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Continental philosophy is a term used to describe some philosophers and philosophical traditions that do not fall under the umbrella of analytic philosophy. However, there is no academic consensus on the definition of continental philosophy. Prior to the twentieth century, the term "continental" was used broadly to refer to philosophy from continental Europe. A different use of the term originated among English-speaking philosophers in the second half of the 20th century, who used it to refer to a range of thinkers and traditions outside the analytic movement. Continental philosophy includes German idealism, phenomenology, existentialism (and its antecedents, such as the thought of Kierkegaard and Nietzsche), hermeneutics, structuralism, post-structuralism, deconstruction, French feminism, psychoanalytic theory, and the critical theory of the Frankfurt School as well as branches of Freudian, Hegelian and Western Marxist views. There is widespread influence and debate between the analytic and continental traditions; some philosophers see the differences between the two traditions as being based on institutions, relationships, and ideology rather than anything of significant philosophical substance.
The term continental philosophy lacks clear definition and may mark merely a family resemblance across disparate philosophical views; Hans-Johann Glock has made a similar argument for analytic philosophy. Simon Glendinning has suggested that the term “continental philosophy” was originally more pejorative than descriptive, functioning as a label for types of western philosophy rejected or disliked by analytic philosophers. Nonetheless, Michael E. Rosen has ventured to identify common themes that typically characterize continental philosophy. The themes proposed by Michael E. Rosen derive from a broadly Kantian thesis that knowledge, experience, and reality are bound and shaped by conditions best understood through philosophical reflection rather than exclusively empirical inquiry.
The term continental philosophy, in the above sense, was first widely used by English-speaking philosophers to describe university courses in the 1970s, emerging as a collective name for the philosophies then widespread in France and Germany, such as phenomenology, existentialism, structuralism, and post-structuralism.
However, the term (and its approximate sense) can be found at least as early as 1840, in John Stuart Mill's 1840 essay on Coleridge, where Mill contrasts the Kantian-influenced thought of "Continental philosophy" and "Continental philosophers" with the English empiricism of Bentham and the 18th century generally. This notion gained prominence in the early 20th century as figures such as Bertrand Russell and G. E. Moore advanced a vision of philosophy closely allied with natural science, progressing through logical analysis. This tradition, which has come to be known broadly as analytic philosophy, became dominant in Britain and the United States from roughly 1930 onward. Russell and Moore made a dismissal of Hegelianism and its philosophical relatives a distinctive part of their new movement. Commenting on the history of the distinction in 1945, Russell distinguished "two schools of philosophy, which may be broadly distinguished as the Continental and the British respectively", a division he saw as operative "from the time of Locke"; Russell proposes the following broad points of distinction between Continental and British types of philosophy:[clarification needed]
- in method, deductive system-building vs. piecemeal induction;
- in metaphysics, rationalist theology vs. metaphysical agnosticism;
- in ethics, non-naturalist deontology vs. naturalist hedonism; and
- in politics, authoritarianism vs. liberalism.
Since the 1970s, however, many philosophers in the United States and Britain have taken interest in continental philosophers since Kant, and the philosophical traditions in many European countries have similarly incorporated many aspects of the "analytic" movement. Self-described analytic philosophy flourishes in France, including philosophers such as Jules Vuillemin, Vincent Descombes, Gilles Gaston Granger, François Recanati, and Pascal Engel. Likewise, self-described "continental philosophers" can be found in philosophy departments in the United Kingdom, North America, and Australia. "Continental philosophy" is thus defined in terms of a family of philosophical traditions and influences rather than a geographic distinction. The issue of geographical specificity has been raised again more recently in post-colonial and decolonial approaches to "continental philosophy", which critically examine the ways that European imperial and colonial projects have influenced academic knowledge production. For this reason, some scholars[who?] have advocated for "post-continental philosophy" as an outgrowth of continental philosophy.
The term continental philosophy, like analytic philosophy, lacks a clear definition and may mark merely a family resemblance across disparate philosophical views. Simon Glendinning has suggested that the term was originally more pejorative than descriptive, functioning as a label for types of western philosophy rejected or disliked by analytic philosophers. Nonetheless, Michael E. Rosen has ventured to identify common themes that typically characterize continental philosophy:
- Continental philosophers generally reject the view that the natural sciences are the only or most accurate way of understanding natural phenomena. This contrasts with many analytic philosophers who consider their inquiries as continuous with, or subordinate to, those of the natural sciences. Continental philosophers often argue that science depends upon a "pre-theoretical substrate of experience" (a version of Kantian conditions of possible experience or the phenomenological "lifeworld") and that scientific methods are inadequate to fully understand such conditions of intelligibility.
- Continental philosophy usually considers these conditions of possible experience as variable: determined at least partly by factors such as context, space and time, language, culture, or history. Thus continental philosophy tends toward historicism (or historicity). Where analytic philosophy tends to treat philosophy in terms of discrete problems, capable of being analyzed apart from their historical origins (much as scientists consider the history of science inessential to scientific inquiry), continental philosophy typically suggests that "philosophical argument cannot be divorced from the textual and contextual conditions of its historical emergence."
- Continental philosophy typically holds that human agency can change these conditions of possible experience: "if human experience is a contingent creation, then it can be recreated in other ways." Thus continental philosophers tend to take a strong interest in the unity of theory and practice, and often see their philosophical inquiries as closely related to personal, moral, or political transformation. This tendency is very clear in the Marxist tradition ("philosophers have only interpreted the world, in various ways; the point, however, is to change it"), but is also central in existentialism and post-structuralism.
- A final characteristic trait of continental philosophy is an emphasis on metaphilosophy. In the wake of the development and success of the natural sciences, continental philosophers have often sought to redefine the method and nature of philosophy. In some cases (such as German idealism or phenomenology), this manifests as a renovation of the traditional view that philosophy is the first, foundational, a priori science. In other cases (such as hermeneutics, critical theory, or structuralism), it is held that philosophy investigates a domain that is irreducibly cultural or practical. And some continental philosophers (such as Kierkegaard, Nietzsche, or the later Heidegger) doubt whether any conception of philosophy can coherently achieve its stated goals.
Ultimately, the foregoing themes derive from a broadly Kantian thesis that knowledge, experience, and reality are bound and shaped by conditions best understood through philosophical reflection rather than exclusively empirical inquiry.
The history of continental philosophy (taken in the narrower sense of "late modern/contemporary continental philosophy") is usually thought to begin with German idealism.[i] Led by figures like Fichte, Schelling, and later Hegel, German idealism developed out of the work of Immanuel Kant in the 1780s and 1790s and was closely linked with romanticism and the revolutionary politics of the Enlightenment. Besides the central figures listed above, important contributors to German idealism also included Friedrich Heinrich Jacobi, Gottlob Ernst Schulze, Karl Leonhard Reinhold, and Friedrich Schleiermacher.
As the institutional roots of "continental philosophy" in many cases directly descend from those of phenomenology,[ii] Edmund Husserl has always been a canonical figure in continental philosophy. Nonetheless, Husserl is also a respected subject of study in the analytic tradition. Husserl's notion of a noema, the non-psychological content of thought, his correspondence with Gottlob Frege, and his investigations into the nature of logic continue to generate interest among analytic philosophers.
J. G. Merquior argued that a distinction between analytic and continental philosophies can be first clearly identified with Henri Bergson (1859–1941), whose wariness of science and elevation of intuition paved the way for existentialism. Merquior wrote: "the most prestigious philosophizing in France took a very dissimilar path [from the Anglo-Germanic analytic schools]. One might say it all began with Henri Bergson."
An illustration of some important differences between analytic and continental styles of philosophy can be found in Rudolf Carnap's "Elimination of Metaphysics through Logical Analysis of Language" (1932; "Überwindung der Metaphysik durch Logische Analyse der Sprache"), a paper some observers[who?] have described as particularly polemical. Carnap's paper argues that Heidegger's lecture "What Is Metaphysics?" violates logical syntax to create nonsensical pseudo-statements. Moreover, Carnap claimed that many German metaphysicians of the era were similar to Heidegger in writing statements that were syntactically meaningless.
With the rise of Nazism, many of Germany's philosophers, especially those of Jewish descent or leftist or liberal political sympathies (such as many in the Vienna Circle and the Frankfurt School), fled to the English-speaking world. Those philosophers who remained—if they remained in academia at all—had to reconcile themselves to Nazi control of the universities. Others, such as Martin Heidegger, among the most prominent German philosophers to stay in Germany, aligned themselves with Nazism when it came to power.
20th-century French philosophy
Both before and after World War II there was a growth of interest in German philosophy in France. A new interest in communism translated into an interest in Marx and Hegel, who became for the first time studied extensively in the politically conservative French university system of the Third Republic. At the same time the phenomenological philosophy of Husserl and Heidegger became increasingly influential, perhaps owing to its resonances with French philosophies which placed great stock in the first-person perspective (an idea found in divergent forms such as Cartesianism, spiritualism, and Bergsonism). Most important in this popularization of phenomenology was the author and philosopher Jean-Paul Sartre, who called his philosophy existentialism.
Another major strain of continental thought is structuralism/post-structuralism. Influenced by the structural linguistics of Ferdinand de Saussure, French anthropologists such as Claude Lévi-Strauss began to apply the structural paradigm to the humanities. In the 1960s and '70s, post-structuralists developed various critiques of structuralism. Post-structuralist thinkers include Jacques Derrida and Gilles Deleuze. After this wave, most of the late 20th century, the tradition has been carried into the 21st century by Quentin Meillassoux, Tristan Garcia, Francois Laruelle, and others.
Recent Anglo-American developments
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From the early 20th century until the 1960s, continental philosophers were only intermittently discussed in British and American universities, despite an influx of continental philosophers, particularly German Jewish students of Nietzsche and Heidegger, to the United States on account of the persecution of the Jews and later World War II; Hannah Arendt, Herbert Marcuse, Leo Strauss, Theodor W. Adorno, and Walter Kaufmann are probably the most notable of this wave, arriving in the late 1930s and early 1940s. However, philosophy departments began offering courses in continental philosophy in the late 1960s and 1970s.
Continental Philosophy features prominently in a number of British and Irish Philosophy departments, for instance at the University of Essex, Warwick, Newcastle, Sussex, Dundee, Aberdeen (Centre for Modern Thought), and University College Dublin; as well as Manchester Metropolitan, Kingston, Staffordshire (postgraduate only), and the Open University.
American university departments in literature, the fine arts, film, sociology, and political theory have increasingly incorporated ideas and arguments from continental philosophers into their curricula and research. North American Philosophy departments offering courses in Continental Philosophy include the University of Hawaiʻi at Mānoa, Boston College, Stony Brook University, Vanderbilt University, DePaul University, Villanova University, the University of Guelph, The New School, Pennsylvania State University, University of Oregon, Emory University, University of Pittsburgh, Duquesne University, the University of Memphis, University of King's College, and Loyola University Chicago. The most prominent organization for continental philosophy in the United States is the Society for Phenomenology and Existential Philosophy (SPEP).
- The Phenomenology of Spirit (1807) by G. W. F. Hegel
- The World as Will and Representation (1818) by Arthur Schopenhauer
- Elements of the Philosophy of Right (1820) by G. W. F. Hegel
- Either/Or (1843) by Søren Kierkegaard
- The Concept of Anxiety (1844) by Søren Kierkegaard
- Economic and Philosophic Manuscripts of 1844 (1844) by Karl Marx
- Thus Spoke Zarathustra (1883) by Friedrich Nietzsche
- Beyond Good and Evil (1886) by Friedrich Nietzsche
- Matter and Memory (1896) by Henri Bergson
- The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism (1905) by Max Weber
- Ideas for a Pure Phenomenology and Phenomenological Philosophy (1913) by Edmund Husserl
- The Decline of the West (1918) by Oswald Spengler
- I and Thou (1923) by Martin Buber
- History and Class Consciousness (1923) by György Lukács
- Being and Time (1927) by Martin Heidegger
- The Revolt of the Masses (1930) by José Ortega y Gasset
- Civilization and Its Discontents (1930) by Sigmund Freud
- The Concept of the Political (1932) by Carl Schmitt
- The Crisis of European Sciences and Transcendental Phenomenology (1936) by Edmund Husserl
- Illuminations (1940) by Walter Benjamin
- Escape from Freedom (1941) by Erich Fromm
- Being and Nothingness (1943) by Jean-Paul Sartre
- Phenomenology of Perception (1945) by Maurice Merleau-Ponty
- Eclipse of Reason (1947) by Max Horkheimer
- Dialectic of Enlightenment (1947) by Max Horkheimer and Theodor W. Adorno
- Introduction to the Reading of Hegel (1947) by Alexandre Kojève
- The Second Sex (1949) by Simone de Beauvoir
- Minima Moralia (1951) by Theodor W. Adorno
- Prison Notebooks (1951) by Antonio Gramsci
- The Opium of the Intellectuals (1955) by Raymond Aron
- Eros and Civilization (1955) by Herbert Marcuse
- Mythologies (1957) by Roland Barthes
- The Human Condition (1958) by Hannah Arendt
- The Poetics of Space (1958) by Gaston Bachelard
- Truth and Method (1960) by Hans-Georg Gadamer
- Madness and Civilization (1961) by Michel Foucault
- Totality and Infinity (1961) by Emmanuel Levinas
- One-Dimensional Man (1964) by Herbert Marcuse
- Negative Dialectics (1966) by Theodor W. Adorno
- The Order of Things (1966) by Michel Foucault
- Ecrits (1966) by Jacques Lacan
- Society of the Spectacle (1967) by Guy Debord
- Writing and Difference (1967) by Jacques Derrida
- Of Grammatology (1967) by Jacques Derrida
- Difference and Repetition (1968) by Gilles Deleuze
- Archaeology of Knowledge (1969) by Michel Foucault
- Ideology and Ideological State Apparatuses (1970) by Louis Althusser
- Blindness and Insight (1971) by Paul de Man
- Anti-Oedipus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia (1972) by Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari
- Dissemination (1972) by Jacques Derrida
- Margins of Philosophy (1972) by Jacques Derrida
- Otherwise than Being or Beyond Essence (1974) by Emmanuel Levinas
- The History of Sexuality (1976–2018) by Michel Foucault
- The Postmodern Condition (1979) by Jean-François Lyotard
- A Thousand Plateaus: Capitalism and Schizophrenia (1980) by Gilles Deleuze and Félix Guattari
- Simulacra and Simulation (1981) by Jean Baudrillard
- Gender Trouble (1990) by Judith Butler
- Leiter 2007, p. 2: "As a first approximation, we might say that philosophy in Continental Europe in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries is best understood as a connected weave of traditions, some of which overlap, but no one of which dominates all the others."
- Critchley, Simon (1998). "Introduction: what is continental philosophy?". In Critchley, Simon; Schroder, William (eds.). A Companion to Continental Philosophy. Blackwell Companions to Philosophy. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing Ltd. p. 4.
- Critchley 2001, p. 32: "As such, Continental philosophy is an invention, or, more accurately, a projection of the Anglo-American academy onto a Continental Europe.."
- The above list includes only those movements common to both lists compiled by Critchley 2001, p. 13 and Glendinning 2006, pp. 58–65
- Rinofner-Kreidl, S.; Wiltsche, H.A. (2016). Analytic and Continental Philosophy: Methods and Perspectives. Proceedings of the 37th International Wittgenstein Symposium. Publications of the Austrian Ludwig Wittgenstein Society – New Series. De Gruyter. ISBN 978-3-11-044887-0. Retrieved 2023-08-28.
- Glock, H.J. (2008). What is Analytic Philosophy?. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-87267-6. Retrieved 2023-08-28.
- Glendinning 2006, p. 12.
- Rosen, Michael E., "Continental Philosophy from Hegel", in Philosophy 2: Further through the Subject, ed. A. C. Grayling (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1999), 665.
- Continental philosophers usually identify such conditions with the transcendental subject or self: Solomon 1988, p. 6, "It is with Kant that philosophical claims about the self attain new and remarkable proportions. The self becomes not just the focus of attention but the entire subject-matter of philosophy. The self is not just another entity in the world, but in an important sense it creates the world, and the reflecting self does not just know itself, but in knowing itself knows all selves, and the structure of any and every possible self."
- Critchley 2001, p. 38.
- Mill, John Stuart (1950). On Bentham and Coleridge. Harper Torchbooks. New York: Harper & Row. pp. 104, 133, 155.
- Russell, Bertrand (1959). My Philosophical Development. London: Allen & Unwin. p. 62.
Hegelians had all kinds of arguments to prove this or that was not 'real'. Number, space, time, matter, were all professedly convicted of being self-contradictory. Nothing was real, so we were assured, except the Absolute, which could think only of itself since there was nothing else for it to think of and which thought eternally the sort of things that idealist philosophers thought in their books.
- Russell, Bertrand. 1945. A History of Western Philosophy. Simon & Schuster. pages 643, 641. Ibid., pages 643–47.
- See, e.g., Brogan, Walter, and James Risser, eds. 2000. American Continental Philosophy: A Reader. Indiana University Press.
- Laurie, Timothy; Stark, Hannah; Walker, Briohny (2019). "Critical Approaches to Continental Philosophy: Intellectual Community, Disciplinary Identity, and the Politics of Inclusion". Parrhesia: A Journal of Critical Philosophy. 30: 1–17.
- Critchley 2001, p. 115.
- Critchley 2001, p. 57.
- Critchley 2001, p. 64.
- Leiter 2007, p. 4: "While forms of philosophical naturalism have been dominant in Anglophone philosophy, the vast majority of authors within the Continental traditions insist on the distinctiveness of philosophical methods and their priority to those of the natural sciences."
- Kenny, Anthony, ed. The Oxford Illustrated History of Western Philosophy. ISBN 0-19-285440-2.
- Merquior, J. G. 1987. Foucault, Fontana Modern Masters series. University of California Press. ISBN 0-520-06062-8.
- Gregory, Wanda T. 2001. "Heidegger, Carnap and Quine at the Crossroads of Language." Current Studies in Phenomenology and Hermeneutics 1(Winter). Archived from the original 2006-08-21.
- Stone, Abraham D. 2005. "Heidegger and Carnap on the Overcoming of Metaphysics." Chapter 8 in Martin Heidegger, edited by S. Mulhall. doi:10.4324/9781315249636.
- "| Society for Phenomenology and Existential Philosophy". spep.org. Retrieved 2021-02-28.
- Babich, Babette (2003). "On the Analytic-Continental Divide in Philosophy: Nietzsche's Lying Truth, Heidegger's Speaking Language, and Philosophy." In: C. G. Prado, ed., A House Divided: Comparing Analytic and Continental Philosophy. Amherst, New York: Prometheus/Humanity Books. pp. 63–103.
- Critchley, Simon (2001). Continental Philosophy: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press. ISBN 978-0-19-285359-2.
- Cutrofello, Andrew (2005). Continental Philosophy: A Contemporary Introduction. Routledge Contemporary Introductions to Philosophy. New York; Abingdon: Routledge Taylor & Francis Group.
- Glendinning, Simon (2006). The idea of continental philosophy: a philosophical chronicle. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press Ltd.
- Leiter, Brian; Rosen, Michael, eds. (2007). The Oxford Handbook of Continental Philosophy. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.
- Schrift, Alan D. (2010). The History of Continental Philosophy. 8 Volumes. Chicago; Illinois: University of Chicago Press Press.
- Solomon, Robert C. (1988). Continental philosophy since 1750: the rise and fall of the self. Oxford; New York: Oxford University Press.
- Kenny, Anthony (2007). A New History of Western Philosophy, Volume IV: Philosophy in the Modern World. New York: Oxford University Press.