Wuhan Metro

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Wuhan Metro
Wuhan Metro Logo.svg
Overview
Locale Wuhan
Transit type Rapid transit
Number of lines 3
Number of stations 62
Daily ridership 1,290,000 (May 2014 Peak)[1]
Annual ridership 73 million (2011, Line 1 only)[2]
Operation
Began operation 2004
Operator(s) Wuhan Metro Co., Ltd
Technical
System length 79.1 km (49.2 mi)
Track gauge 1435 mm (Standard gauge)
System map
Map of Wuhan Metro
Wuhan Metro
Traditional Chinese 武漢地鐵
Simplified Chinese 武汉地铁
Alternative Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 武漢軌道交通
Simplified Chinese 武汉轨道交通

The Wuhan Metro is an elevated and underground urban metro system in the city of Wuhan, Hubei, China, operated by the Wuhan Metro Co., Ltd. The system began its operation on July 28, 2004 with the completion of a ten-station long elevated rail between Huangpu Road and Zongguan,[3] making Wuhan the fifth city in mainland China to have a metro system after Beijing, Tianjin, Shanghai, and Guangzhou.[4] Line 1 is the first Metro line in China to have been wrongly referred to as a light rail (轻轨, qing gui) system in Chinese terminology.[5] As of 2014, there are three lines in operation, totaling 62 stations and 73.4 km (45.6 mi) in length. The daily ridership of Wuhan Metro ranges from 800,000 to 1,000,000.[6]

Wuhan Metro has planned to pursue ambitious expansion projects to connect Wuhan's three boroughs divided by the mighty Yangtze River and Han River, accommodate increasing cross-borough traffic, and provide commuter services to suburban satellite cities. In 2017, seven urban transit lines and two suburban lines, totaling a length of 273.1 km (169.7 mi), are expected to serve the city of Wuhan, connecting the three boroughs separated by the Yangtze River and the Han River and sprawling to booming suburban districts. A long-term plan expects the Wuhan Metro to operate 25 lines, including 12 urban lines and 13 suburban lines, totaling a length of 860 km (534 mi), making it one of the most expansive rail transit systems in the world.

History[edit]

Evolution of the Wuhan Metro

Preliminary studies of urban rail transit system were prompted by the city shortly after a Belgian Railways delegation visit in 1984. Following the demolishment of old Beijing-Hankou Railway, the city of Wuhan planned to utilize the corridor to construct the city's first rapid transit rail line. In September 1992, the Wuhan Metro Construction Group was ordered and established by Wuhan Municipal Construction Commission, and a supervision group, led by the mayor Qian Yunlu, was subsequently formed in 1993 to facilitate the project's funding, designing, logistics, and organization. Yet, the prototype remained for seven years before the city was able to fund construction.

In October 1999, the National Planning Commission (Predecessor to National Development and Reform Commission) approved the Wuhan "Light Rail" project (Line 1, phase 1), signaling the substantive inception of the rail transit project. On October 2, 2000, the Wuhan Municipal Government ratified the establishment of Wuhan Rail Transit Co., Ltd., and leased construction, operation, administration and related real estate development to the corporation.

In December 2000, the National Planning Commission accepted feasibility report to the project and approved construction on phase 1 of Line 1. On December 23, 2000, the project broke ground and comprehensive construction began.

In 2002, with the anticipation of economic boom and increasing demand for urban rail transit, Wuhan Municipal Government approved the city's first long-term rail transit master plan. On July 28, 2004, the ten-station long "Light Rail" opened to public and entered revenue service in August. However, low ridership has discouraged the city from funding the extension project which broke ground on December 15, 2005, and a 4-year reprieve in construction ensued. In April, 2006, the NDRC ratified a six-year construction/operation plan, but it was not until a year later on April 9, 2007 that NDRC accepted the feasibility report to Line 1, phase 2 (the extension project) and approved construction on the project.

In the interim, construction began on the Fanhu Station of the fully underground Line 2 on November 16, 2006, as a response to the six-year plan adopted by NDRC earlier. Construction also began on the underground Line 4 stations of Wuchang Railway Station in June, and Wuhan Railway Station in September, as parts of the integral capital project to revamp and construct the Wuhan Railway Hub.

In May 2007, the Hubei Provincial Development and Reform Commission (HDRC) approved preliminary designs on the Line 1, phase 2, and comprehensive construction subsequently commenced in June. On May 15, the city government approved the establishment of Wuhan Metro Co., Ltd., which would replace the Wuhan Rail Transit Co., Ltd and assume its responsibilities and benefits.

On September 12, 2007, the NDRC accepted the feasibility report to Line 2, phase 1, and preliminary designs were approved by the HDRC in December 2007. However, it was not until September 2008 that land purchases and funding were facilitated and comprehensive construction began to take place. In October 2009, the Yangtze River tunnel drilling incepted.

On March 13, 2009, the NDRC accepted feasibility report to Line 4, phase 1. On May 13, 2009, the HDRC ratified preliminary designs on Line 4, phase 1. Comprehensive construction ensued on the Wuchang segment of Line 4. A more ambitious urban rapid transit plan was submitted for NDRC review in October, 2009, and in late November, on-site panel investigations were conducted by China International Engineering Consulting Corporation.

In February 2010, Wuhan Metro's first commercial property topped out in No.1 Hanxi Road station. On July 29, Line 1 phase 2 entered revenue service from Dijiao to Dongwu Boulevard. Despite plans to extend the westernmost terminus to Jinshan Avenue in Dongxihu District, the station was never built. A short stub with crossover tracks was constructed behind Dongwu Boulevard. Zhuyehai, a station in Qiaokou District, remained non-operational in spite of the existence of complete platforms. Neither exits nor staircases were built yet. Its opening date is pending upon IKEA Wuhan's completion in late 2014.[7]

A revised and more detailed construction plan was accepted by the NDRC on January 31, 2011. The plan specified the city's plan to complete construction on Line 3, 4, 6, 7 and 8 before 2017. Beginning on March 1, Line 1 subdivided its fare zones from 3 to 5 and lowered maximum fare from 5 CNY / ride to 4 CNY / ride. Wuhan Tong cardholders will receive a 20 percent discount on single ride fares.[8] On April 9, Line 1 welcomed its 100,000,000th customer, who was awarded a one-year pass to the Metro.[9] On September 9, preliminary designs on Line 4, phase 2 (Hanyang segment) was approved by HDRC.

On February 17, 2012 the NDRC accepted feasibility report to Line 3, phase 1, making it the fourth line in Wuhan Metro's grid, and first to cross Han River, connecting the boroughs of Hankou and Hanyang. Feasibility report to Line 6--the second Hankou-Hanyang connection—was also approved by the NDRC on December 21, 2012. Seven days later, Line 2 entered revenue service, connecting some of the most populated areas of Hankou, Wuchang, and Optics Valley.

On April 12, 2013, the NDRC granted acceptance to feasibility report of Line 8, phase 1, which connects Hankou and Wuchang via Second Yangtze River Bridge corridor. Construction began in June 2013 and is expected to complete in 2017.

On December 28, 2013, Phase 1 of Line 4 went into operation, making it the third line in the Wuhan Metro system.[10]

Network[edit]

Line Terminuses
(District)
Opened Newest
Extension
Length
km
Stations
Line 1 Hankou North
(Huangpi)
Dongwu Boulevard
(Dongxihu)
2004 2014 34.6 28
Line 2 Jinyintan
(Dongxihu)
Optics Valley Square
(Hongshan)
2012 28.0 21
Line 4 Wuchang Railway Station
(Wuchang)
Wuhan Railway Station
(Hongshan)
2013 16.5 15
Total 79.1 64

Line 1[edit]

Main article: Line 1, Wuhan Metro
Line 1 of Wuhan Metro

Line 1 is a 28.87 km elevated urban rail line entirely located in the borough of Hankou. It runs a northwest-southeast route that approximately parallels with Jiefang Avenue for its entire length. There are 27 planned stations, among which 25 are operational. Line 1 operates 33 four-car train sets, 12 of which are manufactured by Changchun Railway Vehicles, and 21 by Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Co., Ltd.

On July 28, 2004, the first phase of Line 1 began service from Huangpu Road to Zongguan. On July 28, 2010, Line 1 extended from both ends after the completion of phase 2.[11] The phase 3 expansion, which extends the northeast terminus to Hankou North Station, entered revenue service on May 28, 2014.[12]

Line 2[edit]

Main article: Line 2, Wuhan Metro
Line 2 train

Line 2 is a 27.895 km underground subway connecting the boroughs of Hankou and Wuchang. Upon completion, Line 2 was the first subway in China to cross the mighty Yangtze River.[13] It runs in a northwest-southeast route and crosses the Yangtze River near Jianghan Road, and Jiyuqiao in Wuchang. Tunnel drilling concluded on February 26, 2012.[13] Revenue service of Line 2 began on December 28, 2012.[14][15] Line 2 operates 41 six-car train sets, all of which were manufactured by Zhuzhou Electric Locomotive Co., Ltd.

Plans of extending Line 2 from both directions are still undergoing design process. The southern extension will bring the southeast terminus from Optics Valley Square to 6th Gaoxin Road, and the northwest extension plan will bring the northwest terminus from Jinyintan to Hongtu Avenue, providing convenient access for the Houhu Residential District. Construction work on both extensions is expected to commence in 2013, and the tentative completion dates are set at 2015.

Line 4[edit]

Main article: Line 4, Wuhan Metro
Line 4 train

Line 4, will be mostly underground. It will run in an east-west route serving the Hanyang and Wuchang areas. The first phase linking Wuchang and Wuhan railway stations opened on December 28, 2013; since that day, all three main railway stations of Wuhan are connected by the Metro. The second phase of Line 4 will cross the Yangtze River to Hanyang by 2014.

Recent Expansions[edit]

A recent expansion proposal has listed the following lines and were prompted to open to public by (or before) 2017.

Line and Livery
Terminuses
Operational by
Total Length
in km
Stations
Line 3 Sanjintan Zhuanyangdadao ~2015 33.20 23
Line 4 Huangjinkou Wuhan Railway Station ~2013 30.08 28
Line 6 Huanhu West Road Sports Center South ~2016 36.1 27
Line 7 Dongfang Macheng Horse Circuit Yezhihu ~2017 29.8 18
Line 8 Sanjintan Liyuan ~2017 16.5 12

Line 3[edit]

Overall construction of Line 3 was approved by National Development and Reform Commission on Feb 23, 2012,[16] and officially started on Mar 31, 2012.[17]

Line 6[edit]

Overall construction of Line 6 was approved by National Development and Reform Commission on Dec 30, 2012. It is currently under construction, and is expected to open on 2016.[18]

Line 7[edit]

Full-scale construction was approved by National Development and Reform Commission on September 2, 2013. It is currently under construction, and is expected to open on 2017.[19]

Line 8[edit]

Full-scale construction was approved by National Development and Reform Commission on April 24, 2013. It is currently under construction, and is expected to open on 2017.[20]

System map of Wuhan Metro with routes planned for 2017

Future Expansions[edit]

Line 5, 9, 10, 11, and 12, as well as 13 suburban metro lines, are being planned by the municipal authority.[21]

Services[edit]

Wuhan has legislated to ban food consumption on board, the first of such kind in China.[22]

China's first Starbucks metro store will open in Hongshan Square Station.[23]

Stations[edit]

Paired Cross-Platform Transfer[edit]

3D map 
2D map 

Hongshan Square Station and Zhongnan Road Station offer paired cross-platform interchange for passengers riding between 4 directions of the two lines. The configuration for the two stations is similar to that of Mong Kok and Prince Edward stations in Hong Kong's Mass Transit Railway.[24]

Passengers riding on Line 2 from Hankou wishing to reach Wuchang Railway Station, can transfer at Zhongnan Road Station by crossing the platform. Those who going to Wuhan Railway Station, can transfer at Hongshan Square Station by crossing the platform, and vice versa.[25]

According to the national media, Wuhan Metro is the first rapid transit system in Mainland China to offer such an arrangement.[26]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "129万人次挤地铁". Retrieved 2014-07-08. 
  2. ^ "轻轨高峰发车间隔缩短半分钟". Retrieved January 20, 2012. 
  3. ^ (Chinese) "武汉轻轨今迎第1亿名乘客" 荆楚网-楚天都市报 Apr. 9, 2011
  4. ^ (English) "Urbanrail--Wuhan Apr. 9, 2011
  5. ^ Wuhan, along with other three Chinese cities, has been the first batch to be approved to build so-called "light rail" system in China since 2000, see 2000年,国家批准长春、大连、武汉和重庆4个城市为首批轻轨建设示范城市。. However, Changchun built a true light-rail system, Dalian built a metro-style commuter rail system (and is referred to as "kuai-gui 快轨", not "qing-gui 轻轨"), and Chongqing opted for a monorail system, whereas Wuhan was the only one to build an elevated metro system. See "Urbanrail--Wuhan and affiliated Wikipedia pages. See also a comment from He Jibin, an Urban Planning official from Wuhan Municipality: "Do not assume only underground lines are metro, Line 1 is also a type of metro..." (“不要认为地下的才是地铁,1号线也是地铁的一种方式……”何继斌开门见山地纠正概念,他是武汉市国土规划局交通市政处处长……) 李斐 (March 2012). "那些年,我们一起追的地铁". 大武汉 148: 33. 
  6. ^ Official Weibo Account of Wuhan Metro, registration needed.
  7. ^ 轻轨二期增设竹叶海站 http://hb.qq.com/a/20090531/000131.htm
  8. ^ 武汉轻轨票价下调 http://www.hb.xinhuanet.com/newscenter/2011-03/03/content_22188105.htm
  9. ^ 武汉轻轨客流量今日突破1亿 http://news.cnxianzai.com/2011/04/324488.html
  10. ^ Section one of Metro Line 4 opens
  11. ^ "Wuhan light rail starts test run". China Daily. Retrieved 2010-07-31. 
  12. ^ (Chinese) 武汉地铁1号线汉口北延长线明日开通 http://news.ycwb.com/2014-05/27/content_6835502.htm
  13. ^ a b "Subway to cross under Yangtze". Retrieved March 5, 2012. 
  14. ^ "今日10时武汉地铁2号线开通 武汉迈入地铁时代(图)". Retrieved December 28, 2012. 
  15. ^ "Subway ticket price hearing held". Retrieved October 29, 2012. 
  16. ^ "武汉地铁3号线获国家发改委批复 一期下月全面开工". Retrieved February 23, 2012. 
  17. ^ "武汉地铁3号线今天正式动建 首穿汉江江底". Retrieved March 30, 2012. 
  18. ^ "武汉轨道交通6号线一期工程工可获批". Retrieved 01 03, 2013. 
  19. ^ "武汉地铁7号线一期年内开建 预计2017年建成(图)". Retrieved September 7, 2013. 
  20. ^ "地铁8号线一期工程获批 计划于2017年建成通车". Retrieved 01 03, 2013. 
  21. ^ "十二五期间,武汉将投资491亿新建远城区8条轨道交通". Retrieved 05 01, 2012. 
  22. ^ Wuhan bans eating in subways
  23. ^ "The first Starbucks Metro shop in China to open in Wuhan". Retrieved September 26, 2012. 
  24. ^ "武汉地铁2号4号线将采取"连续同站台换乘"模式". Retrieved 02 07, 2012. 
  25. ^ 颜波 (2011-12-17). "2号线最宽地铁站 4条隧道贯通一半" (in zh-hans). 长江日报. Retrieved 2011-12-17. 
  26. ^ 武汉地铁4号线在国内首创“连续换乘”模式 (Wuhan Metro Line 4 the first in Mainland China to offer a "paired transfer" arrangement). 新华网, 2013-12-26

External links[edit]