Voronezh radar

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Voronezh
Dmitry Medvedev in Kaliningrad Oblast, November 2011-3.jpeg
Part completed Voronezh-DM radar in Kaliningrad, November 2011
Country of origin Russia
Introduced 2009
Number built 4 operational in 2012, others planned
Type Early warning radar
Frequency Voronezh-M: 150-200 MHz (VHF)
Voronezh-DM: 0.1m wavelength (UHF)
Range Around 4,200 kilometres (2,610 mi) [1][2]
Power Claimed 0.7MW consumption [1][2]
Other Names 77YA6
Voronezh radar is located in Russia
Lekhtusi
Lekhtusi
Armavir
Armavir
Pionersky
Pionersky
Irkutsk
Irkutsk
Pechora
Pechora
Olenegorsk
Olenegorsk
Voronezh radar - operational and planned.

Voronezh radars (Russian: Воронеж) are the current generation of Russian early warning radar, providing long distance monitoring of airspace against ballistic missile attack. The first radar, in Lekhtusi near St Petersburg, became operational in 2009. There is a plan to replace older radars with the Voronezh by 2020.[3]

Their common name follows the pattern of Soviet radars in being named after a river, the Voronezh. The previous generation of radar was known as the Daryal (after Darial Gorge), Volga (after Volga River) and Daugava (Daugava River) and the generation before the Dnepr (Dnieper River), and Dnestr (Dniester River).

Rear of the Voronezh-M radar array in Lekhtusi

The Voronezh radars are described as highly prefabricated meaning that they have a set up time of months rather than years and need fewer personnel than previous generations. They are also modular so that a radar can be brought into (partial) operation whilst being incomplete.[4]

Russia has used the launch of these new radars to raise its concerns about US missile defence in Europe. At the launch of the Kaliningrad radar in November 2011 Russian President Dmitry Medvedev was quoted as saying "I expect that this step [the launch of the radar] will be seen by our partners as the first signal of our country's readiness to make an adequate response to the threats which the missile shield poses for our strategic nuclear forces."[5]

Types[edit]

  • Voronezh-M (77Ya6-M) works in the metre range (VHF) and was designed by RTI Mints.
  • Voronezh-DM (77Ya6-DM) works in the decimeter range (UHF) and was designed by NPK NIIDAR. Has a range of 6,000 km and is capable of simultaneously tracking 500 objects.[6][7]
  • Voronezh-VP (77Ya6-VP) works in the metre range (VHF) and was designed by RTI Mints. The only one built has 6 segments instead of the 3 of the Voronezh-M.[8]

A Voronezh-M is claimed to cost 2.85 billion rubles and a DM 4.3 billion rubles.[9][10] This compares to the 5 billion ruble cost of a Dnepr and 19.8 billion rubles for a Daryal,[9] at current prices. They are manufactured at the Saransk Television Plant.[11]

Their designers - Sergey Boev (RTI), Sergey Saprykin (NIIDAR) and Valeriy Karasev (RTI Mints) were jointly awarded the 2011 State Prize for Science and Technology for their work on the Voronezh.[12][13]

Installations[edit]

The first radar, a Voronezh-M, was built in Lekhtusi near St Petersburg. It entered testing in 2005 and was declared "combat ready" in 2012.[14] It is adjacent to the A. Mozhaysky Military Space Academy, which is an officer training centre for the Aerospace Defence Forces.[15] It is described as filling the early warning gap caused by the closure of the radar station at Skrunda in Latvia in 1998.,[16] although the Volga radar in Belarus has also been described as doing this, and as a UHF radar the Volga has a different resolution from the VHF Voronezh-M.

The second radar is at Armavir in southern Russia on the site of Baronovsky Airfield. It is a Voronezh-DM, a UHF radar and was announced as replacing the coverage lost when the Dnepr radars in Ukraine were closed in 2009. There are actually two radars at this site, the first one covers the south west and could replace the Ukrainian radars.[17] The second one facing south east and could replace the Daryal radar in Gabala that closed at the end of 2012.[18][19]

The third radar is to the south of Pionersky in Kaliningrad, on the site of Dunayevka airfield. It is another UHF Voronezh-DM and is surrounded by countries that are now in NATO. There is only one radar here and it will be fully operational in 2014.[20]

A radar is being built at Mishelevka in Irkutsk on the site of the former, and never operational, Daryal radar which was demolished in 2011.[21] The radar is a Voronezh-VP and is sited close to the former Daryal transmitter building.[22] This radar covers the south and can replace one of the two Dnepr radars at that site. Another Voronezh-VP array is planned which would give 240 degrees coverage [23] and this may be ready by 2014.[10]

It is planned to build a Voronezh-VP radar at Pechora in 2015 to replace the Daryal there. Similarly a Voronezh-VP is planned for Olenegorsk in 2017 to replace the Dnepr/Daugava.[24] As part of the public negotiations over the future of Gabala Radar Station it had been suggested that the Daryal there could be replaced by a Voronezh-VP in 2017, although the station closed at the end of 2012 instead.[10][11]

Work started on the station at Barnaul in 2013, other locations announced are Omsk, Yeniseysk and Orenburg.[11][25][26]

Locations[edit]

Location Coordinates Type Built Details
Lekhtusi Radar Station, Leningrad Oblast 60°16′31.65″N 30°32′45.66″E / 60.2754583°N 30.5460167°E / 60.2754583; 30.5460167 (Lekhtusi Voronezh radar) Voronezh-M -2005 Operational 2009,[27] commissioned 2012.[28] fills gap in coverage caused by loss of Skrunda-1 radar [16][29]
Armavir Radar Station, Krasnodar 44°55′30.38″N 40°59′2.02″E / 44.9251056°N 40.9838944°E / 44.9251056; 40.9838944 (Armavir Voronezh radar) Voronezh-DM 2009 Two radars at this site.[17][30] One is currently operational and covers the south west, the second stage covers the south/south-east and could replace Gabala Radar Station in Azerbaijan.[31]
Pionersky Radar Station at former Dunayevka air base near Pionersky, Kaliningrad 54°51′26″N 20°10′56″E / 54.857294°N 20.18235°E / 54.857294; 20.18235 (Pionersky Voronezh radar) Voronezh-DM 2012 Operational (in part) November 2011.[4] Fully operational by 2014 [20]
Mishelevka Radar Station, Irkutsk 52°51′20.11″N 103°13′53.94″E / 52.8555861°N 103.2316500°E / 52.8555861; 103.2316500 (Mishelevka Voronezh radar) Voronezh-VP Daryal-U radar demolished June 2011, new radar being tested in April 2012.[21][24][32]
Pechora Radar Station, Komi 65°12′36.59″N 57°17′43.38″E / 65.2101639°N 57.2953833°E / 65.2101639; 57.2953833 (Pechora radar station) roughly Voronezh-VP Would replace current Daryal radar, claimed to start 2015 [24]
Olenegorsk Radar Station, Murmansk 68°6′59.63″N 33°55′8.69″E / 68.1165639°N 33.9190806°E / 68.1165639; 33.9190806 (Olenegorsk radar station) roughly Voronezh-VP Would replace Dnestr/Daugava radar at this site, claimed to start 2017 [24]
Krasnoyarsk May be the former radar site at Yeniseysk 2013- [33]
Altai Republic near Barnaul 2013- [26][33]
Orenburg 2013- Started.[33]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Радиолокационная станция высокой заводской готовности "Воронеж-ДМ"" [Radar of high prefabrication Voronezh-DM] (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Defence. undated. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-02-08. 
  2. ^ a b "Радиолокационная станция высокой заводской готовности "Воронеж-М"" [Radar of high prefabrication Voronezh-M] (in Russian). Russian Ministry of Defence. undated. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-02-08. 
  3. ^ "Russia to put new radar on combat duty near Irkutsk in 2012". RIA Novosti. 2012-01-08. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-02-01. 
  4. ^ a b Podvig, Pavel (2011-11-29). "Voronezh-DM radar near Kaliningrad is operational". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-01-09. 
  5. ^ Bogdanov, Konstantin (2011-11-29). "Russia activates radar aimed at Europe". RIA Novosti. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-01-22. 
  6. ^ Задача по быстрому развертыванию РЛС в России выполнима, сообщает ВКО РИА Новости
  7. ^ "РЛС ВЗГ "Воронеж ДМ"". РТИ Системы. Archived from the original on 2012-02-27. Retrieved 2011-01-30. 
  8. ^ "Начались испытания иркутской РЛС системы предупреждения о ракетном нападении" [The Irkutsk early warning radar began testing]. Сделано у нас. 2012-03-20. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-04-26. 
  9. ^ a b "РЛС "Воронеж", радиолокационная станция СПРН высокой заводской готовности" [Voronezh early warning radar of high prefabrication]. Оружие России [Weapons of Russia]. undated. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-04-26. 
  10. ^ a b c "Радиолокационные станции дальнего обнаружения СПРН "Воронеж"" [Early warning radar stations "Voronezh"] (in Russian). Военное обозрение [Military Review]. 2012-01-12. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-04-26. 
  11. ^ a b c Stukalin, Alexander (May 2012). "Russian Air and Space Defense Troops: Gaping Holes". Moscow Defense Brief (Centre for Analysis of Strategies and Technologies) 2012 (2). 
  12. ^ "Указ "О присуждении Государственных премий Российской Федерации в области науки и технологий 2011 года"" [Decree: On the awarding of the state prizes of the Russian Federation in the field of science and technology 2011]. Kremlin.ru. 2012-06-08. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-06-18. 
  13. ^ "За создание РЛС нового поколения "Воронеж" высокой заводской готовности ряду специалистов вручена Государственная премия" [For the creation of a new generation of radar of high prefabrication "Voronezh" a number of experts were awarded the state prize]. Центр анализа мировой торговли оружием [Centre for the Analysis of the Global Arms Trade]. 2012-06-08. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-06-18. 
  14. ^ Podvig, Pavel (2012-02-11). "Radar in Lekhtusi begins combat duty". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-04-13. 
  15. ^ Podvig, Pavel (2006-01-30). "Voronezh-DM radar is in Lekhtusi". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-04-13. 
  16. ^ a b Podvig, Pavel (2009-12-23). "Radar in Lekhtusi accepted for service". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2011-09-11. 
  17. ^ a b Podvig, Pavel (2009-02-14). "Two radars at Armavir". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-01-09. 
  18. ^ Podvig, Pavel (2009-02-12). "Armavir radar fills the gap". Russian strategic nuclear forces. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-01-09. 
  19. ^ http://rt.com/politics/gabala-radar-station-agreement-804/
  20. ^ a b "Russia's Baltic radar to be fully operational by 2014". RIA Novosti. 2011-12-15. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-02-01. 
  21. ^ a b Podvig, Pavel (2011-06-21). "Daryal-U radar in Mishelevka demolished". Russian strategic nuclear forces. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-01-30. 
  22. ^ Podvig, Pavel (2012-04-07). "Voronezh-M radar in Mishelevka identified". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-04-26. 
  23. ^ "Russia Turns on New Missile Warning Radar". RIA Novosti. 2012-05-23. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-06-01. 
  24. ^ a b c d "Модернизация радаров СПРН в Северо-Западном округе начнется в 2015 году" [Upgrading early warning radars in the Northwest District will begin in 2015] (in Russian). Lenta.ru. 2011-12-12. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-01-09. 
  25. ^ Podvig, Pavel (2012-04-12). "Early Warning". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 1 June 2012. 
  26. ^ a b "Строительство радиолокационной станции Системы предупреждения о ракетном нападении началось в Алтайском крае" [Construction of a missile warning radar system began in Altay]. TASS. 2013-06-02. Retrieved 2013-06-05. 
  27. ^ "Russia set to restore radar shield on western borders in 2010.". RIA Novosti. 2010-01-15. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-02-12. 
  28. ^ "St. Petersburg Radar to be Put on Alert in Feb.". RIA Novosti. 2012-02-09. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-02-12. 
  29. ^ "Перспективные РЛС" [Advanced radar] (in Russian). RTI Mints. undated. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-01-09. 
  30. ^ "Известия: Россия восстанавливает "противоракетный зонтик"" [Izvestia: Russia restores the "missile umbrella"] (in Russian). Izvestia. undated. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2011-08-11. 
  31. ^ Bogdanov, Konstantin (2012-03-02). "Russia to Bargain for Gabala Radar With Scan on Alternatives.". RIA Novosti. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-03-04. 
  32. ^ Podvig, Pavel (2012-03-22). "New Voronezh-M radar in Mishelevka entered trials". Russian Strategic Nuclear Forces. Archived from the original on 2012-12-02. Retrieved 2012-04-08. 
  33. ^ a b c "Russia to Start Construction of Three Radar Stations". RIA Novosti. 2013-01-06. Retrieved 2013-04-14. 

External links[edit]