Foreign relations of Indonesia

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Since independence, Indonesian foreign relations have adhered to a "free and active" foreign policy, seeking to play a role in regional affairs commensurate with its size and location but avoiding involvement in conflicts among major powers. Indonesian foreign policy under the "New Order" government of President Suharto moved away from the stridently anti-Western, anti-American posturing that characterized the latter part of the Sukarno era. Following Suharto's ouster in 1998, Indonesia's government has preserved the broad outlines of Suharto's independent, moderate foreign policy. Preoccupation with domestic problems has not prevented successive presidents from traveling abroad and Indonesia's participation in many international fora.

The invasion of East Timor by Indonesia in December 1975 and its annexation in 1976 and the referendum on independence of East Timor from Indonesia in August 1999 strained Indonesia's relations with the international community. As one of the founding members of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), established in 1967, and also as the largest nation in Southeast Asia, Indonesia has put ASEAN as the cornerstone of its foreign policy and outlook. After the transformation from Suharto's regime to a relatively open and democratic nation in the 2010s, Indonesia today exercises its influence to promote cooperation, development, democracy, security, peace and stability in the region through its leadership in ASEAN.[1]

Indonesia managed to play a role as a peacemaker in the Cambodia-Thailand conflict over the Preah Vihear temple. Indonesia and other ASEAN member countries collectively have also played a role in encouraging the government of Myanmar to open up its political system and introduce other reforms more quickly.[1]

Significant international memberships[edit]

ASEAN[edit]

The Secretariat of ASEAN in Jakarta, the cornerstone of Indonesian foreign policy.

A cornerstone of Indonesia's contemporary foreign policy is its participation in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), of which it was a founding member in 1967 with Thailand, Malaysia, Singapore, and the Philippines. Since then, Brunei, Vietnam, Laos, Burma, and Cambodia also have joined ASEAN. While organized to promote common economic, social, and cultural goals, ASEAN acquired a security dimension after Vietnam's invasion of Cambodia in 1979; this aspect of ASEAN expanded with the establishment of the ASEAN Regional Forum in 1994, which comprises 22 countries, including the U.S.

Indonesian national capital Jakarta is also the seat of ASEAN Secretariat, located at Jalan Sisingamangaraja No.70A, Kebayoran Baru, South Jakarta. Other than serving their diplomatic missions for Indonesia, numbers of foreign embassies and diplomatic mission in Jakarta are also accredited to ASEAN. ASEAN Headquarter has led to the prominence of Jakarta as a diplomatic hub in Southeast Asia.

In late 1990s to early 2000s, Indonesia's continued domestic troubles have distracted it from ASEAN matters and consequently lessened its influence within the organization. However, after the politics and economic transformation, from the turmoil of 1998 Reformasi to the relatively open and democratic civil society with rapid economic growth in the 2010s, Indonesia returned to the region's diplomatic stage by assuming its leadership role in ASEAN in 2011. Indonesia is viewed to has weight, international legitimacy and global appeal to draw support and attention from around the world to the ASEAN. Indonesia believes that ASEAN can contribute positively to the global community, by promoting economic development and cooperation, improving security, peace, stability of ASEAN, and making the Southeast Asia region far from conflicts.[1]

Non-Aligned Movement[edit]

Indonesia also was one of the founders of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM) and has taken moderate positions in its councils. As NAM Chairman in 1992-95, it led NAM positions away from the rhetoric of North-South confrontation, advocating instead the broadening of North-South cooperation in the area of development. Indonesia continues to be a prominent, and generally helpful, leader of the Non-Aligned Movement.

Organisation of Islamic Cooperation[edit]

Indonesia has the world's largest Muslim population, and is a member of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC). It carefully considers the interests of Islamic solidarity in its foreign policy decisions but generally has been an influence for moderation in the OIC. President Wahid has pursued better relations with Israel, and in August 2000 he met with former Israeli Prime Minister Peres. However, as of January 2006, there's no formal diplomacy link between Indonesia and Israel. As such, Indonesia, alongside its Malaysian neighbor, conducts its foreign relations with Israel through Singapore.[2]

IGGI and CGI[edit]

After 1966, Indonesia welcomed and maintained close relations with the donor community, particularly the United States, western Europe, Australia, and Japan, through the Intergovernmental Group on Indonesia (IGGI) and its successor, the Consultative Group on Indonesia (CGI), which have provided substantial foreign economic assistance. Problems in Timor and Indonesia's reluctance to implement economic reform, have complicated Indonesia's relationship with donors.

APEC[edit]

Indonesia has been a strong supporter of the Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC) forum. Largely through the efforts of President Suharto at the 1994 meeting in Bogor, Indonesia, APEC members agreed to implement free trade in the region by 2010 for industrialized economies and 2020 for developing economies. As the largest economy in Southeast Asia, Indonesia also belongs to another economic groupings such as G-20 major economies (G-20) and Developing 8 Countries (D-8).

Disputes — international[edit]

The many islands of Indonesia are the source for many pirate groups that regularly attack ships in the Strait of Malacca in the north,[3] and illegal fishing crews known for penetrating Australian and Filipino waters.[4]

Within ASEAN Countries[edit]

Indonesia consider ASEAN as cornerstone of its foreign policy, through exercising its regional power and influence in peaceful and constructive manner among ASEAN countries.

Brunei[edit]

 Brunei

Republic of Indonesia established diplomatic relations with Brunei Darussalam on 1 January 1984. Brunei Darussalam was recognised by Jakarta on independence in 1984. Although do not shared direct land borders, Indonesia and Brunei shared the island of Borneo. Overall relations between the two countries were progressing well and that both sides continued to enjoy strong ties in a wide spectrum of cooperations; including trade and investment, tourism, agriculture, marine and fisheries, health, defence, transnational crimes, education, youth, culture and people-to-people contacts.[5]

Cambodia[edit]

 Cambodia

The relationship between ancient Indonesia and Cambodia dated back from the kingdom of Chenla and Javan Sailendra also Srivijaya; it was mentioned that king Jayavarman II had resided for some times in Java during the reign of Sailendras, and in 802 declare sovereignty of Cambodia from Java and proclaimed himself as universal monarch thus started the Angkor period.[6]

During Sukarno reign in the 1960s, the president of Indonesia has visited Cambodia and vice versa prince Norodom Sihanouk also visited Indonesia. In 1992 Indonesia is among countries that provides troops for United Nations Transitional Authority in Cambodia. Indonesia also supported Cambodia membership to ASEAN in 1999. Indonesia also among the countries that provide aid to Angkor restoration project, especially the three main gates of Angkor Royal Palace archaeological site near Phimeanakas site. Indonesia is also appointed as observer in Cambodian–Thai border dispute.[7][8]

Laos[edit]

 Laos

Since established diplomatic relations on 1957, both nations enjoys cordial relations. Indonesia have an embassy in Vientiane, while Laos have an embassy in Jakarta. Indonesia supported and welcomed Laos membership to the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) in 1997. Laos and Indonesia agreed to enhance relations to focus on exploring the potential of both nations to cooperate on trade and investment. The two nations expressed a desire to reach further agreements relating to security, tourism, sport, air transport and education.[9] Indonesia through bilateral cooperation assist Laos on capacity building and development in various sectors, trough scholarships and trainings for Laos students.[10]

Malaysia[edit]

 Malaysia

  • Indonesia and Malaysia enjoy friendly relations. The populations of both countries have cordial relations and trade between the two countries has greatly increased over the years.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Kuala Lumpur and consulate generals in Johor Bahru, George Town, Kota Kinabalu and Kuching. Malaysia has an embassy in Jakarta and a consulate general in Medan and Pekanbaru.
  • Both nations are founding members of ASEAN and APEC. Both nations are also members of the Non-aligned Movement.
  • Relations between the two nations deteriorated under President Sukarno (see Indonesia–Malaysia confrontation, see Indonesian withdrawal from the United Nations), however relations were restored under President Suharto.
  • Currently, both nations are in a territorial dispute over the oil rich islands of Ambalat. Previously, they were over territorial disputes over the islands of Sipadan and Ligitan, which were won by Malaysia.
  • The Indonesian migrant workers (Indonesian: TKI/Tenaga Kerja Indonesia) have become the important issue between both countries. The problems concerning migrant workers such as illegal immigration, crime, human traficking, abuse, poor treatment and extortion upon migrant workers. Since 2009 Indonesia has temporarily stop sending domestic workers to Malaysia until both countries agree on ways to protect them.[11] Indonesia will resume sending migrant workers to Malaysia in May 2011 as both countries will sign a memorandum of understanding (MoU) about worker protection by the end of April 2011.[12]

Myanmar[edit]

 Myanmar

  • Both Indonesia and Myanmar are promoting the two countries trade volume. The trade volume is estimated to reach up to $1 billion in 2016.[13]
  • Indonesia has offered to purchase 300,000 tons of rice from Myanmar, with prospects of buying more in the future.
  • Indonesia supports Myanmar's democratization process.[14]

Philippines[edit]

 Philippines

  • Indonesia and the Philippines are both archipelagic country and same ethnic population that belongs to Austronesian.
  • Indonesia and the Philippines established their bilateral and diplomatic relations in 1949. The Indonesian Government has opened its Consular office in Manila but it was not until the mid-1950s that an Embassy was established headed by an Ambassador.
  • A treaty of friendship was signed on 1951. This Treaty constituted the basic relationship of both countries, covering several aspects such as maintenance of peace and friendship, settlement of disputes by diplomatic and peaceful means, traffic arrangements for citizens of both countries and activities to promote cooperation in the area of trade and cultural, which include the political, social-economic and security matters of both countries.
  • Both countries are members of the East ASEAN Growth Triangle together with Brunei Darussalam and Malaysia in the BIMP-EAGA.

Singapore[edit]

 Singapore

  • Relations with Indonesia are generally good, though current outstanding issues include the bans on the export of sand, and granite;[16] both of which Singapore's construction industry is reliant on.

Thailand[edit]

 Thailand

  • Indonesia is Thailand's third most important trade partner within ASEAN, with bilateral trade worth $8.7 billion in 2007.[17] Trade between the two countries is set to grow over the years.

Vietnam[edit]

 Vietnam

  • Formal relations started in 1955 for the consulate general level. Soedibjo Wirjowerdojo (former chargé d'affaires of Indonesian Embassy in Peking, China from year of 1953 - 1955) was appointed to be The First Indonesian Consul General to Vietnam, and located in Hanoi.
  • Vietnam and Indonesia are both members of ASEAN, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations.
  • President Megawati Sukarnoputri of Indonesia visited Vietnam in June 2003. At this time the two countries signed a "Declaration on the Framework of Friendly and Comprehensive Cooperation Entering the 21st Century".
  • In May, 2005 President Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono of Indonesia visited Vietnam.
  • In the December of the same year festivities were organized in the respective capital cities to celebrate the 50th anniversary of the establishment of diplomatic ties.
  • http://english.vovnews.vn/Home/Vietnam-Indonesia-aim-for-allround-cooperation-development/20062/37663.vov

Oceania[edit]

Australia[edit]

 Australia

Since Indonesian independence, the two countries have maintained mutual diplomatic relations, formalised co-operation (especially in the fields of fisheries conservation, law enforcement, and justice cooperation), a measure of security co-operation, broadening treaty relationships, co-membership of regional forums, and co-participation in several multilateral Treaties of significance. Trade between the two countries has grown over the years.

Recent years have seen a deepening of Australia's aid commitment to Indonesia, and Australia has become a popular venue for Indonesian students.[18]

In 2008-09, Indonesia is the largest recipient of Australian aid at a value of AUD462 million.[19]

East Timor[edit]

 East Timor

East Timor (officially named the Democratic Republic of Timor-Leste) and Indonesia share the island of Timor. Indonesia invaded the former Portuguese colony in 1975 and annexed East Timor in 1976, maintaining East Timor as its 27th province until a United Nations-sponsored referendum in 1999, in which the people of East Timor chose independence. Following a United Nations interim administration, East Timor gained independence in 2002.

Despite the traumatic past, relations with Indonesia are very good. Indonesia is by far the largest trading partner of East Timor (Approximately 50% of imports, 2005) and is steadily increasing its share.

Problems to be solved include, East Timor-Indonesia Boundary Committee meetings to survey and delimit land boundary; and Indonesia is seeking resolution of East Timorese refugees in Indonesia.

New Zealand[edit]

 New Zealand

Having common interests as democracies and neighbours in the Asia Pacific region, New Zealand and Indonesia are viewed as natural partners.[20] Both countries are members of APEC. Indonesia and New Zealand officially established diplomatic relations in 1950, the diplomatic and economic ties have grown stronger ever since. New Zealand has an embassy in Jakarta and Indonesia has an embassy in Wellington. Indonesia’s commodity exports to New Zealand consist mainly of energy products and minerals as well as lumber and agriculture, while New Zealand's commodity exports to Indonesia mainly consists of dairy products and meats, such as beef, milk, and cheese.

Papua New Guinea[edit]

 Papua New Guinea

Indonesia shares a 760-kilometre (470 mi) border with Papua New Guinea through its provinces of Papua and West Papua. The common border has raised tensions and ongoing diplomatic issues[which?] over many decades.[21]

Indonesia is represented in Papua New Guinea with an embassy in Port Moresby and a consulate in Vanimo.

Asia[edit]

Bangladesh[edit]

 Bangladesh

Indonesia is the world largest Muslim country in terms of its population, whereas Bangladesh is the fourth largest Muslim country. Indonesia and Bangladesh are partners in Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and the Developing 8 Countries. Bangladesh has an embassy in Jakarta, whereas Indonesia has an embassy in Dhaka. Since the official bilateral relations were established in 1972, both countries enjoy cordial and friendly relations.

People's Republic of China[edit]

 China

China and Indonesia established diplomatic relations on April 13, 1950, which was suspended on October 30, 1967 due to the occurrence of the September 30 event of 1965.

The bilateral relations began to ease since the 1980s. Foreign Minister Qian Qichen of China met with President Suharto and State Minister Moerdiono of Indonesia in 1989 to discuss the resumption of diplomatic relations of the two countries. In December 1989, the two sides held talks on the technical issues regarding the normalization of bilateral relations and signed the Minutes. Foreign Minister Ali Alatas of Indonesia visited China on invitation in July 1990 and the two sides issued the Agreement on the Settlement of Indonesia's Debt Obligation to China and the Communique on the Resumption of Diplomatic Relations between the two countries. The two countries issued the "Communiqué on the Restoration of Diplomatic Relations between the Two Countries".

Premier Li Peng visited Indonesia on invitation on August 6, 1990. In his talks with President Suharto, the two sides expressed their willingness to improve relations between the two countries on the basis of the Five Principles of Peaceful Co-Existence and the Ten Principles of the Bandung Conference. On 8 August, Foreign Ministers of China and Indonesia on behalf of their respective governments, signed the Memorandum of Understanding on the Resumption of Diplomatic Relations. The two sides declared the formal resumption of the diplomatic relations between China and Indonesia on that day.

India[edit]

 India

In 1950, the first President of Indonesia - Sukarno called upon the peoples of Indonesia and India to "intensify the cordial relations" that had existed between the two countries "for more than 1000 years" before they had been "disrupted" by colonial powers.[22] Fifteen years later in Djakarta, government-inspired mobs were shouting: "Down with India, the servant of imperialists" and "Crush India, our enemy. "[23] Yet in the spring of 1966, the foreign ministers of both countries began speaking again of an era of friendly relations. India had supported Indonesian independence and Nehru had raised the Indonesian question in the United Nations Security Council.

India has an embassy in Jakarta[24] and Indonesia operates an embassy in Delhi.[25]

Iran[edit]

 Iran

Indonesia and Iran are Muslim majority countries, despite the differences in its religious orientation. Indonesian has the largest Muslim Sunni population in the world, while Iran is a predominantly Shiite nation.[26]

As Islamic countries that have among the largest Muslim populations in the world, Iran and Indonesia hold themselves responsible for promoting Islam as a peaceful religion.[1] Diplomatic relations has been established since 1950. Indonesia has an embassy in Tehran, and Iran has an embassy in Jakarta. Both countries are full members of the World Trade Organization (WTO), The Non-Aligned Movement, Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC), and Developing 8 Countries.

Jakarta had offered to help mediate the Iranian nuclear dispute, Jakarta is on good terms with Iran and other Middle East countries, as well as with the West.[27][28]

Iraq[edit]

 Iraq

Indonesia and Iraq shared similarity as the Muslim majority countries. Both nations share their experiences in rebuilding and development. Indonesia has an embassy in Baghdad, while Iraq has an embassy in Jakarta. Both nations are partners in multilateral organizations, such as World Trade Organization (WTO), The Non-Aligned Movement and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).

After World War II, Iraq had been one of the first countries to recognize Indonesia’s independence in 1945. The two countries established diplomatic relations in 1950 and have signed around 15 agreements to boost bilateral ties. Indonesia has maintained its embassy in Baghdad during various crises, such as the Iraq-Iran war in the 1980s. However, at the height of the Iraq War, Indonesia was forced to temporarily closed its embassy in Baghdad in 2003, and reopen it in June 2011.[29]

In 2003, Indonesian Government and people protested against a U.S.-led military campaign against Baghdad. Over 50,000 Indonesian people crowded the streets of the Indonesian capital, Jakarta on Sunday, February 9, 2003, to protest the United States' threat of military action against Iraq.[30] After the war ended and Indonesia reopen its embassy in 2011, relations between the two countries have developed at a fast pace. Iraq invited Indonesia's companies to participate in the reconstruction of Iraq.[31] Traditionally Indonesia sees Iraq as the source of energy, such as oil and gas. On the other hand Iraqi people are familiar with Indonesian exported products such as tires, soaps, spices, furniture, coal, clothing, palm oil, shoes, paper, automobiles, rubber and electronic goods.

Japan[edit]

 Japan

Jordan[edit]

 Jordan

  • Jordan and Indonesia often shares similar stances upon issues in the Middle East, such as the Syrian conflict and Israel–Palestine conflict.
  • Currently Indonesia is Jordan's largest trade partner in ASEAN.[32]
  • Jordan have an embassy in Jakarta, while Indonesia have an embassy in Amman that also accredited to Palestine.
  • Both countries are the member of Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and Non-Aligned Movement.
  • Jordan serves as the gate for Indonesian Muslim and Christian pilgrims wishing to visit the holy sites in Palestine and Israel.[33]

Nepal[edit]

   Nepal

Since the diplomatic relations was established in 1960, both nations enjoys friendly and cordial relations, although both parties do not established embassies in each counterparts' capitals. Indonesia only establishes honorary consulate in Kathmandu, while its embassy in Dhaka, Bangladesh, is also acredited to Nepal. Nepal on the other hand acredited its embassy in Bangkok, Thailand, also to Indonesia. Both the countries have many cultural proximities and similar view on international issues. Both nations are also partners and founding members of the Non-Aligned Movement (NAM).

North Korea[edit]

 North Korea

Indonesia is one of the very few countries that still maintain cordial relations with North Korea, despite international sanctions and isolation applied upon North Korea concerning its human rights abuses and nuclear missile program. Indonesia has adopted what it calls a “free-and-active” foreign policy, which allows it to be consistent in counting on both North and South Korea as friends.

Both nations share a relationship that dates back to the Sukarno and Kim Il-sung era in the 60s. Indonesia has an embassy in Pyongyang, while North Korea has an embassy in Jakarta. Both nations are members of the Non-Aligned Movement.

According to a 2013 BBC World Service Poll, 42% of Indonesians view North Korea's influence positively, with 22% expressing a negative view. This is the second most favorable opinion in the world after Ghana's.[34]

Pakistan[edit]

 Pakistan

Saudi Arabia[edit]

 Saudi Arabia

  • Saudi Arabia have an embassy in Jakarta, while Indonesia have an embassy in Riyadh and a consulate in Jeddah.
  • Both countries are the member of Organisation of Islamic Cooperation and G-20 major economies.
  • Indonesia sent the largest hajj pilgrims among Muslim countries.
  • The balance of trade is heavily in favor of Saudi Arabia, because of its oil and gas exports to Indonesia.
  • Migrant worker abuse and death sentences faces by Indonesian workers in Saudi Arabia are main problems strained diplomatic relations between two countries.

South Korea[edit]

 South Korea

  • Indonesia has an embassy in Seoul.
  • South Korea has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Scale of bilateral trade between two nation is US$14.88 billion.
  • Indonesia and South Korea have invested in multiple joint military development projects, including the KFX/IFX fighter jet
  • South Korean firm Daewoo Shipbuilding and Marine Engineering (DSME) is in final contract negotiations to supply Indonesia with three Type-209 submarines. This will be the largest ever bilateral defense deal, valued at USD1.1 billion.

Sri Lanka[edit]

 Sri Lanka

  • Indonesia and Sri Lanka are the founder of the Non-Aligned Movement.
  • Since the diplomatic relations were established in 1952, both nations enjoys cordial and friendly relationship
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Colombo, while Sri Lanka has an embassy in Jakarta.

Turkey[edit]

 Turkey

United Arab Emirates[edit]

 UAE

  • The diplomatic relations between Indonesia and United Arab Emirates are important because both share the solidarity as Muslim majority countries, and both countries recognizes the important role of each counterparts in the region.
  • Since the diplomatic relations established in 1976, both country enjoy friendly and cordial relationship.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Abu Dhabi, while the United Arab Emirates has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Both countries are partners in multilateral organizations, such as the World Trade Organization (WTO), The Non-Aligned Movement and Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC).
  • Indonesia uses the UAE as the main gate to enter the Gulf and Middle East market, Indonesia's export to UAE is the largest in the Middle East.
  • Indonesian Government has established the trade and investment representative office to promote its products in United Arab Emirates and the entire Middle East region.

Palestine[edit]

 Palestine

  • Indonesia has Embassy, non resident in Amman
  • Palestine has Embassy in Jakarta

Israel[edit]

 Israel

The two countries maintain no formal diplomatic ties.[42][43][44]

Europe[edit]

Austria[edit]

 Austria

  • The bilateral relations between Austria an Indonesia officially established in 1954.
  • Austria recognizes Indonesia as a stable and reliable partner, and both countries enjoy excellent relations.[45]
  • The two nations have agreed to expand relations in business, trade and investment, tourism, culture, environment and green technology.[46]
  • Austria has an embassy in Jakarta and consulates in Bandung and Surabaya, while Indonesia has an embassy in Vienna that also accredited to Slovenia as well as multilateral organizations; IAEA, PrepCom CTBTO, UNODC and UNOOSA.

Bulgaria[edit]

 Bulgaria

  • Bulgaria was among the States that recognized Indonesia's independence since its Proclamation of Independence on August 17, 1945. Diplomatic relations started on September 21, 1956.
  • Bulgaria has had an embassy in Jakarta since October 1958
  • Indonesia has had an embassy in Sofia Since 1960.[47]

Denmark[edit]

 Denmark

Further information: Denmark–Indonesia relations

France[edit]

 France

  • Indonesia has an Embassy in Paris and France has an Embassy in Jakarta
  • The relations between France and Indonesia have been increasing of late, while Indonesia has become increasingly strategic to the government and people of France.
  • There are 110 French multinational companies operated in Indonesia.[48]
  • The relations between two nations are important as both are democratic republics and both holds significant geopolitical influences in each regions. France is indispensable member of European Union, as well as Indonesia for Association of Southeast Asian Nations.
  • The diplomatic relation between France and Indonesia is also a key element for developing relations between Indonesia and the European Union and between France and the ASEAN.[49]
  • Both nations are the member of G-20 major economies.

Finland[edit]

 Finland

  • Indonesia and Finland enjoy friendly relations. Nokia has a substantial share of the mobile phone market in Indonesia.

Germany[edit]

 Germany

  • Indonesia and Germany have traditionally enjoyed good, intensive and wide-ranging relations.
  • Germany and Indonesia, as the largest members of the European Union and the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), respectively, take similar positions on many issues relating to the development of the two regional organizations.[50]
  • Indonesia has an Embassy in Berlin
  • Germany has an Embassy in Jakarta

Greece[edit]

 Greece

Holy See[edit]

 Holy See

Italy[edit]

 Italy

  • Both nations has shown strong desire to improve their relations, especially in intercultural understanding and trade.[58]
  • Indonesia recognizes Italy's strategic location and important role in the middle of Mediterranean region, while Italy has favoured relations with Indonesia, and sees Indonesia as the leader in Southeast Asia.[59]
  • The relations between two countries not only important to bridge the two regional communities; European Union and ASEAN, but also vital as intercultural and interfaith dialog,[60]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Rome, that also accredited to Malta, Cyprus, San Marino, while Italy has an embassy in Jakarta.

The Netherlands[edit]

 Netherlands

  • Indonesia–Netherlands relations refers to relations between Indonesia and the Netherlands. The relationship begun during the spice trade as Netherlands started a trading post in what is now Indonesia before colonising it as the Dutch East Indies.
  • The Indonesian military still sometimes buys equipment from the Dutch

Portugal[edit]

 Portugal

In 1999, Indonesia and Portugal restored diplomatic relations, which were broken off following the Indonesian invasion of East Timor in 1975

  • Indonesia has an embassy in Lisbon[61]
  • Portugal has an embassy in Jakarta[62]

Romania[edit]

 Romania

  • Indonesia has an embassy in Bucharest[63]
  • Romania has an embassy in Jakarta

Russia[edit]

 Russia

  • Both Indonesia and Russia are members of the APEC.
  • Russia has an embassy in Jakarta.[64]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Moscow along with a consulate general in Saint Petersburg.[65]
  • Early in the Cold War, both countries had very strong relations with Indonesian president Sukarno visiting Moscow and Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev visiting Jakarta. When Sukarno was overthrown by General Suharto, relations between the two states weren't as close as they were during Sukarno's times.
  • In late 2007, Indonesia purchased military weapons from Russia with long term payment. Both countries are also members of the G20 and APEC

Spain[edit]

 Spain

  • Spain identifies Indonesia as their natural ally and has named Indonesia as one of priority nation in their foreign relations with Asian region.[66]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Madrid and consulates in Barcelona and Las Palmas, while Spain has an embassy in Jakarta and a consulate in Denpasar, Bali.
  • Today the cooperation has expanded to various fields, from trade, culture to education and defense technology sector.[67]
  • Since the 1980s Spain and Indonesia have embarked on strategic partnership in aeronautics technology, Spain's CASA and Indonesia's IPTN (formerly known as Nurtanio) co-designed and co-produced the CN-235 medium transport aircraft.

Switzerland[edit]

  Switzerland

  • In 2010 the heads of state of the two countries agreed to launch negotiations on a Comprehensive Economic Partnership Agreement (CEPA).[68]
  • Switzerland has named Indonesia as one of seven priority countries for economic development cooperation.[69]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Bern, while Switzerland has an embassy in Jakarta, also accredited for East Timor and ASEAN.
  • On December 6, 1973, the Indonesian and Swiss governments signed an agreement to establish Polytechnic for Mechanics within the Bandung Institute of Technology at Bandung.[70] Today The Swiss Mechanics Polytechnic has transformed into Bandung State Polytechnic for Manufacture.

Ukraine[edit]

 Ukraine

  • Indonesia recognized Ukraine’s independence in 1992 and established diplomatic relations in 1993. Indonesia has an embassy in Kiev.[71]
  • Ukraine has an embassy in Jakarta.[72]

United Kingdom[edit]

 United Kingdom

The United Kingdom and Indonesia have maintained strong relations since formal relations were established in 1949.[73] Indonesia has an embassy in London,[74] the United Kingdom has an embassy in Jakarta.[75]

The Culture and Tourism Ministry of Indonesia launched a campaign to boost the number of tourists from the UK entering Indonesia.[74] In 2009, 160,000 British tourists visited Indonesia, the aim of the campaign was to boost this number to 200,000.[74]

In 2006 former British prime-minister Tony Blair met with Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono where they agreed upon "the establishment of a regular Indonesia-UK Partnership Forum to be chaired by the Foreign Ministers, to promote strategic dialogue on bilateral, multilateral and global issues".[73] The first Indonesia-UK forum was held in 2007 and was chaired by British foreign minister Margaret Beckett and Indonesian foreign minister Wirajuda.[73]

In March 2010 members of the House of Lords praised Indonesia for their progress in democratizing society, media freedom and environmental protection.[76] In a meeting with Indonesian MP Hayono Isman, the Lords stated that they wanted to improve the relationship between the two countries.[76]

North America[edit]

Canada[edit]

 Canada

Mexico[edit]

 Mexico

  • The diplomatic relations was officially established in 1953,[79]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Mexico City, while Mexico has an embassy in Jakarta that also accredited to East Timor.
  • Both nations sees their counterpart as their strategic partners in each regions.[80]
  • Mexico has renewed its interest on Asia, sees Indonesia's strategic role in ASEAN, and willing to create an economic partnership agreement with Indonesia.[81]
  • Both countries are partners in multilateral organizations such as the WTO, FEALAC, APEC and G-20.

United States[edit]

 United States

The United States has important economic, commercial, and security interests in Indonesia. It remains a lynchpin of regional security due to its strategic location astride a number of key international maritime straits, particularly the Malacca Strait. Relations between Indonesia and the U.S. are positive and have advanced since the election of President Yudhoyono in October 2004. The U.S. played a role in Indonesian independence in the late 1940s and appreciated Indonesia's role as an anti-communist bulwark during the Cold War. Cooperative relations are maintained today, although no formal security treaties bind the two countries. The United States and Indonesia share the common goal of maintaining peace, security, and stability in the region and engaging in a dialogue on threats to regional security. Cooperation between the U.S. and Indonesia on counter-terrorism has increased steadily since 2002, as terrorist attacks in Bali (October 2002 and October 2005), Jakarta (August 2003 and September 2004) and other regional locations demonstrated the presence of terrorist organizations, principally Jemaah Islamiyah, in Indonesia. The United States has welcomed Indonesia's contributions to regional security, especially its leading role in helping restore democracy in Cambodia and in mediating territorial disputes in the South China Sea.

South America[edit]

Argentina[edit]

 Argentina

Brazil[edit]

 Brazil

Chile[edit]

 Chile

Colombia[edit]

 Colombia

Cuba[edit]

 Cuba

  • During the administration Sukarno in the 1960s, Indonesia and Cuba enjoyed exceptionally close relationship.[88]
  • The relations between two nations mostly focussed on sports and health.[89]
  • Cuba has an embassy in Jakarta, while Indonesia has an embassy in Havana that also accredited to the Commonwealth of the Bahamas and the Republic of Jamaica.
  • Both nations are full members of Group of 77, NAM and FEALAC.

Mexico[edit]

 Mexico

Peru[edit]

 Peru

Suriname[edit]

 Suriname

  • Indonesia and Suriname had a special relationship,[90] based upon shared common history as former colonies of the Dutch Empire.
  • Large numbers of Javanese migrated to Suriname to work on plantations during the late 19th and early 20th-centuries.
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Paramaribo also accredited to Republic of Guyana, while Suriname has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Both nations committed to expand and improve their relations covering trade, agriculture and cultural sectors.
  • Indonesia and Suriname are partners in multilateral organizations such as the WTO and FEALAC.

Venezuela[edit]

 Venezuela

  • Since the diplomatic relations established in 1959, Indonesia and Venezuela enjoy friendly ties.[91]
  • Both nations agreed to expand the trade and investment relations, especially in tourism, technology, chemicals and natural gas sectors.[92]
  • Indonesia has an embassy in Caracas, while Venezuela has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Indonesia and Venezuela are partners in multilateral organizations such as the WTO, NAM and FEALAC.

Africa[edit]

Algeria[edit]

 Algeria

Egypt[edit]

 Egypt

Kenya[edit]

 Kenya

  • Indonesia has an embassy in Nairobi, also acredited to Mauritius, Seychelles, and Uganda,[95] while Kenya did not establishes embassy in Indonesia yet, diplomatic relations with Indonesia is accredited to its embassy in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
  • Both nations are partners in multilateral organizations, such as the WTO and NAM.

Liberia[edit]

 Liberia

  • The diplomatic relations was officially established in 1965, however not until 2013 that both leaders of each countries visited each other's to further the cooperations.

Libya[edit]

 Libya

  • Indonesia has an embassy in Tripoli and Libya has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Both countries are members of the OIC and the Non-aligned Movement.

Madagascar[edit]

 Madagascar

  • The ancestors of Madagascar people came from Indonesia, sailed across Indian Ocean, back in early 8th to 9th century CE.[96]
  • Indonesia have an embassy in Antananarivo, while Madagascar do not established an embassy in Jakarta yet.
  • Malagasy language and Indonesian language shared similar words, such as hand: ˈtananə (Malagasy), tangan (Indonesian); skin: ˈhulitse (Malagasy), kulit (Indonesian); white: ˈfuti (Malagasy), putih (Indonesian).

Morocco[edit]

 Morocco

  • Indonesia and Morocco shared similarity as the Muslim majority countries, Indonesia is the most populous Muslim country in the world, while Morocco also a Muslim majority nation.
  • Morocco praised Indonesia as a strong democratic nation, and pointed that both nations facing the same challenges of separatism and terrorism.[97]
  • Diplomatic relations were established in 1960. Indonesia has an embassy in Rabat and a consulate in Casablanca, while Morocco has an embassy in Jakarta.
  • Both nations are members of the WTO, NAM and OIC.

Nigeria[edit]

 Nigeria

South Africa[edit]

 South Africa

Tanzania[edit]

 Tanzania

Tunisia[edit]

 Tunisia

International organization participation[edit]

See also[edit]

Further reading[edit]

  • Fuadi Pitsuwan (2014). "Smart Power Strategy: Recalibrating Indonesian Foreign Policy". Asian Politics & Policy 6 (2): 237–266. doi:10.1111/aspp.12107. 

Notes[edit]

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  2. ^ AsiaMedia :: INDONESIA: Israel starts website in Indonesian
  3. ^ BBC
  4. ^ afma.gov.au; abc.net.au
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  6. ^ in shadows: Sihanouk, the Khmer Rouge, and the United Nations
  7. ^ VOA: Thailand, Cambodia Agree to Indonesian Observers at Border
  8. ^ The Jakarta Post: RI ready to send observers to Cambodia, Thailand
  9. ^ "Laos, Indonesia to focus relations on trade and investment". www.laopdr.gov.la. National Portal of Laos PDR. 2011-01-20. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  10. ^ "Current Socio Culture Relations". Embassy of Republic of Indonesia, Vientiane, Laos. Embassy of Indonesia. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  11. ^ Indonesia to halt sending workers to Malaysia
  12. ^ Indonesia to resume sending workers to Malaysia
  13. ^ Maierbrugger, Arno (17 April 2013). "Myanmar, Indonesia target $1b trade". Inside Investor. Retrieved 23 May 2013. 
  14. ^ Lang, Jarno. "Indonesia-Myanmar Relations: Promoting Democracy in South-East Asia". fairobserver.com. Fair Observer. Retrieved 25 May 2013. 
  15. ^ Asha Popatlal (2005-08-08). "Singapore and Indonesia sign MOU to expand air links". Channel NewsAsia. 
  16. ^ "Indonesia may ban granite exports". ANTARA News. 2007-03-12. 
  17. ^ Thai PM in Jakarta to promote bilateral trade
  18. ^ http://www.dfat.gov.au/media/speeches/foreign/1996/austindo.html see reference to '12000 students' from Indonesia
  19. ^ http://www.dfat.gov.au/geo/indonesia/indonesia_brief.html
  20. ^ "New Zealand and Indonesia". nzembassy.com. New Zealand Embassy Jakarta, Indonesia. Retrieved 30 May 2013. 
  21. ^ http://countrystudies.us/indonesia/100.htm
  22. ^ Foreign Policy of India: Text of Documents 1947-59 (p.54)
  23. ^ I New York Times September 10, 1965
  24. ^ http://www.embassyofindiajakarta.org/
  25. ^ http://www.indonesianembassy.org.in/
  26. ^ Yon Machmudi. "Cultural Cooperation between Indonesia and Iran:Challenges and Opportunities". Academia.edu. Retrieved 3 June 2013. 
  27. ^ Breffni O'Rourke (May 12, 2006). "Iran finds an ally in Indonesia". Asia Times Online. Retrieved 3 June 2013. 
  28. ^ "Indonesia offers Iran mediation". BBC. Wednesday, 10 May 2006, 06:25 GMT 07:25 UK. Retrieved 3 June 2013. 
  29. ^ a b "RI embassy in Baghdad resumes activity". The Jakarta Post. July 2, 2011. Retrieved 5 June 2013. 
  30. ^ "Indonesians protest against Iraq war". CNN.com. Sunday, February 9, 2003 Posted: 10:24 PM. Retrieved 5 June 2013. 
  31. ^ Heru (July 4, 2012). "Indonesia invited to participate in reconstruction of Iraq". Antara News. Retrieved 5 June 2013. 
  32. ^ Maya Sofia, Nila Chrisna Yulika (February 24, 2014). "Tingkatkan Kerjasama, Raja Yordania Kunjungi Indonesia, Indonesia merupakan mitra dagang terbesar Yordania di ASEAN" (in Indonesian). Viva news. Retrieved 18 April 2014. 
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  34. ^ 2013 World Service Poll BBC
  35. ^ http://kbri-islamabad.go.id/
  36. ^ http://www.mofa.gov.pk/Indonesia/
  37. ^ http://pakistan.visahq.com/embassy/Indonesia/
  38. ^ http://www.developing8.org/2010/03/29/pakistan-ri-trade-could-reach-2-billion/
  39. ^ Reid, Anthony (February 2005). The Ottomans in Southeast Asia. ARI Working Papers 36. Asia Research Institute, National University of Singapore 
  40. ^ Embassy of Indonesia in Turkey
  41. ^ Embassy of Turkey in Indonesia
  42. ^ http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2008/11/07/representatives-indonesia-israel-sign-medical-agreement.html?1
  43. ^ http://www.thejakartapost.com/news/2006/07/03/indonesia-condemns-israeli-offensive.html
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  45. ^ Veeramalla Anjaiah (October 26, 2009). "Austria, RI celebrate 55 years of relations with cultural shows". thejakartapost.com. The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 18 June 2013. 
  46. ^ Yanto Soegiarto (January 3, 2012). "Austria’s green power". thejakartaglobe.com. Jakarta Globe. Retrieved 18 June 2013. 
  47. ^ Official Website of the Embassy of the Republic of Indonesia in Sofia, Bulgaria.
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  51. ^ Indonesian embassy in Athens
  52. ^ Greek embassy in Jakarta
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  54. ^ "Embassy of Republic of Indonesia to the Holy See". indonesiavatican.it. Embassy of Republic of Indonesia to the Holy See. Retrieved 20 August 2013. 
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  56. ^ "Address of the Holy Father Paul VI to the President of the Republic of Indonesia - Djakarta, Indonesia Thursday, 3 December 1970". Vatican.va. Archived from the original on March 19, 2013. 
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  60. ^ Mathias Hariyadi (2012-04-24). "Jakarta and Rome promoting interfaith dialogue to counter extremism". Asia News. Retrieved 14 June 2013. 
  61. ^ Indonesian embassy in Lisbon
  62. ^ of Portugal
  63. ^ Indonesian embassy in Bucharest
  64. ^ Russian embassy in Jakarta
  65. ^ Indonesian embassy in Moscow
  66. ^ "Spanyol Jadikan Indonesia Salah Satu Prioritas Hubungan di Asia" (in Indonesian). Ministry of Foreign Affair Republic of Indonesia. 3 November 2009. Retrieved 13 June 2013. 
  67. ^ Novan Iman Santosa (February 14, 2013). "Spain, RI strengthen defense, relief ties". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 13 June 2013. 
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  69. ^ "Bilateral relations between Switzerland and Indonesia". Federal Department of Foreign Affairs, Switzerland. 07.11.2012. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  70. ^ "List of Argeements Between the Swiss Confederation and the Republic of Indonesia". Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Republic of Indonesia. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  71. ^ Indonesian embassy in Kiev
  72. ^ Ukrainian embassy in Jakarta
  73. ^ a b c UK-Indonesia relations
  74. ^ a b c News-Indonesianembassy
  75. ^ Our embassy
  76. ^ a b Ministry of Foreign Affairs - Members of the UK’s House of Lords praised Indonesia’s achievements
  77. ^ Canadian embassy in Jakarta
  78. ^ "Indonesian embassy in Ottawa". Indonesia-ottawa.org. Retrieved 2011-06-03. 
  79. ^ "Commemorating 60 Years of Diplomatic Relations, Indonesia and Mexico Agree to Improve Partnership". The President Post. May 15, 2013. Retrieved 11 June 2013. 
  80. ^ Veeramalla Anjaiah (September 15, 2008). "Mexico, Indonesia are still good friends after 55 years: Envoy". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 10 June 2013. 
  81. ^ Linda Yulisman (April 23, 2013). "Mexico expects free-trade deal with Indonesia". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 10 June 2013. 
  82. ^ a b Ezra Sihite (January 17, 2013). "Indonesia, Argentina to Increase Bilateral Cooperation". Jakarta Globe. Retrieved 19 June 2013. 
  83. ^ "Tropical Rainforest". internetgeography.net. Internet Geography. Retrieved 12 June 2013. 
  84. ^ Alister Doyle (Aug 24, 2012). "Oslo urges Brazil, Indonesia to keep forest protection". reuters.com. Reuters. Retrieved 12 June 2013. 
  85. ^ Biodiversity Theme Report
  86. ^ Linda Yulisman (October 5, 2011). "Brazil hopes to forge closer links with Indonesia". www.thejakartapost.com. The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 8 June 2013. 
  87. ^ Awidya Santikajaya (February 7, 2013). "Emerging Indonesia and its global posture". www.thejakartapost.com. The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 8 June 2013. 
  88. ^ Ramadhian Fadillah (13 June 2012). "Soekarno soal cerutu Kuba, Che dan Castro" (in Indonesian). Merdeka.com. Retrieved 15 June 2013. 
  89. ^ Anne Tang (2010-01-22). "Indonesia, Cuba celebrate 50th anniversary of diplomatic ties". Xinhuanet.com. Retrieved 15 June 2013. 
  90. ^ "Indonesia, Suriname set for stronger cooperation". The Jakarta Post. March 19, 2013. Retrieved 10 June 2013. 
  91. ^ Veeramalla Anjaiah (July 3, 2009). "Venezuela, RI celebrate 50 years of friendly ties". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 16 June 2013. 
  92. ^ "Venezuela, RI to improve trade, investment relations". The Jakarta Post. April 14, 2010. Retrieved 16 June 2013. 
  93. ^ "Bilateral Cooperation - Algeria". Ministry of Foreign Affair, Republic of Indonesia. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  94. ^ tas (June 28, 2012). "Algeria to strengthen relations with Indonesia". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 17 June 2013. 
  95. ^ "Hubungan Bilateral Indonesia-Kenya" (in Indonesian). Ministry of Foreign Affairs of Indonesia. Retrieved 12 June 2013. 
  96. ^ "History of Madagascar". Lonely Planet.com. Retrieved 2010-07-07. 
  97. ^ Veeramalla Anjaiah and David Stone-Resneck (January 24, 2009). "Moroccan ambassador says democracy in RI will endure". The Jakarta Post. Retrieved 14 June 2013. 
  98. ^ "Indonesian Experts: Re-active for Farmers’ Agriculture and Rural Training Center (FAR-TC) in Tanzania". State Secretariat The Republic of Indonesia. 14 December 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2013. 
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External links[edit]