|Other names||The Spoils of War|
|No. of Rukus||10|
|No. of verses||75|
The Spoils (Arabic: ٱلأنفال, al-ʾanfāl; aka Spoils of War, Earnings, Savings, Profits) is the eighth chapter (sūrah) of the Quran, with 75 verses (āyāt). Regarding the timing and contextual background of the revelation (asbāb al-nuzūl), it is a "Medinan surah", completed after the Battle of Badr. It forms a pair with the next surah, At-Tawba.
According to the eminent Muslim philosopher Abul A'la Maududi, the chapter was probably revealed in 2 A. H. after the Battle of Badr, the first defensive clash between Meccans and Muslim people of Medina after they fled from persecution in Mecca . As it contains an extensive point-by-point survey of the Battle, it gives the idea that most presumably it was uncovered at very much the same time. Yet, it is additionally conceivable that a portion of the verse concerning the issues emerging because of this Battle may have been uncovered later and joined at the best possible spots to make it a consistent entirety.
The Surah is named Al-Anfal (The Bounties) from the first ayat. The word utilized in the ayat is الْأَنفَالِ. The word نفل alludes to what is given as an extra sum past what is required. A very subtle perspective is covered in employing this word: the reward of undertaking jihad for God is permanently saved with God. Other than this prize, the spoils of war that are picked up from the Unbelievers are an extra offer for such individuals; before the Day of Judgment, the Almighty awards these to the participants of the war.
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The surah articulates general standards of war (one part of Jihad) and harmony while checking on the Battle of Badr and uses them for the ethical preparation of the Muslims as is this incredible Battle that has been evaluated right now. In any case, let it be noticed that in certain regards this survey is very unique concerning the audits that are typically made by the common commandants after an extraordinary triumph. Rather than bragging over the triumph, the ethical shortcomings that had risen to the top in that endeavor have been called attention to with the goal that the Muslims should attempt their best to change themselves. It has been put forth for them that the triumph was because of the accomplishment of Allah preferably - over to their valor and dauntlessness so the Muslims ought to figure out how to depend on Him and obey Allah and His Messenger alone. The ethical exercise of the contention between the Truth and falsehood has been articulated and the characteristics which lead to achievement in a contention have been clarified. At that point, the Surah addresses the mushriks and the unbelievers. It additionally gives guidelines for the spoils of war. The Muslims have been advised not to view these as their privilege however as an abundance from Allah. Along these lines, they ought to acknowledge with appreciation the offer that is allowed to them out of it and enthusiastically acquiesce to the offer which Allah separates for His motivation and the assistance of the penniless. At that point, it likewise gives typical directions concerning the laws of harmony and war as these were highly needed to be clarified at the phase which the Islamic Movement had entered. It charged that the Muslims should distance from the ways of "ignorance" in harmony and war and in this way ought to set up their ethical predominance on the planet. It additionally implied, to exhibit to the world in genuine useful life the ethical quality which it had been lecturing the world from the earliest starting point of Islam and had been charging that down to earth life ought to be founded on the equivalent. It additionally expresses a few articles of the Islamic Constitution which help separate the status of the Muslims living inside the restrictions of Dar-ul-Islam (the Abode of Islam) from that of the Muslims living past its cutoff points.
|1||This verse were speaking about the distribution of the Prize of war . More further event details regarding the revelation of this verse from Hadiths narrated by Zubayr ibn al-Awwam and Miqdad ibn Aswad were became the foundation of Sharia ruling by four Sunni Madhhab jurisprudence school regarding the rules of war.[Notes 1][Notes 2]|
|9||the verses are agreed by Tafsir scholars about the narrative story regarding the battle of Badr, where thousands of angels descended and take the size and form of normal humans to help Muslims in the battle to fight the Meccan polytheists. According to Ibn Hajar al-Asqalani, Asbab al-Nuzul or revelation of this verse were related with the solemn prayer which Muhammad does just before the battle. the phrase of "...thousand angels came in a row..." were translated literally as the angels according to Ibn Hajar came in appearance of an army of soldiers clad in white garments. The garments were translated by anoter scholars as yellow, as more specific source has stated that the angels has taken form of Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, companion of Muhammad.[Notes 3]
The consensus of Islamic scholars and clerics enclosed various hadiths, both authentics and inauthentics, about the tafseer of this verses that Gabriel, Michael, Raphael [Notes 4][Notes 5] and thousands of best angels from third level of sky, all came to the battle of Badr by impersonating appearance of Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, companion of Muhammad.[Notes 6] are deemed as his other personal virtue and venerable status according to Islamic belief.[Notes 7] Meanwhile, Mahdi Rizqullah has compiled the commentary from classical Islamic scholars, that the verse narration about the angels attendance in the battle were also supported by hadiths from hadith collection from Muslim ibn Hajjaj, Ahmad ibn Hanbal, and the also from Quranic historiography work by Ibn Kathir. Muhammad Nasiruddin al-Albani gave commentary of another supportive narration from al-Baihaqi and Ibn Ishaq, through various hadith narration chains about the testimony from several different sahabah. This included the narration of Abbas ibn Abd al-Muttalib who at that time fought on the side of Qurayshite polytheist, who testified that he has been taken captive on the aftermath of the battle by a horse rider whom he did not recognize at all from Muslims rank. According to the hadith authority from Ahmad ibn Hanbal, The captor of Abbas were confirmed by Muhammad as one of the angel who helped the Muslims during this battle.[Notes 8]
|10-12||The verses are continuation of the previous verse of ninth, where according to the verses, this are done to gave Muslim victory for the price of their faith in following Muhammad into the battle.|
|13-41||This portion manages the issues of the Spoils of War. The Quran says that these are not the crown jewels of war but rather the "Bounties of Allah" and demonstrates this by indicating that the triumph at Badr (and in every single other fight, as well,) was won by His aid and not by the endeavors of the Muslims. It likewise proclaims in ayat 40 that the war point of the Muslims ought to be to take out every single troublesome condition for the foundation of Islam and not to pick up ruins. Additionally, the spoils, being the bounties of God, have a place with Allah and His Messenger and only they are qualified to distribute them. At that point in the wake of molding the Muslims to acknowledge these things, the different shares have been assigned in ayat 41. The portion for relatives of Muhammad were attested by Hadith that Zubayr ibn al-Awwam, a cousin relative of Muhammad from the side of his father, were shared with more war prize during the battle of Badr.|
|41||"And know that anything you obtain of war booty - then indeed, for Allah is one fifth of it and for the Messenger and for [his] near relatives;"[Quran 8:41 (Translated by Saheeh International)]. This verse were talking about the divident of war spoils for the relatives of Muhammad. The Modern Hanbalite and salafists borrowed the interpretation of the verse from Ibn Kathir and Al-Baghawi, that Zubayr privilege were valid as he still counted as blood relative of Muhammad through az-Zubayr mother, so aside from the three parts which usually given to cavalry, two more parts of spoils were given to Zubayr for his blood relation with the prophet.|
|42-49||The Battle of Badr was appointed by Allah so Islam should triumph over "ignorance". The exercise from this is the Muslims should trust in God and set themselves up for war and ought not be bewildered by Satan as the disbelievers were.|
|50||The verse giving special mention regarding the conduct of the Angel of death that during the Battle of Badr, the angel of death gave special treatment for the unbelievers who died during that battle, where the angel torment them by striking their faces and their backs the moment they dying. Another opinion said those polytheists died in Badr were given the treatment not at that time, instead, they will be struck with such punishments during the Last Judgment.|
|51-54||The Battle of Badr was appointed by Allah so Islam should triumph over "ignorance". The exercise from this is the Muslims should trust in God and set themselves up for war and ought not be bewildered by Satan as the disbelievers were.|
|55-59||Sanctity of treaties has been ordered and the Muslims instructed to watch them as long as the other party does not break them.|
|60-66||The Muslims ought to consistently be set up for war on each front, yet ought to be prepared to make harmony if the other party is slanted towards it.|
|67-71||In these ayaat, guidelines about detainees of war have been given.|
|72-75||To keep the Muslims consolidated against their adversaries, they have been instructed to have welcoming relations with each other.|
Verse 8:12 (Remember) when your Lord revealed to the angels, "Verily, I am with you, so keep firm those who have believed. I will cast terror into the hearts of those who have disbelieved, so strike them over the necks, and smite over all their fingers and toes.': Verse 8:12
Tafsir Ibn Kathir says this means, "you -- angels -- support the believers, strengthen their (battle) front against their enemies, thus, implementing My command to you. I will cast fear, disgrace and humiliation over those who defied My command and denied My Messenger".: Verse 8:12
Muhammad al-Baqir narrates in hadith that:
Know that whatever property you may gain, one fifth belongs to God, the Messenger, for near relatives and the orphans, the needy, and the [stranded] traveler
which refers to the relatives of the Messenger of Allah. "Al-Khums (one fifth) belongs to Allah, the Messenger and to us (his Ahl al-Bayt)". One source states that Ubay ibn Khalaf was ransomed after Badr, but was killed by Muslims with a spear in the Battle of Uhud (625 CE). Verse [Quran 8:17] was revealed in this occasion.
Verses 8:42 and 8:47
The Battle of Badr is also the subject of this Surah, which details military conduct and operations. Though the Surah does not name Badr, it describes the battle several times:
Remember ye were on the hither side of the valley, and they on the farther side, and the caravan on lower ground than ye. Even if ye had made a mutual appointment to meet, ye would certainly have failed in the appointment: But (thus ye met), that Allah might accomplish a matter. For to Allah do all questions go back (for decision). [Quran 8:42]
These verses highlighted both the chance encounter of the battle (both sides had blundered into each other) as well as the underestimation of both the size of the Meccan army by the Muslims and the fierceness of the Muslim army by the Meccans. The Meccan army was described in the second verses, and "Satan" may be referring to Amr ibn Hishām, who was hated by the Muslims and allegedly pushed for the battle repeatedly.
According to Al-Suyuti, the aftermath of the battle of Uhud had several implication for the Companions of the Prophet as some of them though they can inherit the wealth of the fallen, due to the previous bonding between Muhajirun and Ansar in the event of Brotherhood among the Sahabah. This case were highlighted in a Hadith of such event when Ka'b ibn Malik, a Medinan Ansari warrior who has fallen during the battle and previously bonded brotherhood with Zubayr ibn al-Awwam. Then Muhammad revealed Sura Al-Anfal, Ayah 172|Quran 8:75 (Translated by Shakir), which annulled the inheritance rights between fabricated "brotherhood", and forbidding Zubayr to inherit Ka'b wealths, as the one who truly has the right to inherit his wealth were his true blood relatives such as his children's.
- During the distribution of spoils of war after the battle of Yarmuk az-Zubayr demanded that he should be given fifth times of the spoils of war which he argue by the ruling he gotfrom Muhammad once give az-Zubayr five parts from the 4/5 of the whole spoils of war during the battle of Khaybar for his service as cavalry man, which also supported by Jabir ibn Abdillah al-Ansari as the latter testified he witnessed the spoils distribution in Khaybar. Although his demand were challenged by Miqdad ibn Aswad, who favored the horsemens should be given two parts instead, based on his own experience, that after the battle of Badr, when both az-Zubayr and Miqdad the only horse riders in Muslim army were given two parts by Muhammad, which az-Zubayr cannot deny.
- The hadith were included in record of Ibn Manzur record of Miqdad ibn Aswad biography in his book, brief history of Damascus
- According to one Hadith, Muhammad were told that the angels that appeared in the battle of Badr were highest in status and the "best of angels" according to Gabriel.
- found in Mustadrak al Sahihayn. The complete narration from Al-Hakim al-Nishapuri were:... Abu Abdullah Muhammad bin Yaqoub has reported from Ibrahim bin Abdullah Al-Saadi, who told us Muhammad bin Khalid bin Uthma, told us Musa bin Yaqoub, told me Abu Al-Huwairith, that Muhammad bin Jubayr bin Mut’im told him, that he heard Ali - may God be pleased with him - addresses the people, and he said: While I was leaving from the well of Badr, a strong wind came, the like of which I had never seen, then it left, then came a strong wind, the like of which I have never seen except for the one before it, then it went, then came a strong wind that I did not see before. I have never seen anything like it except for the one before it, and the first wind was Gabriel descended among a thousand angels with the Messenger of God - may God bless him and grant him peace - and the second wind was Michael who descended among a thousand angels to the right of the Messenger of God - may God bless him and his family and grant them peace - and Abu Bakr was On his right, and the third wind was Israfil. He descended with a thousand angels on the side of the Messenger of God - may God’s prayers and peace be upon him and his family - and I was on the right side. When God Almighty defeated his enemies, the Messenger of God - may God’s prayers and peace be upon him and his family - carried me on his horse, I blew up, and I fell On my heels, I prayed to God Almighty... Ibn al Mulqin, Hadith scholar from Cordoba of 13-14 AD century, evaluate this hadith tha he found weaknesses in Musa ibn Yaqoub and Abu al Huwairith chain, so he deemed there is weakness about this hadith. However, recent scholarship from Ali Hasan al-Halabi has noted there is another hadith which supported the participation of Raphael in Badr
- According to Islamic belief in weak chain of Hadith, Raphael were acknowledged as angel who were tasked to blower of Armageddon trumpet, and one of archangels who bear the Throne of God on their back.
- According to one Hadith, Muhammad were told that the angels that appeared in the battle of Badr were highest in status and the "best of angels" according to Gabriel.
- According to one narration, during the battle, Muhammad has found an angel whom he though as Zubayr standing next to him, which then prompted Muhammad to command him to attack, which the angel, in Zubayr appearance, simply replied, "I am not Zubayr." Thus, according to Hadith expert this another indication that the angels truly came down with the appearance of Zubayr during Badr.
- Biography of the Prophet An Analytical Study Based on Authentic Sources by Mahdi Rizqullah which published in Indonesian language were praised by Jonathan E. Brockopp from Cambridge University Press for providing more details of Prophetic biography narration which does not offered by Mohammed Hussein Heikal biography works.
- George Sale translation
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[ يا آدم بر حجك ] " ما يروى عن آدم -عليه السلام- أنه لما حج قالت له الملائكة: «يا آدم بر حجك»: غير ثابت. " [من فوائد جلسة مع طلبة العلم /16/ذو الحجة/1432 ] __________________ " ... فهل يحسن بنا وقد أنضينا قرائحنا في تعلم هذه السنة المطهرة، وبذلنا في العمل بها جهد المستطيع، وركبنا المخاطر في الدعوة إليها؛ هل يحسن بنا بعد هذا كله أن نسكت لهؤلاء عن هذه الدعوى الباطلة، ونوليهم منا ما تولوا ونبلعهم ريقهم، وهل يحسن بنا أن لا يكون لنا في الدفاع عنها ما كان منا في الدعوة إليها؟ إنا إذن لمقصرون!..."
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4488 - Narrated Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Ya'kub, through Ibrahim bin Abdullah Al Saadi , on the authority of Muhammad bin Khalid bin Athmah, on the authority of Musa bin Yaqub , who reported Abu Huwayrith , that Muhammad bin Jabir bin Mut'im, told him
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Tafsir Al-Qurthubi, 7/20 (Maktabah Syamilah); At-Tadzkirah bi Ahwaalil Mauta wa Umuuril Akhirah, 1/488 (Maktabah Syamilah).; Fathul Baari 11/368 (Maktabah Syamilah); see Al-Imaan bimaa Ba’dal Maut, p. 112. ; Syarh Al-Ibanah: Al-Imaan bin Nafkhi Ash-Shuur, 5/33.; Syarh Al-‘Aqidah Al-Washithiyyah, 1/59-60 (Maktabah Asy-Syamilah). while in another book: وذلك أن الله سبحانه وتعالى يأمر اسرافيل وهو أحد الملائكة الموكلين بحمل العرش أن ينفخ في الصور (Syarh Al-‘Aqidah As-Safariyaniyyah, 1/467).
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Setelah itu ghanimah (harta rampasan perang) dibagikan. Empat perlima bagian untuk orang-orang yang berperang, dengan perincian untuk pejalan kaki satu bagian dan untuk pasukan berkuda tiga bagian. Allah berfirman: واعلموا أنما غنمتم من شيء فأن لله خمسه وللرسول “Ketahuilah, sesungguhnya apa saja yang dapat kamu peroleh sebagai rampasan perang, maka sesungguhnya seperlima untuk Allah dan untuk Rasul…” [Al-Anfaal: 41] Baca Juga Kitab Jihad (1) Dari Ibnu ‘Umar Radhiyallahu ‘anhuma, ia berkata: رأيت المغانم تجزأ خمسة أجزاء، ثم يسهم عليها، فما كان لرسول الله j فهو له، يتخير. “Aku melihat harta rampasan dibagi lima bagian, kemudian diberikan kepada yang ikut berperang, adapun yang menjadi bagian Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam, maka bagian itu adalah miliknya yang beliau pilih.” Dan dari beliau juga, bahwasanya Rasulullah Shallallahu ‘alaihi wa sallam membagi harta rampasan perang Khaibar, untuk penunggang kuda tiga bagian dan untuk kudanya dua bagian serta untuk pejalan kaki satu bagian. ; Shahih: [Shahiih al-Jaami’ish Shaghiir (no. 2303), Sunan Ibni Majah (II/952, no. 2853), ini adalah lafazh dalam riwayat beliau, dan yang meriwayatkan seperti ini tanpa menyebutkan ‘khaibar’, Shahiih al-Bukhari (VI/67, no. 2863), Shahiih Muslim (III/1383, no. 1762), Sunan Abi Dawud (VII/404, no. 2716)
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