Since obtaining independence from Spain, diplomatic relations between the two nations have been stable. During the Spanish civil war, Argentina remained neutral and gave asylum to any Spanish citizen requesting it without regards to whether they were Republicans or Franquistas. At the end of the war, Argentina maintained diplomatic relations with the government of General Francisco Franco. Maintaining diplomatic relations allowed for the first lady of Argentina Eva Perón to visit Spain in 1947 and donate five million tons of food to the Spanish people.
After the death of General Franco in Spain in 1975, Argentina entered a period of military dictatorship between 1976–1983. In 1982, Argentina invaded the Falkland Islands, also known as the Malvinas in Spanish. Spain recognized and supported the claims of Argentine territorial rights over the islands. In 2012, British documents were made declassified and stated that Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher feared that during the Falkland war, Spain would join Argentina by invading Gibraltar. 
A dispute arose in 2012, when Argentina sought to nationalize YPF as Spain warned against such a move. On 16 April, Argentina's President Cristina Fernández de Kirchner announced the nationalization, to which Spain warned of a "clear and decisive" response. Since then, Argentina has recompensed the Spanish government over the take over of YPF.