|Cerberus 1, DAN family BMP antagonist|
Cerberus is an inhibitor in the TGF beta signaling pathway secreted during the gastrulation phase of the embryogenesis. Cerberus (Cer) is a gene that encodes a cytokine (a secreted signaling protein) important for the induction of head formation of vertebrates. The Cerberus gene encodes a polypeptide that is 270 amino acids in length and is expressed in the anterior domain of a gastrula in the endoderm layer. Cerberus also plays a large role as an inhibitory molecule, which is important for proper head induction. Cerberus inhibits the proteins BMP4, Xnr1, and Xwnt8.
This gene encodes a cytokine member of the cystine knot superfamily, characterized by nine conserved cysteines and a cysteine knot region. The cerberus-related cytokines, together with Dan and DRM / Gremlin, represent a group of bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) antagonists that can bind directly to BMPs and inhibit their activity.
In human embryonic development, Cerberus and the protein coded by GREM3 inhibit Nodal in the Wnt signaling pathway during the formation of the germ layers. Specifically, Cerberus and GREM3 act as antagonists to Nodal in the anterior region of the developing embryo, blocking its expression and halting the progression of the primitive node. Orthologs of the gene that codes Cerberus (CER1) are conserved in other non-rodent mammals, indicating that Cerberus has similar functions in other vertebrates.
A Gene knock down experiment was conducted in Xenopus where the amount of Cerberus expressed was decreased by inhibiting translation. The proteins that Cerberus inhibits (BMP4, Xnr1, Xwnt8) concentrations were increased also. It was also shown that just the decrease of Cerberus translation alone was not enough to inhibit the formation of head structures. While the increase of just BMP4, Xnr1, Xwnt8 led to defects in the formation of the head. The increase of BMP4, Xnr1, Xwnt8 and the decrease of Cerberus together blocked the formation of the head. This gene knockdown experiment showed the necessity of Cerberus’ inhibitory functions in the formation of head structures. It quite possibly may be that although Cerberus is necessary for the induction of a head, its inhibitory actions may play a more significant role in ensuring the head is developed properly.
Overexpression or overabundance of Cerberus is associated with the development of ectopic heads. These additional head-like structures may contain varying characteristics of a normal head (eye or eyes, brain, notochord) depending on the ratio of overabundant Cerberus to other proteins associated with anterior development that Cerberus inhibits (Wnt, Nodal, and BMP). If only Nodal is blocked, a single head will still form but with abnormalities such as cyclopia. If both Nodal and BMP or Wnt and BMP are sufficiently inhibited, ectopic, abnormal head-like structures will form. Inhibition of all three proteins by Cerberus is required for the development of complete, ectopic heads.
- "Entrez Gene: CER1".
- Lah M, Brodnicki T, Maccarone P, Nash A, Stanley E, Harvey RP (February 1999). "Human cerberus related gene CER1 maps to chromosome 9". Genomics 55 (3): 364–6. doi:10.1006/geno.1998.5671. PMID 10049596.
- Piccolo S, Agius E, Leyns L, Bhattacharyya S, Grunz H, Bouwmeester T, De Robertis EM (1999). "The head inducer Cerberus is a multifunctional antagonist of Nodal, BMP and Wnt signals". Nature 397 (6721): 707–10. doi:10.1038/17820. PMC 2323273. PMID 10067895.
- Bouwmeester T, Kim S, Sasai Y, Lu B, De Robertis EM (1996). "Cerberus is a head-inducing secreted factor expressed in the anterior endoderm of Spemann's organizer". Nature 382 (6592): 595–601. doi:10.1038/382595a0. PMID 8757128.
- Katoh M, Katoh M (2006). "CER1 is a common target of WNT and NODAL signaling pathways in human embryonic stem cells". Int. J. Mol. Med. 17 (5): 795–9. doi:10.3892/ijmm.17.5.795. PMID 16596263.
- Silva AC, Filipe M, Kuerner KM, Steinbeisser H, Belo JA (2003). "Endogenous Cerberus activity is required for anterior head specification in Xenopus". Development 130 (20): 4943–53. doi:10.1242/dev.00705. PMID 12952900.
- Chen D, Zhao M, Mundy GR (2004). "Bone morphogenetic proteins.". Growth Factors 22 (4): 233–41. doi:10.1080/08977190412331279890. PMID 15621726.
- Swinkels ME, Simons A, Smeets DF et al. (2008). "Clinical and cytogenetic characterization of 13 Dutch patients with deletion 9p syndrome: Delineation of the critical region for a consensus phenotype.". Am. J. Med. Genet. A 146A (11): 1430–8. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.32310. PMID 18452192.
- Tang PL, Cheung CL, Sham PC et al. (2009). "Genome-wide haplotype association mapping in mice identifies a genetic variant in CER1 associated with BMD and fracture in southern Chinese women.". J. Bone Miner. Res. 24 (6): 1013–21. doi:10.1359/jbmr.081258. PMID 19113921.
- Young RP, Hopkins RJ, Hay BA et al. (2009). Schrijver, Iris, ed. "Lung cancer susceptibility model based on age, family history and genetic variants.". PLoS ONE 4 (4): e5302. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005302. PMC 2668761. PMID 19390575.
- Gerhard DS, Wagner L, Feingold EA et al. (2004). "The status, quality, and expansion of the NIH full-length cDNA project: the Mammalian Gene Collection (MGC).". Genome Res. 14 (10B): 2121–7. doi:10.1101/gr.2596504. PMC 528928. PMID 15489334.
- Strausberg RL, Feingold EA, Grouse LH et al. (2002). "Generation and initial analysis of more than 15,000 full-length human and mouse cDNA sequences.". Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 99 (26): 16899–903. doi:10.1073/pnas.242603899. PMC 139241. PMID 12477932.
- Biben C, Stanley E, Fabri L et al. (1998). "Murine cerberus homologue mCer-1: a candidate anterior patterning molecule.". Dev. Biol. 194 (2): 135–51. doi:10.1006/dbio.1997.8812. PMID 9501024.
- Gazzerro E, Canalis E (2006). "Bone morphogenetic proteins and their antagonists.". Rev Endocr Metab Disord 7 (1-2): 51–65. doi:10.1007/s11154-006-9000-6. PMID 17029022.
- Humphray SJ, Oliver K, Hunt AR et al. (2004). "DNA sequence and analysis of human chromosome 9.". Nature 429 (6990): 369–74. doi:10.1038/nature02465. PMC 2734081. PMID 15164053.
- Yerges LM, Klei L, Cauley JA et al. (2009). "High-density association study of 383 candidate genes for volumetric BMD at the femoral neck and lumbar spine among older men.". J. Bone Miner. Res. 24 (12): 2039–49. doi:10.1359/jbmr.090524. PMC 2791518. PMID 19453261.
- Zhang Z, Henzel WJ (2004). "Signal peptide prediction based on analysis of experimentally verified cleavage sites.". Protein Sci. 13 (10): 2819–24. doi:10.1110/ps.04682504. PMC 2286551. PMID 15340161.
- Young RP, Hopkins RJ, Hay BA et al. (2009). "A gene-based risk score for lung cancer susceptibility in smokers and ex-smokers.". Postgrad Med J 85 (1008): 515–24. doi:10.1136/pgmj.2008.077107. PMID 19789190.
|This article on a gene on human chromosome 9 is a stub. You can help Wikipedia by expanding it.|