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Avicennism is a school of Islamic philosophy which was established by Avicenna. He developed his philosophy throughout the course of his life after being deeply moved and concerned by the Metaphysics of Aristotle and studying it for over a year. According to Henry Corbin and Seyyed Hossein Nasr, there are two kind of Avicennism: Islamic or Iranian Avicennism, and Latin Avicennism. According to Nasr, the Latin Avicennism was based on the former philosophical works of Avicenna. This school followed the Peripatetic school of philosophy and tried to describe the structure of reality with a rational system of thinking. In the twelfth century AD, It became influential in Europe, particularly in Oxford and Paris, and affected some notable philosophers such as Thomas Aquinas, Roger Bacon and Duns Scotus. While the Latin Avicennism was weak in comparison with Latin Averroism, according to Étienne Gilson there was an "Avicennising Augustinism". On the other hand, Islamic Avicennism is based on his later works which is known as "The oriental philosophy" (حکمت المشرقیین). Therefore, philosophy in the eastern Islamic civilization providing became close to gnosis and tried to provide a vision of a spiritual universe. This approach paved the road for the Iranian school of Illuminationism (حکمت الاشراق) by Suhrawardi.
Corbin referred to divergences between Iranian Avicennism and Latin Avicennism. Besides he showed that we can see three different schools in Avicennism, which he called Avicennising Augustinism, Latin Avicennism and Iranian Avicennism.
The philosophical programme of Avicenna and his students was criticised by the Muʿtazilī Ḥanafī scholar Ibn al-Malāḥimī (d. 1141), who argued that philosophy in the Greek tradition would be used to justify false beliefs and dilute the prophetic character of Islam. He put forward Christianity as an example of a prophetic religion corrupted by Greek abstract thought.
- Nasr 2013, p. 67
- Corbin 1998, p. 93 harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFCorbin1998 (help)
- Nasr 2013, p. 67
- Corbin 1998, p. 101 harvnb error: multiple targets (2×): CITEREFCorbin1998 (help)
- Corbin 2014, p. 102 harvnb error: no target: CITEREFCorbin2014 (help)
- Wilferd Madelung (2011), "Ibn al-Malāḥimī", in David Thomas; Alex Mallett; Juan Pedro Monferrer Sala; Johannes Pahlitzsch; Mark Swanson; Herman Teule; John Tolan (eds.), Christian-Muslim Relations: A Bibliographical History, Volume 3 (1050–1200), Leiden: Brill, pp. 440–443.
- Corbin, Henry (1998). The Voyage and the Messenger: Iran and Philosophy. Berkeley, CA, US: North Atlantic Books. ISBN 9781556432699. OCLC 970420613.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Nasr, Seyyed Hossein (2013). Islamic Life and Thought. Abingdon, UK ; New York: Routledge. ISBN 9781134538119. OCLC 861692831.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Corbin, Henry (1998). The Voyage and the Messenger: Iran and Philosophy. Berkeley, CA, US: North Atlantic Books. ISBN 1556432690. OCLC 970420613.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Corbin, Henry; Trask, Willard R (2014). Avicenna and the Visionary Recital: (Mythos Series). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 1400859069. OCLC 889253433.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)