United States presidential election, 1920

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United States presidential election, 1920
United States
1916 ←
November 2, 1920
→ 1924

531 electoral votes of the Electoral College
266 electoral votes needed to win
  Warren G Harding-Harris & Ewing.jpg James M. Cox 1920.jpg
Nominee Warren G. Harding James M. Cox
Party Republican Democratic
Home state Ohio Ohio
Running mate Calvin Coolidge Franklin D. Roosevelt
Electoral vote 404 127
States carried 37 11
Popular vote 16,144,093 9,139,661
Percentage 60.3% 34.2%

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About this image
Presidential election results map. Red denotes states won by Harding/Coolidge, Blue denotes those won by Cox/Roosevelt. Numbers indicate the number of electoral votes allotted to each state.

President before election

Woodrow Wilson
Democratic

Elected President

Warren G. Harding
Republican

The United States presidential election of 1920 was the 34th quadrennial presidential election, held on Tuesday, November 2, 1920. The Republicans nominated newspaper publisher and Senator Warren G. Harding, while the Democrats chose newspaper publisher and Governor James M. Cox. Incumbent President Woodrow Wilson, a Democrat, chose not to run for a third term. Former president Theodore Roosevelt had been the frontrunner for the Republican nomination, but his health collapsed in 1918. He died in January 1919, leaving no obvious heir to his progressive legacy. As a result, both major parties ultimately turned to little-known dark horse candidates from the electoral-vote-rich state of Ohio. To help his campaign, Cox chose future president Franklin D. Roosevelt (a fifth cousin of Theodore) as his running mate. Harding virtually ignored Cox and essentially campaigned against Wilson, calling for a return to "normalcy." With an almost 4-to-1 spending advantage, Harding won a landslide victory by winning 37 states, including the first Republican victories in Arizona, New Mexico and Oklahoma (then the three most recently ratified U.S states).

The election was dominated by the aftermath of World War I and a hostile response to certain policies of Woodrow Wilson, as well as the massive reaction against the reformist zeal of the Progressive Era. The wartime economic boom had collapsed. Politicians were arguing over peace treaties and the question of America's entry into the League of Nations, which was overturned because of the return to non-interventionist opinion, a continuation of the nation's opinion since the early 1800s. Overseas, there were wars and revolutions. At home, 1919 was marked by major strikes in the meatpacking and steel industries, and large-scale race riots in Chicago and other cities. Anarchist attacks on Wall Street produced fears of radicals and terrorists. The Irish Catholic and German communities were outraged at Wilson's foreign policy, and his political position was critically weakened after he suffered a severe stroke in 1919 that rendered him unable to speak on his own behalf.

Harding's 26.2 percentage-point victory (60.3% to 34.1%) remains the largest popular-vote percentage margin in presidential elections after the so-called "Era of Good Feelings" ended with the unopposed election of James Monroe in 1820. Harding's 60.3% of the popular vote was also the greatest percentage since 1820, but has since been exceeded by Franklin Roosevelt in 1936, Lyndon Johnson in 1964, and Richard Nixon in 1972.

This election was the first since the ratification of the Nineteenth Amendment on August 18, 1920, and thus the first in which women had the right to vote in all 48 states (in the 1916 presidential election, about 30 states had permitted women to participate). As a result, the total popular vote increased dramatically, from 18.5 million in 1916 to 26.8 million in 1920.[1] This election is also notable for being the first of three in which a sitting U.S. senator was elected president (the others were 1960 and 2008).

Nominations[edit]

Republican Party nomination[edit]

Republican candidates:

On June 8, the Republican National Convention met in Chicago. The race was wide open, and soon the convention deadlocked between Major General Leonard Wood and Governor Frank Orren Lowden of Illinois.

Other names placed in nomination included Senators Warren G. Harding of Ohio, Hiram Johnson of California, and Miles Poindexter of Washington, Governor Calvin Coolidge of Massachusetts, philanthropist Herbert Hoover, and Columbia University President Nicholas Murray Butler. Senator Robert M. La Follette of Wisconsin was not formally placed in nomination, but received the votes of his state delegation nonetheless. Harding was nominated for president on the tenth ballot, after some delegates shifted their allegiances. The results of the ten ballots were as follows:

Presidential Balloting, Republican National Convention 1920
Ballot 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Before
shifts
10
After
shifts
Warren G. Harding 65.5 59.0 58.5 61.5 78.0 89.0 105.0 133.0 374.5 644.7 692.2
Leonard Wood 287.5 289.5 303.0 314.5 299.0 311.5 312.0 299.0 249.0 181.5 156.0
Frank Orren Lowden 211.5 259.5 282.5 289.0 303.0 311.5 311.5 307.0 121.5 28.0 11.0
Hiram Johnson 133.5 146.0 148.0 140.5 133.5 110.0 99.5 87.0 82.0 80.8 80.8
William Cameron Sproul 84.0 78.5 79.5 79.5 82.5 77.0 76.0 76.0 78.0 0 0
Nicholas Murray Butler 69.5 41.0 25.0 20.0 4.0 4.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0 2.0
Calvin Coolidge 34.0 32.0 27.0 25.0 29.0 28.0 28.0 30.0 28.0 5.0 5.0
Robert M. La Follette 24.0 24.0 24.0 22.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0 24.0
Jeter Connelly Pritchard 21.0 10.0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Miles Poindexter 20.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 15.0 14.0 2.0 0
Howard Sutherland 17.0 15.0 9.0 3.0 1.0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Herbert Hoover 5.5 5.5 5.5 5.0 6.0 5.0 4.0 5.0 6.0 10.5 9.5
Scattering 11.0 9.0 7.0 9.0 9.0 9.0 6.0 6.0 5.0 5.5 3.5

Harding's nomination, said to have been secured in negotiations among party bosses in a "smoke-filled room," was engineered by Harry M. Daugherty, Harding's political manager, who became United States Attorney General after his election. Prior to the convention, Daugherty was quoted as saying, "I don't expect Senator Harding to be nominated on the first, second, or third ballots, but I think we can afford to take chances that about 11 minutes after two, Friday morning of the convention, when 15 or 12 weary men are sitting around a table, someone will say: 'Who will we nominate?' At that decisive time, the friends of Harding will suggest him and we can well afford to abide by the result." Daugherty's prediction described essentially what occurred, but historians Richard C. Bain and Judith H. Parris argue that Daugherty's prediction has been given too much weight in narratives of the convention.

Once the presidential nomination was finally settled, the party bosses and Sen. Harding recommended Wisconsin Sen. Irvine Lenroot to the delegates for the second spot, but the delegates revolted and nominated Coolidge, who was very popular over his handling of the Boston Police Strike from the year before. The Tally:

Vice Presidential Balloting,
Republican Nat'l Convention 1920
Calvin Coolidge 674.5
Irvine Lenroot 146.5
Henry Justin Allen 68.5
Henry W. Anderson 28
Asle Gronna 24
Hiram Johnson 22.5
Jeter Connelly Pritchard 11
Abstaining 9

Source for convention coverage: Richard C. Bain and Judith H. Parris, Convention Decisions and Voting Records (Washington DC: Brookings Institution, 1973), pp. 200–208.

Democratic Party nomination[edit]

Democratic candidates:

A ticket purchased by a guest of the Democratic National Convention in San Francisco.

Although William Gibbs McAdoo (Wilson's son-in-law and former Treasury Secretary) was the strongest candidate, Wilson blocked his nomination in hopes a deadlocked convention would demand that he run for a third term, even though he was seriously ill, physically immobile, and in seclusion at the time. The Democrats, meeting in San Francisco between June 28 and July 6 (the first time a major party held its nominating convention in an urban center on the Pacific coast), nominated another newspaper editor from Ohio, Governor James M. Cox, as their presidential candidate, and 38-year-old Assistant Secretary of the Navy Franklin D. Roosevelt, a fifth cousin of the late president Theodore Roosevelt, for vice-president.

Early favorites for the nomination had included McAdoo and Attorney General Alexander Mitchell Palmer. Others placed in nomination included New York Governor Al Smith, United Kingdom Ambassador John W. Davis, New Jersey Governor Edward I. Edwards, and Oklahoma Senator Robert Latham Owen.

General election[edit]

Return to normalcy[edit]

See also: Normalcy

Warren Harding's main campaign slogan was a "return to normalcy", playing upon the weariness of the American public after the social upheaval of the Progressive Era. Additionally, the international responsibilities engendered by the American victory in World War I and the Treaty of Versailles proved deeply unpopular, causing a reaction against Wilson, who had pushed especially hard for the latter.

Ethnic issues[edit]

Poster for the 1920 Democratic presidential ticket

Irish Americans were powerful in the Democratic party, and groups such as Clan na Gael opposed going to war alongside their enemy Britain, especially after the violent suppression of the Easter Rising of 1916. Wilson won them over in 1917 by promising to ask Britain to give Ireland its independence. Wilson had won the presidential election of 1916 with strong support from German-Americans and Irish-Americans, largely because of his slogan "He kept us out of war" and the longstanding American policy of isolationism. At the Paris Peace Conference in 1919, however, he reneged on his commitments to the Irish-American community, and it vehemently denounced him. His dilemma was that Britain was his war ally. Events such as the anti-British Black Tom and Kingsland Explosions in 1916 on American soil (in part the result of wartime Irish and German co-ordination) and the Irish anti-conscription crisis of 1918 were all embarrassing to recall in 1920.[2][3]

Britain had already passed an Irish Home Rule Act in 1914, suspended for the war's duration. However the 1916 Easter Rising in Dublin had led to increased support for the more radical Sinn Féin who in 1919 formed the First Dáil, effectively declaring Ireland independent, sparking the Irish War of Independence. Britain was to pass the Government of Ireland Act in late 1920, by which Ireland would have 2 home-ruled states within the British empire. This satisfied Wilson. The provisions of these were inadequate to the supporters of the Irish Republic, however, which claimed full sovereignty. This position was also supported by many Irish Americans. The American Committee for Relief in Ireland was set up in 1920 to assist victims of the Irish War of Independence of 1919–21. Some Irish-American Senators joined the "irreconcilables" who blocked the ratification of the Treaty of Versailles and United States membership in the League of Nations.

Wilson blamed the Irish Americans and German Americans for the lack of popular support for his unsuccessful campaign to have the United States to join the League of Nations, saying, "There is an organized propaganda against the League of Nations and against the treaty proceeding from exactly the same sources that the organized propaganda proceeded from which threatened this country here and there with disloyalty, and I want to say—I cannot say too often—any man who carries a hyphen about with him [i.e., a hyphenated American] carries a dagger that he is ready to plunge into the vitals of this Republic whenever he gets ready."[4]

Of the $5,500,000 raised by supporters of the Irish Republic in the United States in 1919-20, the Dublin parliament (Dáil Éireann) voted in June 1920 to spend $500,000 on the American presidential election.[5] How this money was spent remains unclear. Ironically, the lawyer who had advised the fundraisers was Franklin D. Roosevelt, the losing vice-presidential candidate. In any case, the Irish American city machines sat on their hands during the election, allowing the Republicans to roll up unprecedented landslides in every major city. Many German-American Democrats voted Republican or stayed home, giving the GOP landslides in the rural Midwest.

Campaign[edit]

Roosevelt and Cox at a campaign appearance in Washington, D.C.

Wilson had hoped for a "solemn referendum" on the League of Nations, but did not get one. Harding waffled on the League, thereby keeping Idaho Senator William Borah and other Republican "irreconcilables" in line. Cox also hedged. He went to the White House to seek Wilson's blessing and apparently endorsed the League, but—upon discovering its unpopularity among Democrats—revised his position to one that would accept the League only with reservations, particularly on Article Ten, which would require the United States to participate in any war declared by the League (thus taking the same standpoint as Republican Senate leader Henry Cabot Lodge). As reporter Brand Whitlock observed, the League was an issue important in government circles, but rather less so to the electorate. He also noted that the campaign was not being waged on issues: "The people, indeed, do not know what ideas Harding or Cox represents; neither do Harding or Cox. Great is democracy."[6] False rumors circulated that Senator Harding had "Negro blood," but this did not greatly hurt Harding's election campaign.

Governor Cox made a whirlwind campaign that took him to rallies, train station speeches, and formal addresses, reaching audiences totaling perhaps two million, whereas Senator Harding relied upon a "Front Porch Campaign" similar to that of William McKinley in 1896. It brought thousands of voters to Marion, Ohio, where Harding spoke from his home. GOP campaign manager Will Hays spent some $8.1 million, nearly four times the money Cox's campaign spent. Hays used national advertising in a major way (with advice from adman Albert Lasker). The theme was Harding's own slogan "America First." Thus the Republican advertisement in Collier's Magazine for October 30, 1920, demanded, "Let's be done with wiggle and wobble." The image presented in the ads was nationalistic, using catch phrases like "absolute control of the United States by the United States," "Independence means independence, now as in 1776," "This country will remain American. Its next President will remain in our own country," and "We decided long ago that we objected to foreign government of our people."[7]

On election night, November 2, 1920, commercial radio broadcast coverage of election returns for the first time. Announcers at KDKA-AM in Pittsburgh read telegraph ticker results over the air as they came in. This single station could be heard over most of the Eastern United States by the small percentage of the population that had radio receivers.

Harding's landslide came from all directions except the South. Irish- and German-American voters who had backed Wilson and peace in 1916 now voted against Wilson and Versailles. "A vote for Harding", said the German-language press, "is a vote against the persecutions suffered by German-Americans during the war." Not one major German-language newspaper supported Governor Cox.[8] Many Irish Americans, bitterly angry at Wilson's refusal to help Ireland at Versailles, simply abstained from voting in the presidential election. This allowed the Republicans to mobilize the ethnic vote, and Harding swept the big cities.

Clifford Berryman's cartoon depiction of Eugene V. Debs' campaign from prison.

This was the first election in which women from every state were allowed to vote, following the passage of the 19th Amendment to the Constitution in August 1920 (just in time for the general election).

Tennessee's vote for Warren G. Harding marked the first time since the end of Reconstruction that one of the 11 states of the former Confederacy had voted for a Republican presidential candidate. Tennessee had last been carried by a Republican when Ulysses Simpson Grant claimed it in 1868.

Despite the fact that Cox was defeated badly, his running mate Franklin D. Roosevelt became a well-known political figure because of his active and energetic campaign. In 1928 he was elected Governor of New York, and in 1932 he was elected president. He remained in power until his death in 1945 as the longest-serving American president in history.

Other candidates[edit]

Socialist Party candidate Eugene V. Debs received 913,664 popular votes (3.4%), despite the fact that he was in prison at the time for advocating non-compliance with the draft during World War I. This was the largest number of popular votes ever received by a Socialist Party candidate in the United States, although not the largest percentage of the popular vote. Debs received double this percentage in the election of 1912.[9] The 1920 election was his fifth and last attempt to become president.

Parley P. Christensen of the Farmer-Labor Party took 265,411 votes (1.0%), while Prohibition Party candidate Aaron S. Watkins came in fifth with 189,339 votes (0.7%), the poorest showing for the Prohibition party since 1884. Since the Eighteenth Amendment, which initiated the period of Prohibition in the United States, had passed the previous year, this single-issue party seemed less relevant.

Results[edit]

Results by county explicitly indicating the percentage for the winning candidate. Shades of red are for Harding (Republican), shades of blue are for Cox (Democratic), and shades of green are for "Other(s)" (Non-Democratic/Non-Republican).

The total vote of 1920 was roughly 26,750,000, an increase of 8,000,000 from 1916.[10] The Democratic vote was almost exactly the vote of 1916, but the Republican vote nearly doubled, as did the "other" vote. As pointed out earlier, the great increase in the total number of votes is mainly attributable to the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution.

Nearly two-thirds of the counties (1,949) were carried by the Republicans. The Democrats carried only 1,101 counties, a smaller number than Alton Parker had carried in 1904 and consequently the smallest number during the Fourth Party System. Not a single county was carried in the Pacific section by the Democrats, and only 13 in the Mountain section, where in 1916 there had been 223. There was a loss in every section in the Union and a loss in every state except South Carolina and Mississippi. Eleven counties in Texas recorded more votes cast for "Other(s)" than either of the two-party candidates.

The distribution of the county vote accurately represents the overwhelming character of the majority vote. Harding had 60.35% of the total vote, the largest percentage in the Fourth Party System, exceeding that of Franklin Roosevelt in 1932.

Although the Democratic portion was 34.13%, in no section did its voting share sink below 24%, and in 3 sections it topped the poll. Obviously the Democratic Party was still an opposition force on national terms, despite the fact that Cox won the electoral vote of only 11 states and had fewer votes in the electoral college than Parker had won in 1904. More than two-thirds of the Cox vote was in states carried by Harding.

The distribution of the vote by counties, and the study of percentages in sections, states, and counties, seem to show that it was Wilson and foreign policies that received the brunt of attack, not the Democratic Party and the domestic proposals of the period 1896-1914.[11]

Presidential candidate Party Home state Popular vote Electoral
vote
Running mate
Count Pct Vice-presidential candidate Home state Elect. vote
Warren G. Harding Republican Ohio 16,144,093 60.32% 404 Calvin Coolidge Massachusetts 404
James M. Cox Democratic Ohio 9,139,661 34.15% 127 Franklin D. Roosevelt New York 127
Eugene V. Debs Socialist Indiana 913,693 3.41% 0 Seymour Stedman Illinois 0
Parley P. Christensen Farmer-Labor Illinois 265,398 0.99% 0 Max S. Hayes Ohio 0
Aaron S. Watkins Prohibition Indiana 188,787 0.71% 0 D. Leigh Colvin New York 0
James E. Ferguson American Texas 47,968 0.18% 0 William J. Hough New York 0
William Wesley Cox Socialist Labor Missouri 31,084 0.12% 0 August Gillhaus New York 0
Robert Colvin Macauley Single Tax Pennsylvania 5,750 0.02% 0 Richard C. Barnum Ohio 0
Other 28,746 0.11% Other
Total 26,765,180 100% 531 531
Needed to win 266 266

Source (Popular Vote): Leip, David. 1920 Presidential Election Results. Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections (September 11, 2012).

Source (Electoral Vote): Electoral College Box Scores 1789–1996. Official website of the National Archives. (July 31, 2005).

Popular vote
Harding
  
60.32%
Cox
  
34.15%
Debs
  
3.41%
Christensen
  
0.99%
Others
  
1.13%
Electoral vote
Harding
  
76.08%
Cox
  
23.92%

Results by state[edit]

[12]

States won by Harding/Coolidge
States won by Cox/Roosevelt
Warren G. Harding
Republican
James Cox
Democratic
Eugene Debs
Socialist
Parley Christensen
Farmer-Labor
Aaron Watkins
Prohibition
James Ferguson
American
William Cox
Socialist Labor
Margin State Total
State electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % electoral
votes
#  % #
Alabama 12 74,556 31.37 - 159,965 67.31 12 2,369 1.00 - - - - 748 0.31 - - - - - - - -85,409 -35.94 237,638 AL
Arizona 3 37,016 55.61 3 29,546 44.39 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - 7,470 11.22 66,562 AZ
Arkansas 9 71,117 38.73 - 107,409 58.49 9 5,111 2.78 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -36,292 -19.76 183,637 AR
California 13 624,992 66.20 13 229,191 24.28 - 64,076 6.79 - - - - 25,204 2.67 - - - - - - - 395,801 41.93 944,050 CA
Colorado 6 173,248 59.32 6 104,936 35.93 - 8,046 2.75 - 3,016 1.03 - 2,807 0.96 - - - - - - - 68,312 23.39 292,053 CO
Connecticut 7 229,238 62.72 7 120,721 33.03 - 10,350 2.83 - 1,947 0.53 - 1,771 0.48 - - - - 1,491 0.41 - 108,517 29.69 365,518 CT
Delaware 3 52,858 55.71 3 39,911 42.07 - 988 1.04 - 93 0.10 - 986 1.04 - - - - - - - 12,947 13.65 94,875 DE
Florida 6 44,853 30.79 - 90,515 62.13 6 5,189 3.56 - - - - 5,124 3.52 - - - - - - - -45,662 -31.34 145,681 FL
Georgia 14 41,089 27.72 - 107,162 72.28 14 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -66,073 -44.57 148,251 GA
Idaho 4 88,975 65.60 4 46,579 34.34 - 38 0.03 - - - - 32 0.02 - - - - - - - 42,396 31.26 135,624 ID
Illinois 29 1,420,480 67.81 29 534,395 25.51 - 74,747 3.57 - 49,630 2.37 - 11,216 0.54 - - - - 3,471 0.17 - 886,085 42.30 2,094,714 IL
Indiana 15 696,370 55.14 15 511,364 40.49 - 24,703 1.96 - 16,499 1.31 - 13,462 1.07 - - - - - - - 185,006 14.65 1,262,964 IN
Iowa 13 634,674 70.91 13 227,921 25.46 - 16,981 1.90 - 10,321 1.15 - 4,197 0.47 - - - - 982 0.11 - 406,753 45.44 895,082 IA
Kansas 10 369,268 64.75 10 185,464 32.52 - 15,511 2.72 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 183,804 32.23 570,318 KS
Kentucky 13 452,480 49.25 - 456,497 49.69 13 6,409 0.70 - - - - 3,322 0.36 - - - - - - - -4,017 -0.44 918,708 KY
Louisiana 10 38,538 30.49 - 87,519 69.24 10 - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -48,981 -38.75 126,396 LA
Maine 6 136,355 68.92 6 58,961 29.80 - 2,214 1.12 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 77,394 39.12 197,840 ME
Maryland 8 236,117 55.11 8 180,626 42.16 - 8,876 2.07 - 1,645 0.38 - - - - - - - 1,178 0.27 - 55,491 12.95 428,443 MD
Massachusetts 18 681,153 68.55 18 276,691 27.84 - 32,267 3.25 - - - - - - - - - - 3,583 0.36 - 404,462 40.70 993,718 MA
Michigan 15 762,865 72.76 15 233,450 22.27 - 28,947 2.76 - 10,480 1.00 - 9,646 0.92 - - - - 2,539 0.24 - 529,415 50.50 1,048,411 MI
Minnesota 12 519,421 70.59 12 142,994 19.43 - 56,106 7.62 - - - - 11,489 1.56 - - - - 5,828 0.79 - 376,427 51.16 735,838 MN
Mississippi 10 11,576 14.03 - 69,277 83.98 10 1,639 1.99 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -57,701 -69.95 82,492 MS
Missouri 18 727,162 54.56 18 574,799 43.13 - 20,242 1.52 - 3,291 0.25 - 5,142 0.39 - - - - 2,164 0.16 - 152,363 11.43 1,332,800 MO
Montana 4 109,430 61.13 4 57,372 32.05 - - - - 12,204 6.82 - - - - - - - - - - 52,058 29.08 179,006 MT
Nebraska 8 247,498 64.66 8 119,608 31.25 - 9,600 2.51 - - - - 5,947 1.55 - - - - - - - 127,890 33.41 382,743 NE
Nevada 3 15,479 56.92 3 9,851 36.22 - 1,864 6.85 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 5,628 20.70 27,194 NV
New Hampshire 4 95,196 59.84 4 62,662 39.39 - 1,234 0.78 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 32,534 20.45 159,092 NH
New Jersey 14 611,541 67.65 14 256,887 28.42 - 27,141 3.00 - 2,200 0.24 - 4,734 0.52 - - - - 923 0.10 - 354,654 39.23 903,943 NJ
New Mexico 3 57,634 54.68 3 46,668 44.27 - - - - 1,104 1.05 - - - - - - - - - - 10,966 10.40 105,406 NM
New York 45 1,871,167 64.56 45 781,238 26.95 - 203,201 7.01 - 18,413 0.64 - 19,653 0.68 - - - - 4,841 0.17 - 1,089,929 37.60 2,898,513 NY
North Carolina 12 232,848 43.22 - 305,447 56.70 12 446 0.08 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -72,599 -13.48 538,741 NC
North Dakota 5 160,072 77.79 5 37,422 18.19 - 8,282 4.02 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 122,650 59.60 205,776 ND
Ohio 24 1,182,022 58.47 24 780,037 38.58 - 57,147 2.83 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 401,985 19.88 2,021,653 OH
Oklahoma 10 243,831 50.11 10 217,053 44.61 - 25,726 5.29 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 26,778 5.50 486,610 OK
Oregon 5 143,592 60.20 5 80,019 33.55 - 9,801 4.11 - - - - 3,595 1.51 - - - - 1,515 0.64 - 63,573 26.65 238,522 OR
Pennsylvania 38 1,218,216 65.76 38 503,843 27.20 - 70,571 3.81 - 15,704 0.85 - 42,696 2.30 - - - - 753 0.04 - 714,373 38.56 1,852,616 PA
Rhode Island 5 107,463 63.97 5 55,062 32.78 - 4,351 2.59 - - - - 510 0.30 - - - - 495 0.29 - 52,401 31.19 167,981 RI
South Carolina 9 2,610 3.91 - 64,170 96.05 9 28 0.04 - - - - - - - - - - - - - -61,560 -92.14 66,808 SC
South Dakota 5 110,692 60.74 5 35,938 19.72 - - - - 34,707 19.04 - 900 0.49 - - - - - - - 74,754 41.02 182,237 SD
Tennessee 12 219,829 51.29 12 206,558 48.19 - 2,239 0.52 - - - - - - - - - - - - - 13,271 3.10 428,626 TN
Texas 20 114,538 23.54 - 288,767 59.34 20 8,121 1.67 - - - - - - - 47,968 9.86 - - - - -174,229 -35.80 486,641 TX
Utah 4 81,555 55.93 4 56,639 38.84 - 3,159 2.17 - 4,475 3.07 - - - - - - - - - - 24,916 17.09 145,828 UT
Vermont 4 68,212 75.82 4 20,919 23.25 - - - - - - - 774 0.86 - - - - - - - 47,293 52.57 89,961 VT
Virginia 12 87,456 37.85 - 141,670 61.32 12 807 0.35 - 243 0.11 - 857 0.37 - - - - - - - -54,214 -23.47 231,033 VA
Washington 7 223,137 55.96 7 84,298 21.14 - 8,913 2.24 - 77,246 19.37 - 3,800 0.95 - - - - 1,321 0.33 - 138,839 34.82 398,715 WA
West Virginia 8 282,007 55.30 8 220,789 43.30 - 5,618 1.10 - - - - 1,528 0.30 - - - - - - - 61,218 12.00 509,942 WV
Wisconsin 13 498,576 71.10 13 113,422 16.17 - 80,635 11.50 - - - - 8,647 1.23 - - - - - - - 385,154 54.92 701,280 WI
Wyoming 3 35,091 64.15 3 17,429 31.86 - - - - 2,180 3.99 - - - - - - - - - - 17,662 32.29 54,700 WY
TOTALS: 531 16,144,093 60.32 404 9,139,661 34.15 127 913,693 3.41 - 265,398 0.99 - 188,787 0.71 - 47,968 0.18 - 31,084 0.12 - 7,004,432 26.17 26,765,180 US

Close states[edit]

Margin of victory less than 5% (25 electoral votes):

  1. Kentucky, 0.44%
  2. Tennessee, 3.10%

Margin of victory between 5% and 10% (10 electoral votes):

  1. Oklahoma, 5.50%

Geography of Results[edit]

Cartographic Gallery[edit]

Statistics[edit]

Counties with Highest Percentage of the Vote (Republican)

  1. McIntosh County, North Dakota 95.76%
  2. Leslie County, Kentucky 94.22%
  3. Sevier County, Tennessee 93.60%
  4. Sheridan County, North Dakota 92.98%
  5. Billings County, North Dakota 92.81%

Counties with Highest Percentage of the Vote (Democratic)

  1. Chester County, South Carolina 100.00%
  2. Edgefield County, South Carolina 100.00%
  3. Clarendon County, South Carolina 100.00%
  4. Bamberg County, South Carolina 100.00%
  5. Hampton County, South Carolina 100.00%

Counties with Highest Percentage of the Vote (Other)

  1. Austin County, Texas 61.72%
  2. Fort Bend County, Texas 59.35%
  3. Lavaca County, Texas 57.76%
  4. Fayette County, Texas 55.12%
  5. Washington County, Texas 54.04%

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections, accessed Jan. 2012.
  2. ^ Landrich's 1937 book on sabotage incidents
  3. ^ Essay by M. Plowman (2009) on the complexities of the "Indo-Irish-German" conspiracy in the USA during the war.
  4. ^ American Rhetoric, "Final Address in Support of the League of Nations", Woodrow Wilson, delivered September 25, 1919 in Pueblo, CO.
  5. ^ Dáil vote, 29 June 1920
  6. ^ Sinclair, p. 168
  7. ^ Sinclair, p. 162
  8. ^ Sinclair, p. 163
  9. ^ Presidentelect.org
  10. ^ The Presidential Vote, 1896-1932, Edgar E. Robinson, p. 19
  11. ^ The Presidential Vote, 1896-1932, Edgar E. Robinson, pg. 21
  12. ^ "1920 Presidential General Election Data - National". Retrieved March 18, 2013. 

References[edit]

  • Bagby, Wesley M. (1962). The Road to Normalcy: The Presidential Campaign and Election of 1920. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins Press. 
  • Boller, Paul F., Jr. (2004). Presidential Campaigns: From George Washington to George W. Bush. New York: Oxford University Press. pp. 212–217. ISBN 0-19-516716-3. 
  • Cooper, John Milton (2001). Breaking the Heart of the World: Woodrow Wilson and the Fight for the League of Nations. New York: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-80786-7. 
  • Duff, John B. (1970). "German-Americans and the Peace, 1918–1920". American Jewish Historical Quarterly 59 (4): 424–459. ISSN 0002-9068. 
  • Duff, John B. (1968). "The Versailles Treaty and the Irish-Americans". Journal of American History (Organization of American Historians) 55 (3): 582–598. doi:10.2307/1891015. ISSN 0021-8723. JSTOR 1891015. 
  • McCoy, Donald R. (1971). "The Election of 1920". In Schlesinger, Arthur M., Jr.; Israel, Fred L. History of American Presidential Elections. New York: Chelsea House. ISBN 0-07-079786-2. 
  • Morello, John A. (2001). Selling the President, 1920: Albert D. Lasker, Advertising, and the Election of Warren G. Harding. Westport, CT: Praeger. ISBN 0-275-97030-2. 
  • Pietrusza, David (2007). 1920: The Year of the Six Presidents. New York: Carroll & Graf. ISBN 0-7867-1622-3. 
  • Sinclair, Andrew (1965). The Available Man: The Life behind the Masks of Warren Gamaliel Harding. New York: Macmillan. 
  • "The Presidential Election of 1920". American Leaders Speak: Recordings from World War I and the 1920 Election. Library of Congress. Retrieved November 16, 2002. 

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]