Bánh

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Bánh
Bánh bèo, bột lọc, nem chua.jpg
Bánh bèo, bột lọc, and nem chua
TypeCakes and breads
CourseDessert
Place of originVietnam
Region or stateSoutheast Asia
Main ingredientsUsually rice flour, wheat flour, pressed glutinous rice, or tapioca

In Vietnamese, the term bánh (Hanoi: [ɓaʲŋ̟˧˥] or Saigon: [ɓan˧˥]) translates loosely as "cake" or "bread", referring to a wide variety of prepared foods.[1] With the addition of qualifying adjectives, bánh refers to a wide variety of sweet or savoury, distinct cakes, buns, pastries, sandwiches, and other food items, which may be cooked by steaming, baking, frying, deep-frying, or boiling. Foods made from wheat flour are generally called bánh, but the term may also refer to certain varieties of noodle and fish cake dishes, such as bánh canh and bánh hỏi.

Each variety of bánh is designated by a descriptive word or phrase that follows the word bánh, such as bánh bò (literally "cow cake") or bánh chuối (literally "banana cake"). Bánh that are wrapped in leaves before steaming are called bánh lá (literally "leaf cakes").

Bánh
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese alphabetbánh
Chữ Nôm[2]

In Vietnamese, the term bánh is not limited to Vietnamese cuisine: it applies equally to items as varied as fortune cookies (bánh may mắn), pudding, caramel custard (bánh caramen), and sacramental bread (Bánh Thánh). In some cases, the word can also refer to inedibles that have a cake-like shape, such as car tires, bath soaps, and compressed tobacco wheels.

Varieties[edit]

There is a nearly endless variety of named dishes with the prefix bánh. What follows is a list of the most typical traditional varieties of bánh.

Noodles[edit]

Bánh canh soup
  • Bánh canh – tapioca noodles which are cut from a large sheet.
  • Bánh hỏi – extremely thin noodles that are woven into intricate bundles and often topped with chopped scallions and a complementary meat dish
  • Bánh phở – The steamed flat and thin cake made from rice flour and water before being cut into strips. The strips are not only called Bánh phở but also "con phở" or "cọng phở," noodles that are used in phở. The width of the strips is usually around 1 cm or less.

Dumplings[edit]

Bánh tẻ
  • Bánh bá trạng (Bak Chang dumplings) – like Chinese zongzi[3]
  • Bánh bao – ball-shaped bun filled with pork and/or other ingredients
  • Bánh bột lọc – tapioca cake packed with shrimp[4]
    • Bánh bột lọc trần – dumplings with wrappers made of tapioca starch; similar to Chaozhou fun guo
    • Bánh bột lọc lá – tiny rice flour dumplings stuffed with shrimp and ground pork and wrapped in a banana leaf; from Hue
  • Bánh cam – deep-fried glutinous rice sesame balls filled with sweetened mung bean paste; from southern Vietnam
  • Bánh ít – small stuffed glutinous rice flour balls
    • Bánh ít trần – "naked" small stuffed glutinous rice flour balls
  • Bánh khúc – glutinous rice ball
  • Bánh nậm – flat rice flour dumpling from Hue stuffed with minced pork and mushroom, and seasoned with pepper and spices; wrapped in a banana leaf
  • Bánh phu thê – (literally "husband and wife cake"; a sweet cake made of rice or tapioca flour and gelatin, filled with mung bean paste; also spelled bánh xu xê)
    • Bánh phu thê bột bán (husband and wife cakes made with tapioca pearls)
  • Bánh rán – deep-fried glutinous rice sesame balls filled with sweetened mung bean paste; from northern Vietnam
  • Bánh tẻ, small steamed rice cake wrapped with Lá dong leaves into a long, thin cylindrical shape, and boiled thoroughly.

Pancakes[edit]

Bánh xèo
  • Bánh bèo – small steamed savory rice cakes
  • Bánh căn – a southern specialty consisting of small pancakes made with quail eggs, cooked in small clay pans
  • Bánh đúc, rice cake or corn cake is eaten as a dessert or savory meal
  • Bánh rế – deep-fried pancake
  • Bánh khọt – a southern specialty consisting of small, fried rice flour pancakes
  • Bánh xèo – a fried rice cake with shrimp and pork
  • Bánh bột chiên – fried rice cakes with eggs

Rolls[edit]

Bánh cuốn
  • Bánh cuốn – steamed rice roll
  • Bánh tôm – shrimp patties
    • Bánh tôm Hồ Tây – a shrimp patty made from deep fried julienned sweet potatoes – specialty originating from the area around West Lake (Tay Ho), Hanoi

Rice paper[edit]

Breads and sandwiches[edit]

Bánh mì

Sweet cakes[edit]

Durian green leaf cake Bánh da lợn sầu riêng
Bánh in nhân sầu riêng Sweet Rice Flour, Mung Bean and Durian Cake
  • Bánh bò – "cow cake," made from glutinous rice flour and coconut milk, with a honeycomb-like texture
  • Bánh cáy, rectangular-shaped sweet dessert made by roasting and grinding glutinous rice and other ingredients
  • Bánh da lợn – colored steamed layer cake made from tapioca starch, rice flour, coconut milk and/or water, sugar, and other ingredients
  • Bánh đúc – rice cake or corn cake eaten as a dessert or savory meal
  • Bánh chuối – banana cake
  • Bánh gối [vi] - a type of bread originating from Chinese fried dumpling
  • Bánh khoai mì – sweet cassava cake
  • Bánh khoai môn – taro cake
  • Bánh tiêu – hollow doughnuts
  • Bánh trung thu – mooncake

Dishes for special occasions[edit]

A plate of bánh tét, with mung bean paste filling
  • Bánh chưng – square-shaped steamed glutinous rice dumpling wrapped in a dong leaf (lá dong)
  • Bánh tét – log-shaped cylindrical glutinous rice cake, wrapped in a banana leaf and filled with a meat or vegetarian filling
  • Bánh trôi photo (literally "floating rice cake") – served together with bánh chay
  • Bánh tổ – a round, golden/taupe colored, sticky cake served for new years. It's made of glutinous rice flour, sugar, water, and soybean oil. Like the Chinese new year cake, neen gow (年糕), the bánh tổ is cut into thin slices then dipped in egg and fried before serving. This is an uncommon pastry and it's said the shape represents a wheel. It is sometimes decorated with white sesame seeds and red food coloring. (cf Kue Keranjang in Indonesia)

Others[edit]

  • Bánh bông lan – sponge cake
  • Bánh chay – served together with bánh trôi
  • Bánh cốm – green rice cake made using cốm with mung bean filling
  • Bánh cuốn
  • Bánh cáy
  • Bánh căn [vi]
  • Bánh đa (Northern) or Bánh tráng nướng (Southern)- rice cracker
  • Bánh đậu xanh – sweet mung bean paste
  • Bánh dừa
  • Bánh gai – made from the leaves of the "gai" tree (Boehmeria nivea) dried, boiled, ground into small pieces, then mixed with glutinous rice, wrapped in banana leaf. The filling is made from a mixture of coconut, mung bean, peanuts, winter melon, sesame, and lotus seeds.
  • Bánh giầy, also written as bánh dầy – white, flat, round glutinous rice cake with tough, chewy texture filled with mung bean or served with Vietnamese sausage (Giò lụa)
  • Bánh giò – pyramid shaped rice dough dumplings filled with pork, shallot, and wood ear mushroom wrapped in banana leaf[5]
  • Bánh hoa hồngphoto – rice cake that is shaped like a flower and made with mung bean paste
  • Bánh ít lá gai – triangular dumpling wrapped in ramie leaf, similar to Chinese zongzi
  • Bánh kẹp – Vietnamese waffle cookies made from rice flour – like a Pizzelle
  • Bánh mật – Molasses-sweetened glutinous rice cake (filled with green bean paste or groundnut)
  • Bánh lá dừa – Cake wrapped in coconut leaf
  • Bánh phồng tôm – prawn cracker
  • Bánh phục linh
  • Chè lam Phủ Quảng
  • Bánh quế
  • Bánh tráng mè
  • Bánh bèo ngọt
  • Bánh bà lai hoa hồng
  • Bánh bèo nhân tôm thịt
  • Bánh bèo xiêm
  • Bánh xếp bột gạo
  • Bánh xếp bột gạo
  • Bánh xíu mại sắc
  • Bánh tầm bì
  • Bánh Bao Cade (Coconut Custard Paus)
  • Bánh Bò Rễ Tre (Steamed Rice Cakes, Vietnamese Bak Tong Koh)
  • Bánh Bò Khoai Lang (Sweet Potato Fatt Koh)
  • Bánh Bò Lá Dứa (Pandan Coconut "Bak Tong Koh")
  • Bánh Bò Mã Lai (Hong Kong Style Malaysian Steamed Sponge Cake)
  • Bánh Bò Nướng (Vietnamese Baked Honey Comb Cake)
  • Bánh Bò Nướng Chay (Vietnamese Baked Honeycomb Cake Eggless Version)
  • Bánh Bông Lan Bơ (Fruit/Butter Cake)
  • Bánh Bông Lan Cuốn (Swiss Roll)
  • Bánh Bông Lan Phú Sĩ (Mountain Fuji Cake)
  • Bánh Bông Lan Rễ Tre (Honeycomb Sponge Cakes)
  • Bánh pía (Theochew "Pia" Pastry)
  • Bánh Chuối Hấp (Steamed Banana Cake)
  • Bánh Chuối Nướng (Baked Banana Bread Pudding)
  • Bánh Cốm (Rice Flake Cakes)
  • Bánh Choux (aka Bánh Xu, Bánh Su, Choux À la Cream, Bánh Sữa, Cream Puffs)
  • Banh Dap - Rice crackers stuck together
  • Bánh Dẻo (Vietnamese Ping Pei Mooncakes)
  • Bánh Dẻo Cuộn (Ping Pei Rolls)
  • Bánh Flan (Caramel Flan)
  • Bánh Gan ("Liver" Cake)
  • Bánh Hạnh Nhân (Vietnamese Almond/Peanut Cookies)
  • Bánh Hạnh Nhân Kiểu Tàu (Chinese Almond Cookies)
  • Bánh Hoa Mai/Hoa Đào (Cherry/Plum Blossom Cookies)
  • Bánh Hoa Sen (Lotus Pastries)
  • Bánh in (Print Cakes)
  • Bánh Men (Yeast Cookies)
  • Bánh Mì Ngọt Nhân Xoài và Phô Mai(Mango and Cream Cheese Bun)
  • Bánh Quai Vạc (Coconut/Mung Bean Puffs)
  • Bánh quai vạt – need literal translation of this name
  • Bánh Quế/Bánh Kẹp (Vietnamese Love Letters)
  • Bánh Sát Phu (Husband Killers)
  • Bánh Thuẫn Hấp (Steamed Cup Cakes)
  • Bánh Tổ• (Ancestor Cakes/Nien Gow)
  • Bánh Vòng (Vietnamese "Doughnuts")
  • Bánh Ú Nước Tro (Lye Water Dumplings)
  • Bánh Xốp Bơ (Chewy Butter Cookies)
  • Bánh Bao Nương Nhân Xá Xíu (Baked Char Siu Paus
  • Bào Ngư Xào Nấm Đông Cô (Braised Shitake Mushrooms with Abalone)
  • Bánh Hoa Hồng (Rose Dumplings)
  • Bánh Khoai Môn Tàn Ong (Dimsum Taro Puffs)
  • Bánh Mì Chiên (Fried Baguettes)
  • Bánh Mì Hấp (Steamed Baguettes)
  • Pa tê sô [vi] – A French-inspired meat-filled pastry. Characterized by flaky crust and either pork or chicken as the filling.
  • Bánh Phồng Tôm (Shrimp Crackers/Chips)
  • Bánh ít trần [vi] (Naked Savory Rice Balls)
  • Bánh trôi nước

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Richard Sterling Banh World Food: Vietnam Lonely Planet, 2000 ISBN 1-86450-028-X, 9781864500288 254 pages
  2. ^ Taberd, Jean-Louis. "bánh". Dictionarium Anamitico-Latinum. p. 16.
  3. ^ "Playing with My Food: Bánh Bá Trạng (Bak Chang Dumplings)". Retrieved 29 December 2014.
  4. ^ "Hue Dictionary". NetCoDo. Archived from the original on 9 December 2012. Retrieved 24 September 2010.
  5. ^ "Mom's Recipes: Bánh Giò". Miss.Adventure @Home. Retrieved 21 September 2010.

External links[edit]