Bank of Ghana
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|Headquarters||Accra, Greater Accra, Ghana|
|Ownership||100% state ownership|
|Governor||Dr. Ernest Kwamina Yedu Addison|
|Central bank of||Ghana|
GHS (ISO 4217)
The Bank of Ghana (abbreviated as BoG) is the central bank of Ghana. It is located in Accra and was formed in 1957. The bank is active in developing financial inclusion policy and is a member of the Alliance for Financial Inclusion .
The Central Bank of Ghana traces its roots to the Bank of the Gold Coast (BGC) or Ghana Commercial Bank, where it was nurtured. As soon as local politicians and economists saw political independence in sight in the mid-1950s the agitation for a central bank was revived. It was argued that a central bank was one institution which would give true meaning to political independence. It may be recalled that way back in 1947 some leading politicians had called for the establishment of a national bank with central bank functions to act as banker to government and to cater for the indigenous sector of the economy.
Proposals of the advocates for a central bank were accepted and in early 1955 another Select Committee was set up by the Government to take a new look at the Trevor Report and prepare the grounds for the establishment of a central bank in Ghana. The BGC had already set the stage for central banking: all that was needed was specially trained personnel in central banking and suitable accommodation for the bank to take off.
By the end of 1956, all was set for the establishment of the Bank of Ghana. A new and modern five-storey building had been put up on the High Street, adjacent to the Accra Metropolitan Assembly (AMA) to house both the Bank of Ghana and the Ghana Commercial Bank (GCB).
|List of Governors of the Bank Since its Inception|
|Mr. Alfred Eggleston 01 Aug 1957 – 03 Apr 1959|
Mr. Hubert Kessels 21 Aug 1959 – 08 Sep 1962
Dr. Kwabena Duffuor 17 Jul 1997–30 Sept 2001
The first governor of the bank was Mr. Alfred Eggleston, the former Managing Director of BGC and an accomplished Scottish banker on secondment to Ghana from the Imperial Bank of India. His Deputy Governor was one Mr. Douglas F. Stone, another renowned British central banker also on secondment from Bank of England.
The general administration of the bank was entrusted in the hands of a seven-member board of directors under the chairmanship of the governor.
The first Board was as follows:
- Alfred Eggleston, Chairman
- Douglas F. Stone, Deputy Governor
- R. S. Blay, Director
- N. T. Clerk, Director
- C. E. Osei, Director
- R. C. Parkin, Director
The Governor of the Bank and his Deputy were appointed by the Governor of the Gold Coast on the recommendation of the Prime Minister, in accordance with Section 10 (1) of the 1957 Ordinance. The Governor and his Deputy were each appointed for a term of five years and were eligible for reappointment. Those two officials were answerable to the Board for their acts and decisions in the course of general administration of the affairs of the bank. The Board itself was also answerable to the Ministry of Finance for efficient management of the Bank. The other directors of the Board were also appointed by the Prime Minister with the approval of the Governor of the Gold Coast for a term of three years, subject to renewal.
In 1957, the bank commenced business with six main departments namely:
- The Governors' Office
- The Administration/Personnel Department
- The Banking Department
- The Issue Department
- Accounts/Audit Department
- Economics/Statistics Department
The Governors' Office was headed by the Secretary to the Board while the other departments were headed by Managers who reported directly to the Deputy Governor or, in special cases to the Governor. The departments were run by the managers in accordance with policies and decisions arrived at by an in-house Management accordance with policies arrived at by an in-house Management Committee comprising the Governor, the Deputy Governor and three or four heads of department appointed by the Governor.
With that initial organisational arrangements, the Bank of Ghana assumed its central role in the banking system of Ghana, which then comprised the central bank, two expatriate commercial banks – the British Bank of West Africa (BBWA) (now Standard Chartered Bank) and Barclays Bank Limited (Dominion, Colonial and Overseas); and the new Ghana Commercial Bank (GCB).
There was also the Post Office Savings Bank (POSB), which was, in fact, not a bank by definition; it was only an institution set up by the government to mobilize public savings through the agency of the numerous post offices in the country, for investment in government paper.
Relations with the other banks in the system were set out under sections 39 – 42 of the 1957 Ordinance. Initially, the relation were not very strong. The Central Bank was to act as banker to other banks and co-operate with them to promote and maintain adequate and reasonable banking services for the public. It was also to ensure high standards of conduct and management in the banking system. The Bank was also given powers to require the banks to maintain a proportion of their assets in specified form and to submit monthly returns on their operation to the Central Bank. However, banking supervision or bank examination was not specifically highlighted in the Ordinance.
Awards and Honours
In October 2020, the Bank of Ghana was adjudged the best central bank at the seventh Central Banking Awards.
- Savings and Loans Company
- Cedi, the currency of Ghana
- Central banks and currencies of Africa
- Economy of Ghana
- List of financial institutions in Ghana
-  Archived 20 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine
- "BoG List of Gorvenors".
- "Bank of Ghana continues pledge to financial inclusion with Maya Declaration commitment". Alliance for Financial Inclusion | Bringing smart policies to life. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
- "AFI's Gender Inclusive Finance Webinar on "Integrating Gender Considerations into COVID-19 Policy Solutions" - Opening Remarks by Governor, Dr. E.K Addison, Bank of Ghana". Alliance for Financial Inclusion | Bringing smart policies to life. Retrieved 26 December 2020.
- "BoG ordinance". 19 June 2008. Archived from the original on 14 September 2008.
- "BoG picks Central Bank of the Year award". Graphic Online. Retrieved 15 October 2020.