2019 college admissions bribery scandal
|Venue||United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts|
William Rick Singer via
On March 12, 2019, United States federal prosecutors disclosed a conspiracy to influence student college admissions decisions at several prominent American research universities, with at least 50 people alleged to have been part of it. A number of parents of college applicants are accused of paying more than $25 million between 2011 and 2018 to William Rick Singer, a college admissions counselor and leader of the scheme, who used part of the money to fraudulently inflate student test scores and to bribe college officials.
Singer controlled the two firms involved in the scheme, Key Worldwide Foundation and The Edge College & Career Network (also known as "The Key"), and pleaded guilty as he supported the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) in gathering incriminating evidence against co-conspirators. He said he unethically facilitated college admission for more than 750 families. Prosecutors in the District of Massachusetts, led by United States Attorney Andrew Lelling, unsealed indictments and complaints against 50 people, including Singer, the university staff he bribed, and people who are alleged to have used bribery and fraud to secure admission for their children at eleven universities. Among the accused parents are prominent businesspeople and well-known actors.
- 1 Discovery and charges
- 2 Involved parties and organizations
- 3 Responses
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Discovery and charges
The FBI alleged that beginning in 2011, certain parents of high school students conspired with other people to use bribery and other forms of fraud to get their children admitted to top colleges and universities. Authorities reportedly became aware of the scheme around April 2018 when Morrie Tobin, who was under investigation in an unrelated case for alleged pump-and-dump securities fraud, offered information in exchange for leniency. An alumnus of Yale, he told authorities that the women's soccer head coach, Rudolph "Rudy" Meredith, had asked for $450,000 in exchange for helping his daughter gain admission to the school. As part of his cooperation, Tobin wore a recording device while talking to Meredith in a Boston hotel on April 12, 2018; Meredith subsequently agreed to cooperate with the authorities and led them to Singer. Meredith pled guilty as part of his cooperation with the prosecution.
On March 12, 2019, federal prosecutors in Boston unsealed a criminal complaint charging 50 people with conspiracy to commit mail fraud and honest services mail fraud in violation of Title 18 United States Code, Section 1349. The charges were announced by Andrew Lelling, United States Attorney for the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts. Lelling heads the securities and financial fraud unit, which includes the lead Assistant U.S. Attorney Eric Rosen, and ADAs Justin O’Connell, Leslie Wright, and Kristen Kearney. The 204-page affidavit in support of the charges was written by FBI special agent Laura Smith.
Federal prosecutors alleged a college-admission scheme that involved:
- bribing exam administrators to facilitate cheating on college and university entrance exams;
- bribing coaches and administrators of elite universities to nominate unqualified applicants as recruited athletes or favored candidates, thus facilitating the applicants' admission; and
- using a charitable organization to conceal the source and nature of laundered bribery payments.
Court documents unsealed in March 2019 detail a scheme led by William Rick Singer, a 58-year-old resident of Newport Beach, California. Wealthy parents paid Singer to get their children admitted to elite schools by bribing admissions testing officials, athletics staff, and coaches at universities. Payments were made to Key Worldwide Foundation, a nonprofit organization owned by Singer and previously granted 501(c)(3) status; that status allowed him to avoid federal income taxes on the payments, while parents could deduct their "donations" from their own personal taxes. Singer offered college counseling services as The Edge College & Career Network, a limited liability company registered in 2012, which he operated out of his home in Newport Beach.
Methods of fraudulent admission
Singer primarily used two fraudulent techniques to help clients' children gain admission to elite universities: cheating on college entrance exams and fabrication of role in school sports programs.
Cheating on college entrance exams
Singer arranged to allow clients' children to cheat on the SAT or ACT college admission tests. Singer worked with psychologists to complete the detailed paperwork required to falsely certify clients' children as having a learning disability, giving them access to accommodations, such as extra time, while taking the tests. Singer said he could get a falsified disability report from a psychologist for $4,000 to $5,000, and that the report could be re-used to fraudulently obtain similar benefits at the schools.
Once the paperwork was complete, Singer told clients to invent false travel plans to get their children's tests moved to a test center under his control either in West Hollywood or Houston. Parents might also be advised to fabricate a family event that could provide a pretense for the student to take the SAT, ACT, or other test at a private location where they could have complete control over the testing process.
In some cases, the student was involved directly in the fraud; in others, the fraud was kept secret from the student and corrupt proctors altered tests on their behalf after the fact. In some cases, other people posed as the students to take the tests. Mark Riddell, a Harvard alumnus and college admission exam preparation director at IMG Academy, was one of the stand-in test takers; he agreed to plead guilty and cooperate with investigators. Prosecutors claim he was paid $10,000 per test, and he faces two criminal charges for conspiracy to commit mail fraud and money laundering. Riddell did not have advanced access to the test papers, but was described as "just a really smart guy".
According to recorded phone calls, the transcripts of which were included in court filings, Singer claimed that the practice of fraudulently obtaining accommodations such as extra testing time, intended for those with bona fide learning disabilities, was widespread outside of his particular scheme:
Yeah, everywhere around the country. What happened is, all the wealthy families that figured out that if I get my kid tested and they get extended time, they can do better on the test. So most of these kids don’t even have issues, but they’re getting time. The playing field is not fair.
For example, Jane Buckingham was arrested on March 12, 2019, for allegedly submitting false paperwork saying her son had a learning disability and paying $50,000 to Key Worldwide Foundation for a proctor to take the ACT on her son's behalf, scoring a 35 out of 36. The goal was entrance to the University of Southern California. Portions of recorded conversations between Buckingham and a cooperating witness were included in the FBI's affidavit.
Fabrication of role in school sports programs
Singer was also bribing college athletics staff and coaches. At certain colleges, these personnel can submit a certain number of recruit names to the admissions office, which then view those applications more favorably. Singer used his Key Worldwide Foundation as a money-laundering operation to pay coaches a bribe for labeling applicants as athletic recruits. He also fabricated profiles highlighting each applicant's purported athletic prowess. In some cases, image editing software (e.g., Photoshop) was used insert a photograph of a student's face onto a photograph of another person to document purported athletic activity.
In one such incident, Michael Center, the men's tennis coach at the University of Texas, accepted about $100,000 to designate an applicant as a recruit for the Texas Longhorns tennis team. A similar fraud occurred at Yale, where the then-head coach of the women's soccer team, Rudolph "Rudy" Meredith, allegedly accepted a $400,000 bribe to falsely identify an applicant as a recruit. USC's senior associate athletic director Donna Heinel and water polo coach Jovan Vavic allegedly received $1.3 million and $250,000, respectively, for similar frauds. They were indicted alongside former USC women's soccer coaches Ali Khosroshahin and Laura Janke. Coaches at two other Pac-12 programs, UCLA men's soccer coach Jorge Salcedo and Stanford sailing coach John Vandemoer, also allegedly accepted bribes. Vandemoer admitted to accepting $270,000 to classify two applicants as prospective sailors. At Wake Forest, head volleyball coach William "Bill" Ferguson was placed on administrative leave following charges of racketeering. Former Georgetown tennis coach Gordon "Gordie" Ernst is alleged to have facilitated as many as 12 students through fraudulent means while accepting bribes of up to $950,000. On March 20, 2019, the University of San Diego revealed that its former men's basketball head coach Lamont Smith allegedly accepted bribes. Hours after that revelation, Smith resigned from his position as assistant coach at the University of Texas at El Paso. Two San Diego families were accused of paying $875,000 as part of the scheme.
Bill McGlashan, a private equity investor, allegedly discussed using Adobe Photoshop to create a fake profile for his son as a football kicker to help him get into USC. Similarly, Marci Palatella, wife of former San Francisco 49ers player Lou Palatella, allegedly worked with Singer to pass her son off as a long snapper recruit for USC. In one of the most notable cases, actress Lori Loughlin, famous for her role on the American sitcom Full House, and her husband, fashion designer Mossimo Giannulli, allegedly paid $500,000 in bribes to get their two daughters accepted into USC as members of the rowing team, although neither girl had participated in the sport.
Singer was charged with racketeering conspiracy for his role as the organizer of the scheme. Money was funneled through a 501(c)(3) organization formed by Singer, the Key Worldwide Foundation, in the form of purported charitable donations. Singer pleaded guilty on March 12, 2019, in the U.S. District Court in Boston to four felony counts of conspiracy to commit money laundering, conspiracy to defraud the United States, and obstruction of justice. He faces up to 65 years in prison and a fine of $1.25 million.
Involved parties and organizations
A total of 50 people have been charged in the investigations. This number includes 34 parents of college applicants and 11 named collegiate coaches or athletic administrators from eight universities. Three additional universities are involved but no staff members from those schools have been directly named or implicated.
Key Worldwide Foundation / The Edge College & Career Network
- William Rick Singer, purported college counselor, and author of self-help books for college admission. Singer organized and sold fraudulent college admission services. Singer pled guilty in cooperation with the prosecution
- Mark Riddell, a Harvard alumnus and former director of college entrance exams at IMG Academy. Riddell was employed by Singer to fraudulently take admission tests, impersonating the clients' children; he also paid Educational Testing Service and ACT contractors to deliberately mis-administer the tests
- Steven Masera, officer at Singer's companies
- Mikaela Sanford, employee at Singer's companies
Other involved co-conspirators
- Igor Dvorskiy, administrator of standardized tests (including those from ACT and the College Board, which develops and administers the SAT), and director of an LA-area private school
- Martin Fox, Houston tennis academy president
- Niki Williams, administrator of standardized tests for ACT and College Board, Houston-area assistant high school teacher
Universities and accused personnel
|University||Athletic program||Indicted personnel||Sport||Details|
|Georgetown University||Hoyas||Gordon "Gordie" Ernst||Co-ed tennis||Former co-ed tennis coach|
|Harvard University||Crimson||N/A||No staff members have been directly named or implicated.|
|Northwestern University||Wildcats||N/A||No staff members have been directly named or implicated.|
|Stanford University||Cardinal||John Vandemoer||Sailing||Former sailing coach, pled guilty, fired|
|University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley)||Golden Bears||N/A||No staff members have been directly named or implicated.|
|University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA)||Bruins||Jorge Salcedo||Men's soccer||Former men's soccer head coach and former Major League Soccer player, placed on leave, then resigned|
|University of San Diego (USD)||Toreros||Lamont Smith||Men's basketball||Former men's basketball head coach|
|University of Southern California (USC)||Trojans||Donna Heinel||Multiple||Former senior associate athletic director, fired|
|Laura Janke||Women's soccer||Former women's soccer coach|
|Ali Khosroshahin||Former women's soccer head coach|
|Jovan Vavic||Men's water polo||Former men's water polo coach, fired|
|University of Texas at Austin (UT)||Longhorns||Michael Center||Men's tennis||Former men's tennis head coach, fired|
|Wake Forest University||Demon Deacons||William "Bill" Ferguson||Volleyball||Volleyball coach, placed on academic leave|
|Yale University||Bulldogs||Rudolph "Rudy" Meredith||Women's soccer||Former women's soccer coach, pled guilty in cooperation with the prosecution and led prosecutors to Singer|
|University||Athletic program||Indicted personnel||Sport||Details|
Administrators at the involved universities have claimed a lack of awareness regarding the scandal within their athletic departments. All accused athletic department staff have since been fired, resigned, or placed on academic leave.
Officials said Singer had many legitimate clients, who did not engage in any type of fraud. Singer cited famous clients on his Facebook page while promoting his 2014 book Getting In and, as a result of this and other public endorsements by Singer, many former clients have made statements to distance themselves and their children from any perceived involvement in the scandal.
The table below lists the 34 parents directly involved in the scheme as listed by CNN, CBS News, and People. Note that Morrie Tobin would be the 35th parent if he were not an unindicted cooperating witness in support of the prosecution's case.
|Admissions||Gamal Aziz||USC||Daughter||Former President and COO of Wynn Resorts and former CEO of MGM Resorts International|
|Diane Blake||USC||Daughter||Wife of Todd Blake|
|Todd Blake||Entrepreneur and investor, husband of Diane Blake|
|Mossimo Giannulli||USC||Two daughters
||Founder and fashion designer at Mossimo|
|Lori Loughlin||Actress best known for her role on Full House|
|Douglas M. Hodge||USC||Children||Former CEO of PIMCO|
|Agustin Huneeus Jr.||USC||Daughter||Napa Valley vineyard owner|
|Davina Isackson||UCLA||Daughter||Wife of Bruce Isackson|
|Bruce Isackson||Real estate development executive, husband of Davina Isackson|
|Elisabeth Kimmel||Georgetown||Daughter||Media businesswoman and former owner of KFMB Stations|
|Toby MacFarlane||USC||Daughter||Title insurance executive|
|Bill McGlashan||UCLA||Son||Former managing partner and founder of TPG Capital, fired by TPG|
|Marci Palatella||USC||Son||Distillery owner; her husband, former San Francisco 49ers guard Lou Palatella, has not been indicted|
|Stephen Semprevivo||Georgetown||Son||Sales executive|
|Devin Sloane||USC||Son||CEO and founder of a water infrastructure company|
|John Wilson||USC||Son||Private equity and real estate development CEO|
|Homayoun Zadeh||USC||Daughter||Associate professor of dentistry|
|Robert Zangrillo||USC||Daughter||Dragon Global founder and CEO|
|Admissions & Testing||Robert Flaxman||USD||Son||Crown Realty & Development founder and CEO|
|Georgetown||Older daughter||Elizabeth Henriquez and Manuel Henriquez are married. He is Hercules Capital founder, and resigned as Chairman and CEO|
ACT and SAT
|Michelle Janavs||USC||Daughter||Food industry executive|
|William McGlashan Jr.||USC||Son||Former private equity executive|
|Testing||Gregory Abbott||ACT and SAT||Daughter||International Dispensing Corp. founder and chairman and husband of Marcia Abbot|
|Marcia Abbott||Wife of Gregory Abbott|
|Jane Buckingham||ACT||Son||Marketing executive and self-help book author|
|Gordon Caplan||ACT||Daughter||Co-chairman of law firm Willkie Farr & Gallagher; placed on leave.|
|I-Hin "Joey" Chen||ACT||Son||Shipping and warehousing-services operator|
|Amy Colburn||SAT||Son||Wife of Gregory Colburn|
|Gregory Colburn||Radiation oncologist, husband of Amy Colburn|
|Felicity Huffman||SAT||Daughter||Academy Award-nominated actress best known for her role on Desperate Housewives; her husband, actor William H. Macy, has not been indicted|
|Marjorie Klapper||Entrance exam||Son||Jewelry business co-owner|
|Peter Jan Sartorio||ACT||Daughter||Food industry entrepreneur|
Canadian high school graduation exam
Potentially resulted in admission to UC Berkeley
|Sons||Canadian businessman and former Canadian Football League player|
|Unindicted cooperating witness|
In response to the scandal, the National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA), the chief governing body for college sports in the United States, announced plans to review the allegations "to determine the extent to which NCAA rules may have been violated".
U.S. Senator Ron Wyden (D-OR), of the Senate Finance Committee, plans to sponsor a bill making donations to schools taxable if the donor has children attending or applying to the college. Separately, Senators Chris Coons (D-DE) and Johnny Isakson (R-GA) have agreed to reintroduce 2017 legislation that imposes a fine on colleges and universities that have the smallest proportion of low-income students.
Actions against involved individuals
Indicted coaches were fired or suspended, or had already left the university at the time of the charges. Mark Riddell, accused of taking tests on behalf of the students, has been suspended from his position as director of college entrance exam preparation at IMG Academy.
The Hallmark Channel cut its ties to Lori Loughlin, star of the program Garage Sale Mystery and When Calls the Heart, after she was named as a parent in the indictments. According to The Hill, Netflix decided to drop Loughlin from Fuller House as well. Her youngest daughter Olivia Jade also lost her partnership with TRESemmé and the Sephora chain of beauty products. It was reported by TMZ, Page Six, and others that Loughlin's daughters dropped out of USC due to fears of being "viciously bullied"; however, a USC spokesperson later confirmed that they both remained enrolled at the school. On March 13, 2019, media sources reported that, when news of the scandal broke Loughlin's younger daughter was on Rick Caruso's yacht in the Bahamas with her friend, Gianna, Caruso's daughter. Caruso is the chairman of the USC Board of Trustees.
On March 26, 2019, Yale became the first (and so far, the only) university to rescind the admission of a student associated with the scandal.
Multiple lawsuits were immediately filed against universities and individuals. Three students from Tulane University, Rutgers University, and a California community college filed a complaint against Singer and the affected universities that they hope will be certified as a class-action suit. A Stanford undergraduate claimed a loss for the time and money she spent applying to schools named in the scandal, as well as the possibility that the stain on Stanford’s reputation will decrease the value of her degree. A parent filed a $500 billion civil suit in San Francisco against all the indicted individuals, claiming that her son was denied admission to some schools because of other parents buying access.
After the scandal broke, multiple American news sources characterized it as a symptom of a broken college admissions system. Alan Dershowitz, professor emeritus at Harvard Law School, said it was "the worst scandal involving elite universities in the history of the United States". Elizabeth Warren, United States Senator from Massachusetts (where all the criminal cases were filed), told news media that the scandal represented "just one more example of how the rich and powerful know how to take care of their own".
Much news coverage was devoted to attempting to explain why anyone would have been tempted by Singer's scheme. A common attribute among the defendants was that many were rich, but not ultra rich. According to The New York Times, college admissions at certain elite American universities had become so selective that a family would have to make a minimum donation of $10 million to inspire an admission committee to take a second look at their child. And even for families of such means, there would be no guarantee of return on investment, while Singer was selling certainty. In open court, he said: "I created a guarantee." The Los Angeles Times explained that there was probably also a social signaling element at work, in that admission to an elite university based purely upon an applicant's apparent merit publicly validates both the child's innate talent and the parents' own parenting skills in a way that an admission coinciding with a sizable donation does not.
In turn, others examined why certain universities had become so selective in the first place. The Atlantic pointed out that college seats are not scarce in the United States, except at a handful of universities which became selective on purpose: "[S]carcity has the added benefit of increasing an institution’s prestige. The more students who apply, and the fewer students who get in, the more selective an institution becomes, and, subsequently, the more prestigious. And parents are clawing over one another to get a taste of the social capital that comes with that." Arizona State University (ASU) president Michael M. Crow described the "crisis of access to these social-status-granting institutions" as a full-blown "hysteria". It was alleged in court filings that one of the defendant parents had named ASU as a university they were specifically trying to avoid; the non-selective university has been the "butt of jokes" in American television shows for many years, as well as the 2015 film Ted 2. The inevitable result, according to Newsweek, was that the most elite institutions had created a situation in which purely meritocratic admissions had become impossible because they were already turning away too many overqualified candidates—former Harvard president Drew Gilpin Faust had once said, "we could fill our class twice over with valedictorians." It was also recognized that any workable solution would have to alleviate the underlying anxiety driving the crisis, either by restructuring the college admissions process or the American labor market.
- National Association for College Admission Counseling
- University of Bristol admissions controversy
- University of Illinois clout scandal
- University of Texas at Austin admissions controversy
- Eustachewich, Lia (March 12, 2019). "Felicity Huffman, Lori Loughlin busted in college admissions cheating scandal". New York Post. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
- Trevino, Robert (March 12, 2019). "Michael Center, University of Texas men's tennis coach implicated in admissions scheme, placed on administrative leave". The Daily Texan. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
- Siemaszko, Corky; Kaplan, Ezra (March 12, 2019). "College admissions scheme mastermind William Rick Singer wore wire to expose scam". NBC News. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
- Raymond, Nate (March 13, 2019). "Ex-Stanford sailing coach pleads guilty to college admission bribe scheme". Reuters. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
- Winter, Tom (March 13, 2019). "College cheating ringleader says he helped more than 750 families with admissions scheme". NBC. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
- READ: The full indictment charging actors, CEOs and others in a nationwide college admission scheme
- Woods, Amanda (March 16, 2019). "UC Berkeley joins list of schools ensnared in college admissions scandal". New York Post. Retrieved March 16, 2019.
- Lynnfield father charged in college bribery case
- 3 men with Cape ties charged in nationwide college cheating scandal
- Medina, Jennifer; Benner, Katie; Taylor, Kate (March 12, 2019). "Actresses, Business Leaders and Other Wealthy Parents Charged in U.S. College Entry Fraud". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
- Korn, Melissa; Levitz, Jennifer; Ailworth, Erin (March 13, 2019). "Federal Prosecutors Charge Dozens in College Admissions Cheating Scheme". The Wall Street Journal. ISSN 0099-9660. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
- Kates, Graham (March 12, 2019). "Lori Loughlin and Felicity Huffman among dozens charged in college bribery scheme". CBS News. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
- Richer, Alanna; Binkley, Collin (March 12, 2019). "TV stars and coaches charged in college bribery scheme". AP News. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
- Garrison, Joey; Puente, Maria (March 12, 2019). "Felicity Huffman, Lori Loughlin among 50 indicted in largest-ever case alleging bribery to get kids into colleges". USA Today. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
- Smith, Laura, Special Agent FBI (March 12, 2019). "College admissions bribery scheme affidavit" (PDF). The Washington Post. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
- Levitz, Jennifer; Korn, Melissa (March 14, 2019). "The Yale Dad Who Set Off the College-Admissions Scandal". The Wall Street Journal.
- "Only On 2: Tipster Who Touched Off Campus Bribery Admissions Scandal Lives In Larchmont". CBS Los Angeles. March 14, 2019. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
- Chen, David W.; Tracy, Marc (March 15, 2019). "At Yale, a Once Respected Soccer Coach Becomes an Enigma". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. p. A1. Retrieved March 16, 2019.
- Frank, Robert; Newburger, Emma (March 12, 2019). "A slew of CEOs charged in alleged college entrance cheating scam". CNBC. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
- Levenson, Eric; Morales, Mark (March 13, 2019). "Wealthy parents, actresses, coaches, among those charged in massive college cheating admission scandal, federal prosecutors say". CNN. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
- United States Attorney’s Office, District of Massachusetts (March 12, 2019). "Arrests Made in Nationwide College Admissions Scam: Alleged Exam Cheating & Athletic Recruitment Scheme". Department of Justice. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
- Lelling, Andrew E. (March 5, 2019). "Criminal Information 1:19-CR-10078-RWZ, United States of America vs. William Rick Singer". U.S. Department of Justice. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
- Ferris, Jolene (March 15, 2019). "Utica College grad lead investigator on college scandal". News Channel 2 WKTV. Utica, NY: Heartland Media. Retrieved March 16, 2019.
- "Newport Beach and Laguna Beach connections abound in college admissions scandal". The Los Angeles Times. March 12, 2019. Retrieved March 16, 2019.
- Quintana, Chris (March 12, 2019). Fake disabilities, photoshopped faces: How feds say celebrities, coaches and scammers got kids into elite colleges USA Today.
- Taylor, Kate (March 13, 2019). "Fallout From College Admissions Scandal: Arrests, Damage Control and a Scramble for Answers". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
- Breaux, Aimee (March 12, 2019). "The ACT says 'few bad actors' undermined fair testing in college admissions scandal". Iowa City Press-Citizen. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
- Baker, Matt (March 13, 2019). "IMG Academy suspends Mark Riddell after college admissions bribery scandal". Tampa Bay Times. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
- Barrett, Devlin; Zapotosky, Matt (March 12, 2019). "FBI accuses wealthy parents, including celebrities, in college-entrance bribery scheme". Washington Post. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
- Li, David K. (March 13, 2019). "Harvard alum 'profoundly sorry' for taking tests for students in college cheating scheme". NBC News. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
- Baker, Vicky (March 15, 2019). "Celebrity parents and the bizarre 'cheating' scandal". BBC News. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
According to the FBI, he would fly in, take the test for students in a hotel room, or sneak them the correct answers in the exam room, or inflate their scores when they finished. Sometimes he would be given a sample of the teen's handwriting so he could copy it. Riddell did not know the questions in advance, according to Andrew Lelling, US attorney for the District of Massachusetts. He was "just a really smart guy".
- Smith, Laura, Special Agent FBI. Affidavit in Support of Criminal Complaint, filed in the United States District Court for the District of Massachusetts. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
- Reiss, Jaclyn (March 12, 2019). "College bribery plot: A list of names of those charged in the nationwide scheme". Boston Globe. Boston, Massachusetts. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
- Pascus, Brian (March 14, 2019). "Every charge and accusation facing the parents in the college admissions scandal". CBS News. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
- Stannard, Ed; Friedmann, Meghan (March 12, 2019). "Ex-Yale soccer coach, Greenwich businessman charged in college admissions scandal". New Haven Register. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
- Wong, Alia (March 12, 2019). "Why the College-Admissions Scandal Is So Absurd". The Atlantic. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
- Fry, Hannah; Winton, Richard; Ormseth, Matthew; Newberry, Laura (March 12, 2019). "College cheating scandal snares actresses, CEOs and coaches; alleged mastermind pleads guilty". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
- Klick, Rea; Speier, Mia (March 12, 2019). "Athletic director, water polo coach fired in wake of FBI investigation of admission scam". Daily Trojan. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
- Associated Press (March 12, 2019). "3 Pac-12 Programs Dismiss Top Coaches Amid Admissions Bribery Scandal; NCAA Investigating". KTLA. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
- Dahlberg, Tim (March 13, 2019). "Column: A twist in the usual college sports scandal". The Oakland Press. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
- Craver, Richard (March 12, 2019). "Wake Forest coach accused of accepting six-figure bribe to help student get into the university". Winston-Salem Journal. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
- Brennan, George (March 13, 2019). "Martha's Vineyard tie to college admissions scandal". The Martha's Vineyard Times. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
- Ziegler, Mark; Davis, Kristina (March 21, 2019). "Lamont Smith identified as USD coach in bribery scheme; resigns as UTEP assistant". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved March 21, 2019.
- "UTEP assistant basketball coach resigns, implicated in college admissions scandal". KTSM-TV. March 21, 2019. Retrieved March 21, 2019.
- Davis, Kristina; Robbins, Gary (March 12, 2019). "University of San Diego, local families caught up in college admissions scandal". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
- Sulek, Julia Prodis (March 12, 2019). "How Silicon Valley became epicenter of college-entry cheating scandal". The Mercury News. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
- Sallee, Barrett (March 12, 2019). "College admissions scandal indictment alleges use of fake USC football profiles for students". CBS Sports. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
- Swindell, Bill; Callahan, Mary (March 12, 2019). "What 2 locals charged in the college admissions scandal allegedly did". The Press Democrat. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
- Anderson, Travis; Ellement, John R.; Fernandes, Deirdre; Finucane, Martin (March 12, 2019). "'A catalog of wealth and privilege': Feds allege college bribery scam". The Boston Globe. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
- Brokaw, Sommer; Uria, Daniel (March 12, 2019). "Parents, coaches, actors among 50 charged in college scandal". UPI. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
- Winter, Tom; Williams, Pete; Ainsley, Julia; Schapiro, Rich (March 12, 2019). "TV actresses among 50 people charged in college exam cheating plot". NBC News. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
- Yan, Holly (March 13, 2019). "What we know so far in the college admissions cheating scandal". CNN. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
- Kim, Catherine (March 13, 2019). "Parents of NU student implicated in Key Worldwide cheating scandal". The Daily Northwestern. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
- Merrett, Robyn (March 13, 2019). "Everyone Who Has Been Charged in the College Admissions Cheating Scandal". People. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
- Investigations of College Admissions and Testing Bribery Scheme, United States Department of Justice
- Beaujon, Andrew (March 12, 2019). 5 Facts About the DC Life of Gordon Ernst, the Tennis Coach Named in the Admissions-Scandal Indictment, He coached Michelle Obama and left Georgetown University under a cloud, Washingtonian.
- Lothspeich, Jennifer (March 12, 2019). "A closer look at those with San Diego ties indicted in college admissions scandal". KFMB-TV. CBS8. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
- Meadows, Jonah; Patch staff (March 14, 2019). "College Cheating Scandal: Northwestern Student's Parents Charged". Evanston, IL Patch. Patch Media. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
- Shao, Elena; Foreman, Holden (March 12, 2019). "Head sailing coach fired after agreeing to plead guilty to bribery charges in admissions scandal". The Stanford Daily. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
- Bolch, Ben (March 12, 2019). "UCLA men's soccer coach placed on leave after indictment in college admissions scam". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
- Owens, Jason (March 22, 2019). "Report: UCLA soccer coach Jorge Salcedo resigns after allegedly taking $200K in college admissions scandal". Yahoo Sports. Retrieved March 24, 2019.
- Kaufman, Joey (March 12, 2019). "USC fires associate AD Donna Heinel, legendary water polo coach Jovan Vavic in college admissions bribery scandal". Orange County Register. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
- Klick, Rea; Speier, Mia (March 12, 2019). "Athletic director, water polo coach fired in wake of FBI investigation of admission scam". Daily Trojan. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
- Sakelaris, Nicholas (March 13, 2019). "Investment chief, Texas coach step down over college cheating scandal". UPI. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
- Moyle, Nick (March 13, 2019). "UT fires tennis coach Michael Center in wake of college admissions scandal". Houston Chronicle. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
- Gafni, Matthias (March 15, 2019). "Joe Montana says he used company charged with college admissions fraud". San Francisco Chronicle.
- "Getting In by Rick Singer". Goodreads. Retrieved March 16, 2019.
- Mangan, Dan (March 15, 2019). "'Full House' actress Lori Loughlin's kids remain enrolled in USC amid college bribe scandal; Phil Mickelson, Joe Montana say they did nothing wrong". CNBC. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
- "Yale rescinds admission of student implicated in nationwide admissions scandal". Yale Daily News. March 25, 2019.
- Alleged Tipster in College-Cheating Scandal Bribed a Coach, Source Says Wall Street Journal
- Associated Press (March 12, 2019). "2 Nevada executives charged in college bribery scheme". Las Vegas Sun. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
- Executive Profile, Gamal Mohammed Abdelaziz, Member of Advisory Board, Kiwi Collection, Inc., Bloomberg
- Cain, Áine (March 13, 2019). "Fashion designer Mossimo Giannulli — whose self-titled brand once ran at Target — is accused of shelling out $500,000 to get his daughters into USC". Business Insider. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
- Kesslen, Ben (March 12, 2019). "Lori Loughlin's daughter, Olivia Jade, comes under fire online over college-cheating scandal". NBC News. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
- Rao, Sonia; Yahr, Emily (March 12, 2019). "Before Lori Loughlin's alleged cheating scandal, daughter Olivia Jade made her life at USC a YouTube brand". Washington Post. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
- Lapin, Tamar (March 14, 2019). "Lori Loughlin's daughter Drop Out of USC After Admissions Scandal", New York Post-Page Six.
- 40th Annual Conference of IOSCO - London, June 18, 2015, Panel 3. Douglas M. Hodge, Chief Executive, PIMCO (PDF), International Organization of Securities Commissions (2015). Retrieved March 13, 2019.
- McLaughlin, Kelly (March 13, 2019). A former CEO's daughter was allegedly listed as co-captain of a Japanese national soccer team as part of a $25 million college admission scheme, Insider Inc., March 13, 2019.
- Moran, Greg (March 19, 2019). "San Diego media executive appears in federal court on college admissions scandal charges". San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved March 19, 2019 – via Los Angeles Times.
- Gibson, Kate (March 13, 2019). "Venture capitalist charged in college admissions cheating scandal loses job". CBS News. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
- Shoot, Brittany (March 12, 2019). "TPG Growth Founder Bill McGlashan Placed on Immediate, Indefinite Leave Over College Admissions Cheating Scandal". Fortune. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
- Melin, Anders (March 12, 2019). "Bloomberg - Venture Capitalist Robert Zangrillo Charged in College Admission Scheme". Bloomberg LP. Retrieved March 22, 2019.
- Ng, David; Faughnder, Ryan (March 13, 2019). "Marketing guru Jane Buckingham caught up in college admissions scandal". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
- Zafar, Maryam; Cronin, Amanda H. (March 13, 2019). "Gordon Caplan '88 Paid $75,000 to Rig His Daughter's ACT Score, the FBI Says. He and Nearly 50 Others Were Charged With Fraud". The Cornell Daily Sun. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
- Winton, Richard (March 13, 2019). "Felicity Huffman awoke to FBI agents with guns drawn at her L.A. home in college cheating raid". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
- Winton, Richard (March 13, 2019). "Why wasn't William H. Macy charged in college admissions scandal that targeted wife Felicity Huffman?". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
- Brown, Scott; Griffin, Kevin; Fraser, Keith (March 13, 2019). "Vancouver's David Sidoo charged in U.S. college-entrance scandal". The Vancouver Sun. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
- Wang, Amy B.; Bieler, Des (March 13, 2019). "College coaches took bribes to pass kids off as star athletes, FBI says. The NCAA is investigating". The Denver Post. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
- Hackman, Michelle (March 15, 2019). College-Admission Scandal Draws Scrutiny in Washington, Wall Street Journal.
- Caron, Emily (March 12, 2019). "Every Coach Charged in the FBI's College Admission Recruiting, Bribery Scandal". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
- Garrison, Joey (March 13, 2019). "The 'really smart guy' who aced SATs for rich students: 'I will always regret' the scandal". USA Today. Retrieved March 16, 2019.
- "Netflix's 'Fuller House' drops Lori Loughlin after college bribery scandal: report". The Hill. March 16, 2019. Retrieved March 16, 2019.
- Richwine, Lisa (March 14, 2019). "C elebrities lose work, students sue U.S. colleges in admissions scandal". Reuters. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
- Lieber, Chavie (March 15, 2019). "Olivia Jade, the influencer at the center of the college admissions scandal, explained". Vox. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
- Schmidt, Ingrid (March 13, 2019). "Lori Loughlin's Daughter Vacationed on Billionaire USC Official's Yacht". The Hollywood Reporter. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
Lori Loughlin and Mossimo Giannulli's 19-year-old daughter was on the yacht of billionaire Rick Caruso, the chairman of USC's Board of Trustees, during Tuesday's indictment that charged the couple in a nationwide college cheating scandal.
- "Lori Loughlin Daughter Olivia Leaves Yacht Owned By Top USC Official". TMZ. March 13, 2019. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
As Lori Loughlin traveled from Vancouver to L.A. Tuesday night to surrender to federal authorities in the college bribery scandal -- which got her daughter, Olivia Jade, into USC -- Olivia spent the night on the yacht of the Chairman of USC's Board of Trustees
- Blum, Steven (March 13, 2019). "Olivia Jade Found Out Her Mom Had Schemed Her Into USC While On Rick Caruso's Yacht". Los Angeles. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
Olivia Jade, social media influencer and daughter of actress Lori Loughlin, was apparently spending her spring break on a yacht owned by USC board of trustees member Rick Caruso when the news broke that her mother was part of an epic college bribery case.
- Ross, Martha (March 13, 2019). "Will Lori Loughlin's Instagram-famous daughters get kicked out of USC, face other fallout because of parents?". The Mercury News. Retrieved March 14, 2019.
TMZ reported late Wednesday afternoon that Lori Loughlin's daughter Olivia Jade Giannulli had been traveling in the Bahamas on a yacht owned by Rick Caruso, the chairman of the USC Board of Trustees
- "Board of Trustees | USC". University of Southern California.
- Moore, Annette (February 9, 2011). "Rick J. Caruso Elected to USC Board". University of Southern California. Retrieved September 3, 2011.
- "Yale rescinds admission of a student whose family paid $1.2 million to get her in". CNN. March 26, 2019. Retrieved March 26, 2019.
- Li, David K. (March 14, 2019). "College cheating scandal: Lawsuits filed by students at elite schools". NBC News. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
- Seemayer, Zach (March 14, 2019). "Felicity Huffman, Lori Loughlin & Others Sued by Angry Parent for $500 Billion Over College Admissions Scandal". ET Online. Retrieved March 15, 2019.
- Wong, Alia (March 12, 2019). "Why the College-Admissions Scandal Is So Absurd". The Atlantic. The Atlantic Monthly Group. Retrieved March 17, 2019.
- Nelson, Libby (March 12, 2019). "The real college admissions scandal is what's legal". Vox. Vox Media. Retrieved March 16, 2019.
- Star-Ledger Editorial Board (March 13, 2019). "College admissions scandal exposes a corrupt and broken system". The Star-Ledger. New Jersey On-Line LLC. Retrieved March 16, 2019.
- Dickson, E.J. (March 13, 2019). "The College Admissions Scandal Proves the System Is Broken". Rolling Stone. Retrieved March 16, 2019.
- Hartocollis, Anemona (March 15, 2019). "College Admissions: Vulnerable, Exploitable, and to Many Americans, Broken". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved March 16, 2019.
- Khadaroo, Stacy Teicher (March 15, 2019). "America to elite colleges: Shape up (but please let us in)". The Christian Science Monitor. The Christian Science Publishing Society. Retrieved March 17, 2019.
- Fox News Insider (March 12, 2019). "Dershowitz: Alleged College Admissions Scam Is 'One of the Great Scandals of the 21st Century'". Outnumbered. Fox News. Retrieved March 13, 2019.
- Katersky, Aaron (March 12, 2019). "Ringleader pleads guilty in $25 million nationwide college admissions cheating scam". ABC News. Retrieved March 12, 2019.
- Goldstein, Dana; Healy, Jack (March 13, 2019). "Inside the Pricey, Totally Legal World of College Consultants". The New York Times. The New York Times Company. Retrieved March 16, 2019.
- Roy, Jessica (March 14, 2019). "A lingering question in the college admissions scandal: Why?". The Los Angeles Times. Los Angeles Times Communications. Retrieved March 16, 2019.
- Harris, Adam (March 13, 2019). "One Way to Stop College-Admissions Insanity: Admit More Students". The Atlantic. The Atlantic Monthly Group. Retrieved March 25, 2019.
- Leingang, Rachel (March 12, 2019). "Arizona State University gets dissed in college bribery scandal court documents". The Arizona Republic. Gannett. Retrieved March 25, 2019.
- Goodkind, Nicole (March 22, 2019). "An End to Affirmative Action? Why the College Admissions Scandal Could Fulfill Critics' Wish to Scrap Race-Based Program". Newsweek. Retrieved March 25, 2019.
- Investigations of College Admissions and Testing Bribery Scheme, United States Department of Justice – contains charging documents and case status of all defendants criminally implicated in the scandal
- District Court docket, No. 1:19-mj-06087 (D. Mass.)
- The Key Worldwide Foundation website, archived