih općina i vjerodostojnost Plinija(Nat. hist. 3, 130; 139-141), Radovi Filozofskog fakulteta u Zadru, 32, Zadar 1993., pages 1-36
  28. ^ Dalmatia by J. J. Wilkes, 1969, page 194, "By the early years of Augustus the inhabitants of Alvona the Alutrenses..."
  29. ^ Dalmatia by J. J. Wilkes, 1969, page 195, "At Flavona the native population was well established and stood up better to the effects of italian settlement in the first century..."
  30. ^ Dalmatia by J. J. Wilkes, 1969, page 216, "Little is known about Sidrona the city of the Sidrini."
  31. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 183, "We may begin with the Venetic peoples, Veneti, Carni, Histri and Liburni, whose language set them apart from the rest of the Illyrians."
  32. ^ Pliny's Natural History, Book 3,(C. Plinii Secundi Naturalis Historiæ, Liber III),CHAP. 23. (19.) - ISTRIA, ITS PEOPLE AND LOCALITY. "Ateste belonging to the Veneti"
  33. ^ a b c d Pliny's Natural History, Book 3,(C. Plinii Secundi Naturalis Historiæ, Liber III),CHAP. 23. (19.) - ISTRIA, ITS PEOPLE AND LOCALITY."In this district there have disappeared--upon the coast--Iramene, Pellaon, and Palsatium, Atina and Cælina belonging to the Veneti "
  34. ^ Aulon
  35. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, Page 96, "... whose land is the city Epidamnus. A river flows by the city, by name the Palamnus. Then from Epidamnus to Apollonia, a Greek city, the journey on foot takes two days. Apollonia lies fifty stades from the sea and the river ..."
  36. ^ In An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis by Mogens Herman, ISBN 0-19-814099-1, 2004, page 342
  37. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, Page 99, "... 99 victory would be theirs if they received Cadmus as king. After this had come about as foretold, Cadmus and Harmonia ruled over them and founded the towns of Bouthoe (Budva) and Lychnidus (Ohrid)."
  38. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, Page 97, "...the Bylliones beyond the river Aous in the hinterland of Apollonia . Their hill-settlement developed later into the town of Byllis, at Gradisht on the right bank of the Aous. ..."
  39. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, Page 273, "... Scodra and Dyrrhachium were seats of the metropolitans, and there were bishops at Lissus, Doclea, Lychnidus (Ohrid), Scampis, Apollonia, Amantia, Byllis and Aulona. The population of this area were Latin-speaking provincials, ..."
  40. ^ An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation, ISBN 0-19-814099-1, 2005, page 1333, "...refounded as a Hellenic Byllis not yet a polls in 400..."
  41. ^ Dalmatia: research in the Roman province 1970-2001 : papers in honour of J.J by David Davison, Vincent L. Gaffney, J. J. Wilkes, Emilio Marin, ISBN 1-84171-790-8, 2006, page 21, "...completely Hellenised town..."
  42. ^ Supplementum Epigraphicum Graecum, Volume XXXIX: 1989 επεξεργασία από H. W. Pleket,Byllis she regards Nikaia and other places as demes of the polis Byllis
  43. ^ Epirus, 4000 years of Greek history and civilization, page 144, "...the basically Greek character of its inhabitants..."
  44. ^ "...Greek and Roman oared warships..."
  45. ^ OxfordJournal, "There had been an emporion or trading post on the site from the 2nd century BC, Pola, now Pietas Julia..."
  46. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 96, "...From Bouthoe to Epidamnus, a Greek city, the ..."
  47. ^ a b c An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation by Mogens Herman Hansen, 2005, Index
  48. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 100
  49. ^ Croatia, 2nd: The Bradt Travel Guide Croatiaby Piers Letcher, 2005, ISBN 1-84162-113-7, page 225, "... History Trogir started out in the 3rd century BC; as Tragurion, an offshoot of the Greek colony of Issa (on Vis), ..."
  50. ^ Aulus Hirtius,(De Bello Alexandrino c.14)
  51. ^ Austria: Her People & Their Homelands by James Baker, "... dates back to the sixth century B.C., when the Greeks founded here Epidaurus..."
  52. ^ Diodorus Siculus, "Library", 15.1
  53. ^ Lonely Planet Eastern Europe by Paul Greenway, page 852, "Founded by the Greeks, Ulcinj..."
  54. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, Page 114, "... in the early history of the colony settled in 385 BC on the island Pharos (Hvar) from the Aegean island Paros, famed for its marble. In traditional fashion they accepted the guidance of an oracle, ..."
  55. ^ a b Pliny's Natural History, Book 3,(C. Plinii Secundi Naturalis Historiæ, Liber III),CHAP. 23. (19.) - ISTRIA, ITS PEOPLE AND LOCALITY."The towns of Istria with the rights of Roman citizens are Ægida4, Parentium, and the colony of Pola, now Pietas Julia, formerly founded by the Colchians..."
  56. ^ An Inventory of Archaic and Classical Poleis: An Investigation Conducted by The Copenhagen Polis Centre for the Danish National Research Foundation by Mogens Herman Hansen, 2005, page 326
  57. ^ Apollonios Rhodios The Argonautika, Ed. Peter Green, University of California Press, 1997, 2007, p. 428.
  58. ^ Nis,Britanica
  59. ^ John T. Koch (2006). Celtic Culture. p. 1662. ISBN 1-85109-440-7.
  60. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5., page 279, "We cannot be certain that the Arbanon of Anna Comnena is the same as Albanopolis of the Albani, a place located on the map of Ptolemy..."
  61. ^ Barrington atlas
  62. ^ Titi Livi
  63. ^ a b MARU´SIUM
  64. ^ a b c Ptolemy
  65. ^ The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites (eds. Richard Stillwell, William L. MacDonald, Marian Holland McAllister), " AEQUUM (Čitluk) Croatia, Yugoslavia. The Roman Colonia Claudia Aequum was situated 6 km N of Sinj. It was founded by the emperor Claudius sometime after AD 45 and settled with the veterans of Legio VII when they left the neighboring camp at Tilurium for Moesia."
  66. ^ Lexicon of the Greek and Roman cities and place names in antiquity, ca. 1500 ... by Keith Branigan - 1992, page 88, "... but evidence available indicates that Kotor is the most likely site for the Roman town Acruvium ..."
  67. ^ Dalmatia: research in the Roman province 1970-2001: papers in honour of J.J, page 108, by David Davison, Vincent L. Gaffney, J. J. Wilkes, Emilio Marin, ISBN 1-84171-790-8, 2006, "For instance, the town walls of Arba were constructed under Augustus..."
  68. ^ The archaeology of Roman towns: studies in honour of John S. Wacher, page 237, by J. S. Wacher, Peter R. Wilson, ISBN 1-84217-103-8, 2003, "Roman island towns in Liburnia were Arba..."
  69. ^ The Princeton Encyclopedia of Classical Sites (eds. Richard Stillwell, William L. MacDonald, Marian Holland McAllister), "BURNUM (Ivoševci by Kistanje) Croatia, Yugoslavia.The military camp of Legio XI Claudia Pia Fidelis situated over the gorge of the Krka (Titius) river just opposite the Dalmatian hill fort on the E river bank..."
  70. ^ Bagendon: a Belgic oppidum: a record of the excavations of 1954-56 - page 1 by Elsie M. Clifford - 1961 - "CHAPTER I THE BAGENDON SITE THE IDENTIFICATION OF CORINIUM ... and was therefore called by the Roman Corinium"
  71. ^ Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 216, "... hand, the Deraemestae (30) were formed from several smaller groups in the vicinity of the new Roman colony established at Epidaurum (Cavtat near Dubrovnik)."
  72. ^ The archaeology of Roman towns: studies in honour of John S. Wacher, ISBN 1-84217-103-8, page 235, by J. S. Wacher, Peter R. Wilson, 2003, "The reward was the status of Roman colony and an infusion of new settlers, granted either by Caesar himself [...] at Fulfinium and in the south on the"
  73. ^ Yugoslavia: the Adriatic Coast - page 74 by Stuart Rossiter - 1969 "... by boat or on foot) with the massive overgrown ruins of a [...] early Christian basilica and remains of an extensive Roman settlement (? Fulfinium)..."
  74. ^ a b Wilkes, J. J. The Illyrians, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, page 213, "On the Dalmatian coast several existing Roman settlements appear to have been strengthened and organised as colonies including...Senia..."
  75. ^ The Roman army, 31 BC-AD 337: a sourcebook - page 215 by J. B. Campbell, ISBN 0-415-07173-9, 1994, "The civilian colony of Narona had been founded at the end of Caesar's dictatorship..."
  76. ^ The Cambridge ancient history, Volume 10 by Alan K. Bowman, Edward Champlin, Andrew Lintott, page 845, "The colony of Salona on the Dalmatian coast used almost identical formulae in dedicating an altar of Jupiter Optimus Maximus..."
  77. ^ Roman life and manners under the early Empire - page 302 - by Ludwig Friedlaender - 1965, "Claudius settled veterans at Cumae, Cologne, Sicum in Dalmatia, Camulodunum in Britain, ..."
  78. ^ The central Balkan tribes in pre-Roman times: Triballi, Autariatae ... by Fanula Papazoglu, 1978, page 250, "Town in the interior of Dalmatia, located between Scodra and Siparuntum."
  79. ^ The Roman army as a community: including papers of a conference held at ...by Adrian Keith Goldsworthy, Ian Haynes, Colin E. P. Adams, ISBN 1-887829-34-2, 1997, page 100
  80. ^ The Illyrians by J. J. Wilkes, 1992, ISBN 0-631-19807-5, Page 258, "In the south the new city named municipium Dardanicum, was another 'mining town' connected with the local workings (Metalla Dardanica)."
  81. ^ The central Balkan tribes in pre-Roman times: Triballi, Autariatae ... by Fanula Papazoglu, 1978, page 198, "... the Peutinger Table marks 40 miles from Naissus, on the Naissus-founded by Auielian..."
  82. ^ Hauptstädte in Südosteuropa: Geschichte, Funktion, nationale Symbolkraft by Harald Heppner, page 134
  83. ^ The Roman army as a community: including papers of a conference held at ...by Adrian Keith Goldsworthy, Ian Haynes, Colin E. P. Adams, ISBN 1-887829-34-2, 1997, page 39, "...the colony at Scupi which lost its original title Domitiana after Domitians death..."
  84. ^ Five Roman emperors: Vespasian, Titus, Domitian, Nerva, Trajan, A.D. 69-117 - by Bernard William Henderson - 1969, page 278, "At Thermidava he was warmly greeted by folk quite obviously Dacians..."
  85. ^ The Geography by Ptolemy, Edward Luther Stevenson, 1991, page 36
  86. ^ a b Ethnic continuity in the Carpatho-Danubian area by Elemér Illyés, 1988, ISBN 0-88033-146-1, page 223
Miraj, Lida,‘The Earliest Coinage of Epidamnos/Dyrrachion as a Source’, Greek Influence along the East Adriatic Coast, Proceedings of the International Conference held in Split, September 24-26, 1998 (Split 2002) 435-470.