List of World Heritage Sites in Western Asia

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The UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) has designated 71 World Heritage Sites in 17 countries (also called "state parties") of Western Asia: Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Cyprus, Iran, Iraq, Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Oman, Saudi Arabia, Syria, Turkey, United Arab Emirates, Qatar and Yemen. One site is located in Jerusalem.[nb 1] Kuwait is the only country in the region that does not have any World Heritage Sites.[1][2]

In this region, Iran is home to the most inscribed sites with 17 sites.[3] The first sites to be recognized by UNESCO from the region were Persepolis, Meidan Emam, Esfahan, Tchogha Zanbil (Iran) and the Ancient City of Damascus (Syria).[4] Each year, UNESCO's World Heritage Committee may inscribe new sites on the list, or delist sites that that no longer meet the criteria. Selection is based on ten criteria: six for cultural heritage (i–vi) and four for natural heritage (vii–x).[5] Some sites, designated "mixed sites," represent both cultural and natural heritage. In Western Asia, there are 67 cultural, 1 natural, and 3 mixed sites.[3]

The World Heritage Committee may also specify that a site is endangered, citing "conditions which threaten the very characteristics for which a property was inscribed on the World Heritage List." Seven sites in this region are currently listed as endangered, one site (Bahla Fort) has been listed previously and possible danger listing has been considered by UNESCO in a number of other cases.[6]


The table is sortable by column by clicking on the Sort both.gif at the top of the appropriate column; alphanumerically for the Site, Area, and Year columns; by state party for the Location column; and by criteria type for the Criteria column. Transborder sites sort at the bottom.

Site; named after the World Heritage Committee's official designation[3]
Location; at city, regional, or provincial level and geocoordinates
Criteria; as defined by the World Heritage Committee[5]
Area; in hectares and acres. If available, the size of the buffer zone has been noted as well. A value of zero implies that no data has been published by UNESCO
Year; during which the site was inscribed to the World Heritage List
Description; brief information about the site, including reasons for qualifying as an endangered site, if applicable

Inscribed sites[edit]

  † In danger
Site Image Location Criteria Area
ha (acre)
Year Description Refs
Aflaj Irrigation Systems of Oman Sharqiyah and Batinah Regions,  Oman
22°59′56″N 57°32′10″E / 22.99889°N 57.53611°E / 22.99889; 57.53611 (Aflaj Irrigation Systems of Oman)
70031456000000000001,456 (3,600); buffer zone 16,404 (40,540) 2006 The property includes five aflaj irrigation systems and is representative of some 3,000 such systems still in use in Oman. The origins of this system of irrigation may date back to AD 500, but archaeological evidence suggests that irrigation systems existed in this extremely arid area as early as 2500 BC. [7]
Al-Hijr Archaeological Site (Madâin Sâlih) Buildings with a classicist facade built into a cliff face. Al Madinah Province,  Saudi Arabia
26°47′1″N 37°57′18″E / 26.78361°N 37.95500°E / 26.78361; 37.95500 (Al-Hijr Archaeological Site (Madâin Sâlih))
70031621000000000001,621 (4,010); buffer zone 1,659 (4,100) 2008 Formerly known as Hegra it is the largest conserved site of the civilization of the Nabataeans south of Petra in Jordan. It features well-preserved monumental tombs with decorated facades dating from the 1st century BC to the 1st century AD. [8]
Al Zubarah Archaeological Site Zubarah Fort. Madinat ash Shamal,  Qatar
25°58′41″N 51°1′47″E / 25.97806°N 51.02972°E / 25.97806; 51.02972 (Al Zubarah Archaeological Site)
7002416000000000000416 (1,030); buffer zone 7,196 (17,780) 2013 [9]
Ancient City of Aleppo City view with a wall and a mosque. Aleppo Governorate,  Syria
36°14′0″N 37°10′0″E / 36.23333°N 37.16667°E / 36.23333; 37.16667 (Ancient City of Aleppo)
7002350000000000000350 (860) 1986 Located at the crossroads of several trade routes from the 2nd millennium B.C., Aleppo was ruled successively by the Hittites, Assyrians, Arabs, Mongols, Mamelukes and Ottomans. [10]
Ancient City of Bosra An old amphitheatre. Daraa Governorate,  Syria
32°31′5″N 36°28′54″E / 32.51806°N 36.48167°E / 32.51806; 36.48167 (Ancient City of Bosra)
1980 Bosra, once the capital of the Roman province of Arabia, was an important stopover on the ancient caravan route to Mecca. A magnificent 2nd-century Roman theatre, early Christian ruins and several mosques are found within its great walls. [11]
Ancient City of Damascus Ruins of a stone building with columns and without roof. Damascus Governorate,  Syria
33°30′41″N 36°18′23″E / 33.51139°N 36.30639°E / 33.51139; 36.30639 (Ancient City of Damascus)
700186000000000000086 (210) 1979 Founded in the 3rd millennium B.C., Damascus is one of the oldest cities in the Middle East. In the Middle Ages, it was the centre of a flourishing craft industry, specializing in swords and lace. [12]
Ancient Villages of Northern Syria Ruins of a stone church without roof.  Syria
36°20′3″N 36°50′39″E / 36.33417°N 36.84417°E / 36.33417; 36.84417 (Ancient Villages of Northern Syria)
700412290000000000012,290 (30,400) 2011 Some 40 villages grouped in eight parks situated in north-western Syria provide remarkable testimony to rural life in late Antiquity and during the Byzantine period. [13]
Anjar Ruins of buildings consisting of some arches. Beqaa Governorate,  Lebanon
33°43′33″N 35°55′47″E / 33.72583°N 35.92972°E / 33.72583; 35.92972 (Anjar)
1984 The city of Anjar was founded by Caliph Walid I at the beginning of the 8th century. The ruins reveal a very regular layout, reminiscent of the palace-cities of ancient times, and are a unique testimony to city planning under the Umayyads. [14]
Archaeological Site of Troy Ruined walls. Çanakkale Province,  Turkey
39°57′23″N 26°14′20″E / 39.95639°N 26.23889°E / 39.95639; 26.23889 (Archaeological Site of Troy)
7002158000000000000158 (390) 1998 [15]
Archaeological Sites of Bat, Al-Khutm and Al-Ayn Ad Dhahirah Region,  Oman
23°16′11″N 56°44′42″E / 23.26972°N 56.74500°E / 23.26972; 56.74500 (Archaeological Sites of Bat, Al-Khutm and Al-Ayn)
1988 The protohistoric site of Bat lies near a palm grove in the interior of the Sultanate of Oman. Together with the neighbouring sites, it forms the most complete collection of settlements and necropolises from the 3rd millennium B.C. in the world. [16]
Armenian Monastic Ensembles of Iran Stone church in the mountains with two massive towers topped by a conical roof West Azerbaijan,  Iran
38°58′44″N 45°28′24″E / 38.97889°N 45.47333°E / 38.97889; 45.47333 (Armenian Monastic Ensembles of Iran)
7002129000000000000129 (320); buffer zone 655 (1,620) 2008 including: St Thaddeus Monastery, St Stepanos Monastery, Chapel of Dzordzor, Chapel of Chupan, Church of the Holy Mother of God [17]
Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat)
American soldiers on guard at the ruins of Ashur in 2008
Salah ad Din Governorate,  Iraq
35°27′32″N 43°15′35″E / 35.45889°N 43.25972°E / 35.45889; 43.25972 (Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat))
700170000000000000070 (170); buffer zone 100 (250) 2003 The ancient city of Ashur is located on the Tigris River in northern Mesopotamia. The city dates back to the 3rd millennium BC. From the 14th to the 9th centuries BC it was the first capital of the Assyrian Empire. The city was destroyed by the Babylonians, but revived during the Parthian period in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD. The site has been listed as endangered since inscription because of a lack of adequate protection and a planned reservoir that would partially flood the site. [18]
At-Turaif District in ad-Dir'iyah Earthen colored building with small windows. Riyadh Province,  Saudi Arabia
24°44′3″N 46°34′21″E / 24.73417°N 46.57250°E / 24.73417; 46.57250 (At-Turaif District in ad-Dir'iyah)
700129000000000000029 (72) 2008 Diriyah was the first capital of the Saudi Dynasty, in the heart of the Arabian Peninsula, north-west of Riyadh. It includes the remains of many palaces and an urban ensemble built on the edge of the ad-Dir’iyah oasis. [20]
Baalbek Fairly well preserved classical building surrounded by columns. Beqaa Governorate,  Lebanon
34°0′25″N 36°12′18″E / 34.00694°N 36.20500°E / 34.00694; 36.20500 (Baalbek)
1984 Baalbek, where a triad of deities was worshipped, was known as Heliopolis during the Hellenistic period. It retained its religious function during Roman times, when the sanctuary of the Heliopolitan Jupiter attracted thousands of pilgrims. [21]
Bahá’i Holy Places in Haifa and the Western Galilee Large white buildings in a landscape garden. Haifa and North District,  Israel
32°49′46″N 34°58′18″E / 32.82944°N 34.97167°E / 32.82944; 34.97167 (Bahá’i Holy Places in Haifa and the Western Galilee)
700163000000000000063 (160); buffer zone 255 (630) 2008 [22]
Bahla Fort Fort with towers, walls and small windows. Ad Dakhiliyah Region,  Oman
22°57′51″N 57°18′4″E / 22.96417°N 57.30111°E / 22.96417; 57.30111 (Bahla Fort)
1987 The oasis of Bahla owes its prosperity to the Banu Nebhan, the dominant tribe in the area from the 12th to the end of the 15th century. The ruins of the immense fort, with its walls and towers of unbaked brick and its stone foundations, is a remarkable example of this type of fortification and attests to the power of the Banu Nebhan. [23]
Bam and its Cultural Landscape View over a large ruined city colored uniformly in a grey-brown tone. In the background there is a castle in overlooking the surrounding city. Kerman,  Iran
29°07′00.68″N 58°22′06.51″E / 29.1168556°N 58.3684750°E / 29.1168556; 58.3684750 (Bam and its Cultural Landscape)
2004 Arg-e Bam is the biggest adobe structure in the world. it is the most representative example of a fortified medieval town built in vernacular technique using mud layers which is located at the crossroads of important trade routes and known for the production of silk and cotton garments. [24]
Biblical tells - Megiddo, Hazor, Beer Sheba Ruins of building consisting of low walls of unhewn stones.  Israel
32°35′50″N 35°10′56″E / 32.59722°N 35.18222°E / 32.59722; 35.18222 (Biblical Tels - Megiddo, Hazor, Beer Sheba)
700196000000000000096 (240); buffer zone 604 (1,490) 2005 [25]
Bisotun Frieze in a rock with many people. Kermanshah,  Iran
34°23′18″N 47°26′12″E / 34.38833°N 47.43667°E / 34.38833; 47.43667 (Bisotun)
7002187000000000000187 (460); buffer zone 361 (890) 2006 [26]
Bursa and Cumalıkızık: the Birth of the Ottoman Empire 71 Bursa la Grande Moschea.jpg City of Bursa and village of Cumalıkızık, Bursa Province,  Turkey
40°11′5.03″N 29°3′44.41″E / 40.1847306°N 29.0623361°E / 40.1847306; 29.0623361 (City of Bursa)
7002193000000000000193 (480) 2014 Recognizes Bursa and the nearby village of Cumalıkızık as the birthplace of the Ottoman Empire, sharing eight sites between them that showed the characteristic urban organization seen in other cities of the Ottoman Empire. [27]
Byblos A small port in a town. Mount Lebanon Governorate,  Lebanon
34°7′9″N 35°38′51″E / 34.11917°N 35.64750°E / 34.11917; 35.64750 (Byblos)
1984 The ruins of many successive civilizations are found at Byblos, one of the oldest Phoenician cities. Inhabited since Neolithic times, it has been closely linked to the legends and history of the Mediterranean region for thousands of years. [28]
Caves of Maresha and Bet-Guvrin in the Judean Lowlands as a Microcosm of the Land of the Caves Beit Guvrin 1.JPG Southern District,  Israel
31°36′0″N 34°53′44″E / 31.60000°N 34.89556°E / 31.60000; 34.89556 (Caves of Maresha and Bet-Guvrin)
7002259000000000000259 (640) 2014 An ancient settlement built as a series of 3,500 underground chambers carved into soft chalk. It was an important trade route and inhabited by different civilizations from the eighth century BCE to the time of the Crusades. [29]
Cathedral and Churches of Echmiatsin and the Archaeological Site of Zvartnots Stone church with a central tower topped by a conical roof and several smaller towers. Armavir Province,  Armenia
40°9′33.5″N 44°17′42.5″E / 40.159306°N 44.295139°E / 40.159306; 44.295139 (Cathedral and Churches of Echmiatsin and the Archaeological Site of Zvartnots)
700174000000000000074 (180) 2000 [30]
Choirokoitia Small white circular huts with flat roof. Larnaca District,  Cyprus
34°47′54″N 33°20′36″E / 34.79833°N 33.34333°E / 34.79833; 33.34333 (Choirokoitia)
1998 [31]
Birthplace of Jesus: Church of the Nativity and the Pilgrimage Route, Bethlehem View of The Church of the Nativity from Manger Square. Bethlehem Governorate,  Palestine

31°42′15.50″N 35°12′27.50″E / 31.7043056°N 35.2076389°E / 31.7043056; 35.2076389 (Church of the Nativity)

(iv), (vi)
70002980000000000002.98 (7.4) 2012 This property is situated 10 km south of Jerusalem on the site identified by Christian tradition as the birthplace of Jesus since the 2nd century. [32][33]
Citadel of Erbil The Citadel of Erbil.  Iraqi Kurdistan, Iraq
36°11′28″N 44°0′33″E / 36.19111°N 44.00917°E / 36.19111; 44.00917 (Erbil Citadel)
700116000000000000016 (40); buffer zone 268 (660) 2014 The citadel sits atop a small tell in the center of Erbil. The current structure dates back to the late 18th century of the Ottoman Empire, with preceding civilizations also making fortifications on the same hill, the earliest being around the 5th millennium B.C. during the Neo-Sumerian Empire. Excavations so far have revealed artifacts dating back to the Neo-Assyrian Empire. [34]
City of Safranbolu White houses with red tile roofs on a hillside. City and district of Safranbolu, Karabük Province,  Turkey
41°15′36″N 32°41′23″E / 41.26000°N 32.68972°E / 41.26000; 32.68972 (City of Safranbolu)
7002193000000000000193 (480) 1994 [35]
Crac des Chevaliers and Qal’at Salah El-Din A fortress of grey stone. Homs and Latakia Governorates,  Syria
34°46′54″N 36°15′47″E / 34.78167°N 36.26306°E / 34.78167; 36.26306 (Crac des Chevaliers and Qal’at Salah El-Din)
70009000000000000009 (22) 2006 These two castles represent the most significant examples illustrating the exchange of influences and documenting the evolution of fortified architecture in the Near East during the time of the Crusades (11th - 13th centuries). [36]
Cultural Sites of Al Ain (Hafit, Hili, Bidaa Bint Saud and Oases Areas) A sandy path lined by low walls behind which are many palm trees.  United Arab Emirates
24°4′4″N 55°48′23″E / 24.06778°N 55.80639°E / 24.06778; 55.80639 (Cultural Sites of Al Ain (Hafit, Hili, Bidaa Bint Saud and Oases Areas))
70034945000000000004,945 (12,220); buffer zone 7,605 (18,790) 2011 [37]
Gobustan Rock Art Cultural Landscape Petroglyphs of humans. Garadagh and Absheron districts,  Azerbaijan
40°7′30″N 49°22′30″E / 40.12500°N 49.37500°E / 40.12500; 49.37500 (Gobustan Rock Art Cultural Landscape)
7002537000000000000537 (1,330); buffer zone 3,096 (7,650) 2007 [38]
Golestan Palace Shams-ol-Emareh with the clock tower Tehran,  Iran
35°40′49.32″N 51°25′13.84″E / 35.6803667°N 51.4205111°E / 35.6803667; 51.4205111 (Golestan Palace)
70005300000000000005.3 (13); buffer zone 26 (64) 2013 The lavish Golestan Palace is a masterpiece of the Qajar era, embodying the successful integration of earlier Persian crafts and architecture with Western influences. The walled Palace, one of the oldest groups of buildings in Teheran, became the seat of government of the Qajar family, which came into power in 1779. [39]
Gonbad-e Qabus A tower toped with conical roof Golestan,  Iran
37°15′28.9″N 55°10′8.4″E / 37.258028°N 55.169000°E / 37.258028; 55.169000 (Gonbad-e Qabus)
70001480000000000001.48 (3.7); buffer zone 18 (44) 2012 The 53 m high tomb built in ad 1006 for Qābus Ibn Voshmgir, Ziyarid ruler and literati, near the ruins of the ancient city of Jorjan in north-east Iran, bears testimony to the cultural exchange between Central Asian nomads and the ancient civilization of Iran. [40]
Great Mosque and Hospital of Divriği Low building of reddish stone with a prominent decorated entrance. city and district of Divriği, Sivas Province,  Turkey
39°22′25″N 38°7′25″E / 39.37361°N 38.12361°E / 39.37361; 38.12361 (Great Mosque and Hospital of Divriği)
70032016000000000002,016 (4,980) 1985 [41]
Göreme National Park and the Rock Sites of Cappadocia White stone pinnacle rocks topped by a dark colored rock. Nevşehir Province in Central Anatolia Region,  Turkey
38°40′0″N 34°51′0″E / 38.66667°N 34.85000°E / 38.66667; 34.85000 (Göreme National Park and the Rock Sites of Cappadocia)
70039576000000000009,576 (23,660) 1985 [42]
Hatra Ruins of buildings with columns. Ninawa Governorate,  Iraq
35°35′17″N 42°43′6″E / 35.58806°N 42.71833°E / 35.58806; 42.71833 (Hatra)
7002324000000000000324 (800) 1985 A large fortified city under the influence of the Parthian Empire and capital of the first Arab Kingdom, Hatra withstood invasions by the Romans in A.D. 116 and 198 thanks to its high, thick walls reinforced by towers. [43]
Hattusha: the Hittite Capital Stone gate with sculpted lions. Sungurlu, Çorum Province,  Turkey
40°0′50″N 34°37′14″E / 40.01389°N 34.62056°E / 40.01389; 34.62056 (Hattusha: the Hittite Capital)
7002268000000000000268 (660) 1986 [44]
Hierapolis-Pamukkale Hanging white limestone wall. Denizli Province,  Turkey
37°55′26″N 29°7′24″E / 37.92389°N 29.12333°E / 37.92389; 29.12333 (Hierapolis-Pamukkale)
70031077000000000001,077 (2,660) 1988 [45]
Historic Areas of Istanbul A large building with a square tower, three mosques and ten minarets near water. Istanbul city and Istanbul Province,  Turkey
41°0′30″N 28°58′48″E / 41.00833°N 28.98000°E / 41.00833; 28.98000 (Historic Areas of Istanbul)
7002678000000000000678 (1,680) 1985 [46]
Historic Jeddah, the Gate to Makkah Traditional house in Al Balad.JPG Jeddah,  Saudi Arabia
21°29′2″N 39°11′15″E / 21.48389°N 39.18750°E / 21.48389; 39.18750 (Jeddah)
700118000000000000018 (44) ; buffer zone 7002114000000000000114 (280) 2014 Old Jeddah is characterized by unique architecture gained from its status as both a major mercantile port and the entryway for Muslim pilgrims on their way to Mecca. [47]
Historic Town of Zabid Partially ruined stone building with a decorated facade. Al Hudaydah Governorate,  Yemen
14°11′53″N 43°19′48″E / 14.19806°N 43.33000°E / 14.19806; 43.33000 (Historic Town of Zabid)
1993 Zabid was the capital of Yemen from the 13th to the 15th century. The city played an important role in the Arab and Muslim world for many centuries because of its Islamic university. It has been listed as endangered since 2000 due to the deteriorating state of its historic buildings. [48]
Incense Route – Desert Cities in the Negev Ruins of buildings in a desert. Negev,  Israel
30°32′28″N 35°9′39″E / 30.54111°N 35.16083°E / 30.54111; 35.16083 (Incense Route – Desert Cities in the Negev)
2005 [50]
Land of Frankincense Ruins at Khor Rori Dhofar Governorate,  Oman
18°15′12″N 53°38′51″E / 18.25333°N 53.64750°E / 18.25333; 53.64750 (Land of Frankincense)
7002850000000000000850 (2,100); buffer zone 1,243 (3,070) 2000 The frankincense trees of Wadi Dawkah and the remains of the caravan oasis of Shisr/Wubar and the affiliated ports of Khor Rori and Al-Baleed vividly illustrate the trade in frankincense that flourished in this region for many centuries, as one of the most important trading activities of the ancient and medieval world. [51][52]
Land of Olives and Vines Bethlehem Governorate,  Palestine

31°43′11″N 35°7′50″E / 31.71972°N 35.13056°E / 31.71972; 35.13056 (Land of Olives and Vines)

(iv), (v)
2014 Cultural Landscape of Southern Jerusalem, Battir, is located a few kilometres south-west of Jerusalem, in the Central Highlands between Nablus and Hebron. [53]
Masada Ruins of a building made of unhewn stones. South District,  Israel
31°18′49″N 35°21′10″E / 31.31361°N 35.35278°E / 31.31361; 35.35278 (Masada)
7002276000000000000276 (680); buffer zone 28,965 (71,570) 2001 [54]
Masjed-e Jāmé of Isfahan Mosque Courtyard. Isfahan,  Iran
32°40′11″N 51°41′7″E / 32.66972°N 51.68528°E / 32.66972; 51.68528 (Masjed-e Jāmé of Isfahan)
70002080000000000002.08 (5.1); buffer zone 19 (47) 2012 the Masjed-e Jāmé (‘Friday mosque’) can be seen as a stunning illustration of the evolution of mosque architecture over twelve centuries, starting in ad 841. It is the oldest preserved edifice of its type in Iran and a prototype for later mosque designs throughout Central Asia. [55]
Meidan Emam, Esfahan Large rectangular square surrounded by buildings some of which have cuppolas. Isfahan,  Iran
32°39′27″N 51°40′40″E / 32.65750°N 51.67778°E / 32.65750; 51.67778 (Meidan Emam, Esfahan)
1979 [56]
Monasteries of Haghpat and Sanahin Small church of dark stone with a central tower topped by a conical roof. Haghpat and Sanahin, Lori Province,  Armenia
41°5′42″N 44°42′37″E / 41.09500°N 44.71028°E / 41.09500; 44.71028 (Monasteries of Haghpat and Sanahin)
70002650000000000002.65 (6.5); buffer zone 24 (59) 1996[nb 2] [57]
Monastery of Geghard and the Upper Azat Valley Stone church with a central tower topped by a conical roof. near Goght, Kotayk Province,  Armenia
40°9′32″N 44°47′48″E / 40.15889°N 44.79667°E / 40.15889; 44.79667 (Monastery of Geghard and the Upper Azat Valley)
70002700000000000002.70 (6.7) 2000 [58]
Nemrut Dağ Large sculpted heads of a bird and a human lying on the ground. Adiyaman Province,  Turkey
38°2′12″N 38°45′49″E / 38.03667°N 38.76361°E / 38.03667; 38.76361 (Nemrut Dağ)
700111000000000000011 (27) 1987 [59]
Neolithic Site of Çatalhöyük Excavations at the southern area of the site. Central Anatolia Region,  Turkey
37°40′0″N 32°49′41″E / 37.66667°N 32.82806°E / 37.66667; 32.82806 (Neolithic Site of Çatalhöyük)
700137000000000000037 (91); buffer zone 111 (270) 2012 [60]
Old City of Acre A fortress or a tower of a fortification. Western Galilee,  Israel
32°55′42″N 35°5′2″E / 32.92833°N 35.08389°E / 32.92833; 35.08389 (Old City of Acre)
700163000000000000063 (160) 2001 [61]
Pergamon and its Multi-Layered Cultural Landscape Pergamon - 01.jpg Bergama, Izmir Province  Turkey
39°7′33″N 27°10′48″E / 39.12583°N 27.18000°E / 39.12583; 27.18000 (Pergamom)
7002333000000000000333 (820); buffer zone 7002477000000000000477 (1,180) 2014 The settlement contains characteristic architecture of Ancient Greek, Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman civilizations. [62]
Old City of Sana'a Houses with beige walls and white framed windows. Sana'a Governorate,  Yemen
15°21′20″N 44°12′29″E / 15.35556°N 44.20806°E / 15.35556; 44.20806 (Old City of Sana'a)
1986 Sana’a has been inhabited for more than 2,500 years. In the 7th and 8th centuries the city became a major centre for the propagation of Islam. This religious and political heritage can be seen in the 103 mosques, 14 hammams and over 6,000 houses, all built before the 11th century. [63]
Shahr-e Sukhteh Ruins of buildings near a lake. Sistan and Baluchestan Province, Iran Cultural:
70031456000000000001,456 (3,600); buffer zone 2,200 (5,400) 2014 Shahr-e Shōkhte, is an archaeological site of a sizable Bronze Age urban settlement, associated with the Jiroft culture. Covering an area of 151 hectares, Shahr-e Sukhteh was one of the world’s largest cities at the dawn of the urban era. [64]
Old Walled City of Shibam Tall and narrow white and brownish houses with small windows. Hadhramaut Governorate,  Yemen
15°55′37″N 48°37′36″E / 15.92694°N 48.62667°E / 15.92694; 48.62667 (Old Walled City of Shibam)
1982 The 16th-century city of Shibam is one of the oldest and best examples of urban planning based on the principle of vertical construction. [65]
Ouadi Qadisha (the Holy Valley) and the Forest of the Cedars of God (Horsh Arz el-Rab) Landscape with barren hills in the background, a valley and a mountain slope with low trees in the foreground. North Lebanon Governorate,  Lebanon
34°14′36″N 36°2′56″E / 34.24333°N 36.04889°E / 34.24333; 36.04889 (Ouadi Qadisha (the Holy Valley) and the Forest of the Cedars of God (Horsh Arz el-Rab))
1998 The Qadisha valley is one of the most important early Christian monastic settlements in the world. Nearby are the remains of the great forest of cedars of Lebanon, highly prized in antiquity for the construction of great religious buildings. [66]
Painted Churches in the Troodos Region Constantine and Helen, Church of Archangel Michael, Pedoulas Troodos Mountains, Limassol and Nicosia Districts,  Cyprus
34°55′13″N 33°5′45″E / 34.92028°N 33.09583°E / 34.92028; 33.09583 (Painted Churches in the Troodos Region)
1985[nb 3] [67]
Paphos A colorful mosaic showing various people. Paphos District,  Cyprus
34°45′30″N 32°24′20″E / 34.75833°N 32.40556°E / 34.75833; 32.40556 (Paphos)
1980 [69]
Pasargadae A small step pyramid like structure with a house-shaped structure on top. Pars,  Iran
30°11′38″N 53°10′2″E / 30.19389°N 53.16722°E / 30.19389; 53.16722 (Pasargadae)
7002160000000000000160 (400); buffer zone 7,127 (17,610) 2004 [70]
Pearling, Testimony of an Island Economy Windtower of Isa Bin Ali House, home of former ruler of Bahrain, in Muharraq, Bahrain Muharraq Governorate,  Bahrain
26°14′28.608″N 50°36′48.636″E / 26.24128000°N 50.61351000°E / 26.24128000; 50.61351000 (Pearling, Testimony of an Island Economy)
700435087000000000035,087 (86,700); buffer zone 95,876 (236,910) 2012 [71]
Persepolis Ruins of buildings and a frieze depicting humans carrying staffs or lances. Fars,  Iran
29°56′4″N 52°52′25″E / 29.93444°N 52.87361°E / 29.93444; 52.87361 (Persepolis)
700113000000000000013 (32) 1979 [72]
Petra Facade of a building on a cliff face. Ma'an Governorate,  Jordan
30°19′50″N 35°26′36″E / 30.33056°N 35.44333°E / 30.33056; 35.44333 (Petra)
1985 Inhabited since prehistoric times, this Nabataean caravan city, situated between the Red Sea and the Dead Sea, was an important crossroads between Arabia, Egypt and Syria-Phoenicia. Petra is half-built, half-carved into the rock, and is surrounded by mountains riddled with passages and gorges. [73]
Qal’at al-Bahrain – Ancient Harbour and Capital of Dilmun
Archaeological site of foundations of buildings.
Northern Governorate,  Bahrain
26°13′59″N 50°31′20″E / 26.23306°N 50.52222°E / 26.23306; 50.52222 (Qal’at al-Bahrain – Ancient Harbour and Capital of Dilmun)
700132000000000000032 (79); buffer zone 1,238 (3,060) 2005[nb 4] The site was the capital of the Dilmun, one of the most important ancient civilizations of the region. It contains the richest remains inventoried of this civilization, which was hitherto only known from written Sumerian references. [74]
Quseir Amra Small ruined stone building. Zarqa Governorate,  Jordan
31°48′7″N 36°35′9″E / 31.80194°N 36.58583°E / 31.80194; 36.58583 (Qasr Amra)
1985 Built in the early 8th century, this exceptionally well-preserved desert castle was both a fortress with a garrison and a residence of the Umayyad caliphs. [76]
Samarra Archaeological City
A slightly ruined spiral tower of white stone.
Salah ad Din Governorate,  Iraq
34°20′28″N 43°49′25″E / 34.34111°N 43.82361°E / 34.34111; 43.82361 (Ashur (Qal'at Sherqat))
700415058000000000015,058 (37,210); buffer zone 31,414 (77,630) 2007 Samarra Archaeological City is the site of a powerful Islamic capital city that ruled over the provinces of the Abbasid Empire extending from Tunisia to Central Asia for a century. The 9th-century Great Mosque and its spiral minaret are among the numerous remarkable architectural monuments of the site, 80% of which remain to be excavated. The site has been listed as endangered since inscription due to the lack of state control for protection and management following the Iraq War. [77]
Selimiye Mosque and its Social Complex Large mosque with four minarets and a large dome of dark stone. Edirne, East Thrace,  Turkey
41°40′40″N 26°33′34″E / 41.67778°N 26.55944°E / 41.67778; 26.55944 (Selimiye Mosque and its Social Complex)
70002500000000000002.50 (6.2); buffer zone 38 (94) 2011 [79]
Sheikh Safi al-din Khānegāh and Shrine Ensemble in Ardabil Two cuppolas covered in blue, yellow and brown tiles. Ardabil, Ardabil Province,  Iran
38°14′55″N 48°17′29″E / 38.24861°N 48.29139°E / 38.24861; 48.29139 (Sheikh Safi al-din Khānegāh and Shrine Ensemble in Ardabil)
70002140000000000002.14 (5.3); buffer zone 13 (32) 2010 [80]
Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System Ruins of a river bridge. Khuzestan,  Iran
32°1′7″N 48°50′9″E / 32.01861°N 48.83583°E / 32.01861; 48.83583 (Shushtar Historical Hydraulic System)
7002240000000000000240 (590); buffer zone 1,572 (3,880) 2009 [81]
Site of Palmyra Ruins of stone buildigns with columns. Homs Governorate,  Syria
34°33′15″N 38°16′0″E / 34.55417°N 38.26667°E / 34.55417; 38.26667 (Site of Palmyra)
69993600000000000000.36 (0.89) 1980 An oasis in the Syrian desert, north-east of Damascus, Palmyra contains the monumental ruins of a great city that was one of the most important cultural centres of the ancient world. [82]
Sites of Human Evolution at Mount Carmel: The Nahal Me’arot / Wadi el-Mughara Caves Mount Carmel,  Israel
32°40′12″N 34°57′55″E / 32.67000°N 34.96528°E / 32.67000; 34.96528 (Sites of Human Evolution at Mount Carmel: The Nahal Me’arot / Wadi el-Mughara Caves)
700154000000000000054 (130); buffer zone 370 (910) 2012 [83]
Socotra Archipelago A tree over a dry, barren, rocky landscape. Hadhramaut Governorate,  Yemen
12°30′N 53°50′E / 12.500°N 53.833°E / 12.500; 53.833 (Socotra Archipelago)
7005410460000000000410,460 (1,014,300); buffer zone 1,740,958 (4,302,000) 2008 Socotra Archipelago, in the northwest Indian Ocean near the Gulf of Aden, is 250 km long and comprises four islands and two rocky islets which appear as a prolongation of the Horn of Africa. The site is of universal importance because of its biodiversity with rich and distinct flora and fauna. [84]
Soltaniyeh Octagonal building with turquoise dome. Zanjan,  Iran
36°26′7″N 48°47′48″E / 36.43528°N 48.79667°E / 36.43528; 48.79667 (Soltaniyeh)
7002790000000000000790 (2,000); buffer zone 350 (860) 2005 [85]
Tabriz Historic Bazaar Complex Covered arcade lined by shops. Tabriz,  Iran
38°4′53″N 46°17′35″E / 38.08139°N 46.29306°E / 38.08139; 46.29306 (Tabriz Historic Bazaar Complex)
700129000000000000029 (72); buffer zone 75 (190) 2010 [86]
Takht-e Soleyman Ruins of buildings near a lake. West Azerbaijan,  Iran
36°36′14″N 47°14′6″E / 36.60389°N 47.23500°E / 36.60389; 47.23500 (Takht-e Soleyman)
700110000000000000010 (25); buffer zone 7,438 (18,380) 2003 [87]
Tchogha Zanbil Ruins of a pyramid like structure. Khuzestan,  Iran
32°5′0″N 48°32′0″E / 32.08333°N 48.53333°E / 32.08333; 48.53333 (Tchogha Zanbil)
1979 [88]
The Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls City view with houses, churches and a building with a large golden dome. Jerusalem[nb 1]
31°47′0″N 35°13′0″E / 31.78333°N 35.21667°E / 31.78333; 35.21667 (Old City of Jerusalem and its Walls)
1981 As a holy city for Judaism, Christianity and Islam, Jerusalem has always been of great symbolic importance. It is recognized by all three religions as the site of Abraham's sacrifice. The Wailing Wall delimits the quarters of the different religious communities, while the Resurrection rotunda in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre houses Christ's tomb. The site has been listed as endangered since 1982 due to uncontrolled urban development, general deterioration of the state of conservation due to tourism and the lack of maintenance. [89]
The Persian Garden Water basin in a garden, flowers trees and a building with open portico. Pars,  Iran
30°10′0″N 53°10′0″E / 30.16667°N 53.16667°E / 30.16667; 53.16667 (The Persian Garden)
7002716000000000000716 (1,770); buffer zone 9,740 (24,100) 2011 including 9 selected gardens in Iran: Pasargadae, Chehel Sotoun, Fin, Eram, Shazdeh, Dolatabad, Abbasabad, Akbarieh, Pahlevanpour [92]
Tyre Ruins of columns near the sea. South Lebanon Governorate,  Lebanon
33°16′15″N 35°11′46″E / 33.27083°N 35.19611°E / 33.27083; 35.19611 (Tyre)
7002154000000000000154 (380) 1984 Tyre ruled the seas and founded prosperous colonies such as Cadiz and Carthage, but its historical role declined at the end of the Crusades. There are important archaeological remains, mainly from Roman times. [93]
Um er-Rasas (Kastrom Mefa'a) Ruins of a building of white stone. Madaba Governorate,  Jordan
31°30′6″N 35°55′14″E / 31.50167°N 35.92056°E / 31.50167; 35.92056 (Um er-Rasas (Kastrom Mefa'a))
700124000000000000024 (59); buffer zone 90 (220) 2005 Most of this archaeological site, which started as a Roman military camp and grew to become a town from the 5th century, has not been excavated. It contains remains from the Roman, Byzantine and Early Muslim periods (end of 3rd to 9th centuries AD) and a fortified Roman military camp. [94]
Wadi Rum Protected Area A dry mountain landscape with smoothened rocks. Aqaba Governorate,  Jordan
29°38′N 35°26′E / 29.633°N 35.433°E / 29.633; 35.433 (Wadi Rum Protected Area)
700474180000000000074,180 (183,300); buffer zone 59,177 (146,230) 2011 The 74,000-hectare property, inscribed as a mixed natural and cultural site, is situated in southern Jordan, near the border with Saudi Arabia. It features a varied desert landscape, as well as 25,000 rock carvings with 20,000 inscriptions trace the evolution of human thought and the early development of the alphabet. [95]
Walled City of Baku with the Shirvanshah's Palace and Maiden Tower Ruins of underground buildings and a building with cuppola above ground. Absheron Peninsula,  Azerbaijan
40°22′0″N 49°50′0″E / 40.36667°N 49.83333°E / 40.36667; 49.83333 (Walled City of Baku with the Shirvanshah's Palace and Maiden Tower)
700122000000000000022 (54) 2000 [96]
White City of Tel-Aviv -- the Modern Movement White modern building. Tel Aviv,  Israel
32°4′0″N 34°47′0″E / 32.06667°N 34.78333°E / 32.06667; 34.78333 (White City of Tel-Aviv -- the Modern Movement)
7002140000000000000140 (350); buffer zone 197 (490) 2003 [97]
Xanthos-Letoon Ruins of buildings and of an amphitheatre. , Muğla and Antalya Provinces,  Turkey
36°20′6″N 29°19′13″E / 36.33500°N 29.32028°E / 36.33500; 29.32028 (Xanthos-Letoon)
7002126000000000000126 (310); buffer zone 63 (160) 1988 [98]


  1. ^ a b Site proposed by Jordan. UNESCO has stated that "In line with relevant UN resolutions, East Jerusalem remains part of the occupied Palestinian territory, and the status of Jerusalem must be resolved in permanent status negotiations between Israel and the Palestinians."
  2. ^ Extended in 2000 to include the Sanahin Monastery and name change from Monastery of Haghpat to the present name.
  3. ^ Extended in 2001 to include the church Metamorfosis tou Sotiros (Transfiguration of the Saviour) in Palaichori.
  4. ^ Minor modification of the core zone and enlargement of the buffer zone in 2008.


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