Help:IPA for Greek

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The charts below show the way in which the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) represents Ancient Greek and Modern Greek pronunciations in Wikipedia articles.

See Ancient Greek phonology and Modern Greek phonology for a more thorough look at the sounds of these languages.

IPA AG MG Example English approximation
c κ κιόλας skew
k κ κατά scar
χ χάρτης car
x χ somewhat like hat, Scottish English loch
ç χέρι hue
ʝ γ γη yes
ɣ γάλα somewhat like woman, but with spread lips
ɡ γ game
ɟ άγγελος argue
p π πέτρα spy
φ φως paint
f φ four
v β[1] βέλος vet
b β boy
μπ μπάρμπας
t τ τάφος stay
θ θεός take
θ θ thought
ð δ δούλη the
d δ duck
ντ εντάξει
h ρως hat
l λ λόγος look
ʎ λ ελιά million
m μ μοίρα mole
n ν ναι no
ɲ ν νιότη onion
ŋ γ άγχος sing
ρ ώρα American English ladder
ίζα somewhat like train
s σ
σοφία sow
z ζ ζωή zoo
t͡s τσ τσάι cats
d͡z τζ τζάκι pads
ks ξ ξένος tax
ps ψ ψυχή tips

Dialectal segments
IPA English approximation
ʃ shame
ʒ vision
t͡ʃ check
d͡ʒ jam
æ cat
IPA Explanation
◌ː marks a consonant produced twice as long
IPA AG MG Example English approximation
a α άρτος British English cut
χώρ father
ɛː η ψυχή heir
e ε[2] θεός met
ει εἰμί somewhat like kit, but long
i ι[3] ίδιος like need, but short
πίνω like need, but long
ɔː ω ἐγώ nose
o ο[4] οδός British English: like core, but short
ου μου British English core
u ου pool
y φύσις British English: somewhat like cue, but short
νν British English: somewhat like cue

IPA[5] AG MG Example Explanation
◌́ ´ γάλα ála] high tone
◌̌ ´ ἐγώ [eɡɔ̌ː] rising tone
` μν [men] mid tone
◌̂ γ ɛ̂ː] falling tone
ˈ ΄ άλλος [ˈa.los] stress
. syllable break


  1. ^ [v] and [f] are also spelt υ in Modern Greek, occurring in the combinations αυ ευ ηυ. [f] occurs before an unvoiced consonant, and [v] in other places. αυ ευ ηυ were the diphthongs au eu ɛːu in Ancient Greek.
  2. ^ [e] is also spelt αι in Modern Greek; αι was the diphthong [ai] in Ancient Greek.
  3. ^ [i] is also spelt η, υ, ει, , οι and υι in Modern Greek. These were pronounced [ɛː, y/yː, eː, ɛːi, oi, yi] in Ancient Greek. The large number of vowel mergers into [i] is called iotacism.
  4. ^ [o] is also spelt ω in Modern Greek.
  5. ^ The symbols used here for Ancient Greek pitch accent must be added as combining characters in some cases. Place the numeric character reference after the letter that you wish to put the accent on, then press Show preview and copy the resulting accented character. ́ is the numeric character reference for combining acute tone mark (high tone), ̌ for combining caron (rising tone), ̂ for combining circumflex (falling tone).

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