Umpqua Community College shooting
|Umpqua Community College shooting|
Snyder Hall, the scene of the shooting
|Location||Roseburg, Oregon, U.S.|
|Date||October 1, 2015
10:38 a.m. – 10:48 a.m. (PDT)
|School shooting, mass shooting, mass murder, shootout, murder–suicide|
|Deaths||10 (including the perpetrator)|
The Umpqua Community College shooting occurred on October 1, 2015, at the UCC campus near Roseburg, Oregon, United States. Chris Harper-Mercer, a 26-year-old enrolled at the school, fatally shot an assistant professor and eight students in a classroom. Eight others were injured. Roseburg police detectives responding to the incident engaged Harper-Mercer in a brief shootout. After being wounded, he killed himself by shooting himself in the head. The mass shooting was the deadliest in Oregon's modern history.[a]
At 10:38 a.m. PDT, the first 9-1-1 call was made from Snyder Hall on the school campus reporting gunfire. Students reported that the shooting began in Classroom 15, where English and writing classes are conducted.
Harper-Mercer, who was a student in the writing class, entered the classroom and fired a warning shot. Some witnesses said he then forced fellow students to the center of the classroom. Before he opened fire on the other students, he deliberately spared one student's life so that student could deliver a package from him to police. He forced this student to sit at the back of the classroom and watch as he continued shooting with two handguns (Glock 19 and Taurus PT24/7).
Harper-Mercer first shot the assistant English professor at point-blank range. He allegedly asked two students for their religion, shooting them after they gave him a response. Other witnesses said he asked if students were Christians, telling those who replied in the affirmative that they would go to heaven as he shot them, although one victim was agnostic and another was pagan. Some students were shot multiple times; one woman was struck several times in the stomach while trying to close a classroom door. One witness said he made a woman beg for her life before shooting her, shot another woman when she tried to reason with him, and shot a third woman in the leg after she tried to defend herself with a desk. One victim, Sarena Dawn Moore, was killed while trying to climb back into a wheelchair at his orders.
Two plainclothes detectives from the Roseburg Police Department were the first to respond to the scene. They arrived at the hallway of Snyder Hall at 10:44, six minutes after the first 9-1-1 call was received. Two minutes later, Harper-Mercer reloaded his handguns and leaned out of the classroom, firing several shots at the officers. They fired three shots in return, hitting him once in the right side. After two more minutes of shooting at the officers, the wounded Harper-Mercer retreated into the classroom and killed himself with a single shot to his head. None of the officers were injured.
Following the shooting, Bureau of Alcohol, Tobacco, Firearms and Explosives (ATF) agents launched a campus-wide search for explosives. Six firearms were recovered from the crime scene: five handguns and one long gun. None were owned by his mother. The long gun, a 5.56x45mm Del-Ton DTI-15 semi-automatic rifle, was not used during the incident. Harper-Mercer also had a flak jacket and "enough ammunition for a prolonged gunfight". Police said they found eight other firearms at his apartment, and that all of the weapons were purchased legally by him or members of his family. The killer's mother moved out of the apartment they had shared, returning to California where she renewed her nursing license.
Among the wounded was Chris Mintz, a U.S. Army veteran who was studying fitness training at the college, who responded when he heard screams coming from an adjacent classroom. He blocked the connected door with his body to allow his class to escape. He next left the building to alert students in the library to evacuate. Returning to the shooting scene, he advised a wounded student to stay down and be quiet. At that point, Harper-Mercer leaned out from the classroom into the hallway and shot Mintz five times as he was first standing, then falling to the floor, because he said Mintz had called police. Mintz pleaded that he not be killed on his son's birthday and said an apparently emotionless Harper-Mercer withdrew back into the classroom.
At a press conference held on October 3, Douglas County Sheriff John Hanlin thanked Mintz for his actions. To help pay for his medical bills, Mintz's family set up a GoFundMe account. By the end of that day, it had already received more than US$650,000 in donations. Mintz was released from a hospital on October 7. On October 13, a 16-year-old girl who was critically wounded in the shooting was released from a hospital.
July 26, 1989|
Los Angeles County, California
|Died||October 1, 2015
|Cause of death||Suicide|
|Alma mater||El Camino College|
|Parent(s)||Ian Mercer (father)
Laurel Harper (mother)
Christopher Sean "Chris" Harper-Mercer (July 26, 1989 – October 1, 2015) was enrolled in the introductory composition class where he shot his victims. He was born in Los Angeles County, California to Ian Mercer and Laurel Margaret Harper, and lived with his mother during the separation and divorce of his parents, who agreed to shared legal custody. Harper-Mercer continued to live with his mother and remained with her when she moved to Oregon for work. His father had not seen him for about two years following his son's move out of state.
Harper-Mercer joined the U.S. Army in 2008, but was discharged after five weeks for his failure to meet the "minimum administrative standards" of basic training at Fort Jackson, South Carolina. Officials linked to the investigation said that he was discharged as the result of a suicide attempt, but Army officials did not comment on this. In 2009, he graduated from Switzer Learning Center, a school for teenagers with learning disabilities or emotional issues. Laurel Harper was reportedly protective of him and tried to shield him from various perceived annoyances, some of them minor, in their neighborhood in Torrance, California. From early 2010 to early 2012, Harper-Mercer attended El Camino College in Torrance.
Harper-Mercer maintained several Internet accounts, including one in which he described himself as mixed race.[b] Media reports said he had an e-mail address linked to an account on a BitTorrent website. The last upload on the account, three days before the Umpqua shooting, was a documentary on the Sandy Hook Elementary School shooting. According to the Los Angeles Times, unnamed law enforcement sources described him as a "hate-filled" man with antireligious and white supremacist leanings, and with long-term mental-health issues. His mother, Laurel Harper, had previously written anonymously in an online forum that both she and her son had Asperger syndrome.
He and his mother moved to Winchester, Oregon in 2013 after she received a job there. There were fourteen legally purchased weapons kept in the apartment, and Harper-Mercer's mother wrote online that she always kept full magazines in Glock pistols and an AR-15 rifle inside. The two often spent time together at shooting ranges, but Harper-Mercer was otherwise extremely isolated.
Harper-Mercer had been placed on academic probation at Umpqua Community College for falling below a C average. A letter dated September 1 warned him that he could be suspended if he did not raise his grades. A UCC tuition bill due on October 6 noted that Harper-Mercer owed $2,021.
On the day of the shooting, Harper-Mercer gave a survivor numerous writings showing he had studied mass killings, including the 2014 killing spree at Isla Vista, California. These expressed his sexual frustration as a virgin, animosity toward black men, and a lack of fulfillment in his isolated life. In them, he said "Other people think I'm crazy, but I'm not. I'm the sane one," and that he would be "welcomed in Hell and embraced by the devil." He also reportedly admired the perpetrator of the WDBJ shooting for the fame received, and wrote that: "A man who was known by no one, is now known by everyone. His face splashed across every screen, his name across the lips of every person on the planet, all in the course of one day."
Oregon Governor Kate Brown said she was heartbroken by the events and that she would immediately travel to Roseburg. The American Association of Community Colleges and the Association of Community College Trustees issued a joint statement, calling the shooting a tragedy and expressing their commitment to on-campus safety.
Sheriff John Hanlin of Douglas County said he would not "name the shooter ... I will not give him credit for this horrific act of cowardice. Media will get the name confirmed in time ... but you will never hear us use it."[d]
U.S. President Barack Obama said that "thoughts and prayers [do] not capture the heartache and grief and anger that we should feel, and it does nothing to prevent this carnage from being inflicted some place else in America next week or a couple months from now."[c] He ordered the U.S. flag to be flown at half staff in memory of the victims the day after the shootings. On October 5, the White House announced that Obama would continue to take more executive action on the subject of gun control. Obama was met at Roseburg Regional Airport by around 200 protesters rallying behind a security fence, some with holstered weapons, who also showed support for Sheriff Hanlin, who had been highly visible during press conferences about the shooting. After 20 children and six school staff were shot and killed in 2012 at Sandy Hook Elementary School, Hanlin had sent a letter to Vice President Joe Biden saying he would not enforce any new gun legislation he deemed to be unconstitutional.
Although Harper-Mercer had suffered from substantial mental illness, given that he had never been involuntarily committed in Oregon, nothing in existing state law in effect just two days before the shooting would have prohibited him from purchasing firearms. On that day he passed a background check and bought a .380 semiautomatic handgun. However, an Oregon law passed in 2017 will make it easier, starting in 2018, for family or law enforcement to take guns away from those suffering from mental illness.
- Gun law in the United States
- Gun politics in the United States
- List of school shootings in the United States
- List of rampage killers (school massacres)
- The shooting is considered the deadliest shooting since 1887, when 10 to 34 Chinese miners were shot dead at a site in Hells Canyon later named Chinese Massacre Cove.
- According to relatives and neighbors, Harper-Mercer's mother is black and his father is white.
- "Statement by the President on the Shootings at Umpqua Community College, Roseburg, Oregon". The White House. Archived from the original on October 2, 2015.
- The practice of withholding a perpetrator's name is controversial. The Associated Press cited a recent study suggesting that copycat crimes were more likely to happen within an average of 13 days following significant press coverage of a mass shooting, while noting that criminologists and ethicists say withholding names could make it more difficult to track patterns of behavior and prevent future acts of violence.
- "An arsenal at UCC". The Registered Guard. September 11, 2017. Retrieved September 11, 2017.
- "10 dead, 9 injured in mass shooting at Oregon college". Portland, Oregon: KGW-TV. October 1, 2015. Retrieved October 1, 2015.
- Jackson, Derrick Z. (October 2, 2015). "The shameful irony of Ore. mass shooting". The Boston Globe. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
- Vanderhart, Dirk; Johnson, Kirk; Turkewitz, Julie (October 1, 2015). "Oregon Community College Shooting Leaves at Least 7 Dead". The New York Times. Retrieved October 1, 2015.
- "Deadly shooting at Umpqua Community College". Portland, Oregon: KATU-TV. October 1, 2015. Archived from the original on October 16, 2015. Retrieved October 1, 2015.
- Turkewitz, Julie (October 9, 2015). "Oregon College Student Says Gunman Smiled, Then Fired". The New York Times. Retrieved October 9, 2015.
- Karlinsky, Neal; Ghebremedhin, Sabina; Gard, Cassidy (October 5, 2015). "Oregon Umpqua Shooting Survivor Recalls Terrifying Moments Inside Classroom". ABC News. Retrieved October 6, 2015.
- Almaguer, Miguel; Helsel, Phil (October 10, 2015). "Survivor of Umpqua Community College Shooting Describes Rampage". NBC News. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
- "Oregon college gunman spared 'lucky one' to give police a message, survivor says". The Dallas Morning News. Associated Press. October 3, 2015. Retrieved October 3, 2015.
- Chiu, David (October 10, 2015). "'Lucky One' Who Survived Oregon School Shooting Describes Massacre". ABC News. Retrieved October 10, 2015.
- Cain Miller, Claire; Wines, Michael; Turkewitz, Julie (October 3, 2015). "Confusion, Horror and Heroism in Oregon Shooting". The New York Times. Retrieved October 6, 2015.
"She said if you were to ask Quinn if he were Christian, he would have said, 'I am agnostic,'" Ms. Ferris said, quoting Mr. Cooper's mother, Janet Cooper.
- Greene, Heather (October 3, 2015). "Oregon Pagan Community loses member in College Shooting". The Wild Hunt. Retrieved October 6, 2015.
- Payne, Ed; Sidner, Sara; Lah, Kyung (October 2, 2015). "Umpqua College gunman apparently targeted Christians". CNN. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
- Vanderhart, Dirk; Johnson, Kirk; Turkewitz, Julie (October 1, 2015). "Oregon Shooting at Umpqua College Kills 10, Sheriff Says". The New York Times. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
- "Oregon shooter showed little sympathy in calculated killings". Newsday. Associated Press. October 4, 2015. Retrieved October 4, 2015.
- Gray, Melissa (October 5, 2015). "Merciless gunman shot woman in a wheelchair, Oregon survivor says". CNN. Retrieved October 6, 2015.
- "Officers' use of force against Umpqua Community College shooter was justified". WBAY-TV. Green Bay, Wisconsin. October 7, 2015. Retrieved October 13, 2015.
- "Oregon shooting: Gunman killed himself". BBC News. October 3, 2015. Retrieved October 3, 2015.
- Elinson, Zusha (October 3, 2015). "Oregon Shooting Suspect Chris Harper-Mercer Committed Suicide, Officials Say". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved October 3, 2015.
- "Gunman among 10 dead at Umpqua Community College". KOIN-TV. Portland, Oregon. October 1, 2015. Retrieved October 1, 2015.
- Cooper, Jonathan J. (October 7, 2015). "Prosecutor: Oregon college gunman killed himself inside classroom after 2 officers wounded him". U.S. News & World Report. Associated Press. Retrieved October 7, 2015.
- Barnard, Jeff; Wozniacka, Gosia (October 2, 2015). "'We began to run': Students describe horror of shooting". Yahoo! News. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
- Shooting at Oregon's Umpqua Community College: Gunman's mother silent 1 year later, Oregonlive, Molly Young, September 30, 2016. Retrieved September 23, 2017.
- Ford, Dana (October 1, 2015). "Oregon shooting: Gunman dead after college rampage". CNN. Retrieved October 1, 2015.
- Vanderhart, Dirk; Pérez-Peña, Richard; Schmidt, Michael S. (October 2, 2015). "Gunman in Oregon Shooting Was Armed With 6 Guns and Left 7 at Home". The New York Times. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
- LeBlanc, Jay (October 1, 2015). "Chris Harper Mercer identified as Umpqua Community College shooter". The Washington Times. Retrieved October 1, 2015.
- Wozniacka, Gosia; Abdollah, Tami (October 3, 2015). "Survivor: Gunman spared 'lucky one' to give police message". Associated Press. Retrieved October 4, 2015.
- Bloom, Tracy (October 1, 2015). "Former L.A. County Resident ID'd as Gunman in Umpqua Community College Shooting That Left 10 Dead: Report". KTLA-TV. Los Angeles, California. Retrieved October 1, 2015.
- Keneally, Meghan (October 2, 2015). "Umpqua Community College Shooter Armed With 6 Guns and Flak Jacket". ABC News. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
- Fieldstadt, Elisha (October 3, 2015). "Oregon College Shooting: Gunman Chris Harper Mercer Died of Suicide, Officials Say". NBC News. Retrieved October 3, 2015.
- McDade, Mary Beth; Spillman, Eric (October 2, 2015). "Oregon Gunman Was Enrolled in Class Where He Opened Fire, Authorities Say". KTLA-TV. Los Angeles, California. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
- "Oregon shooting on college campus leaves 10 dead". CBS News. Associated Press. October 1, 2015. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
- Mapes, Jeff (October 2, 2015). "Jeff Merkley: Relative died in Umpqua college shooting". The Oregonian. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
(Senator Merkley:) One of the individuals who died is the great-granddaughter of my first cousin, so she is my cousin.
- "Larry Levine, Assistant Professor, English". umpqua.edu. October 2, 2015. Archived from the original on October 4, 2015. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
- Rosen, Kenneth (October 17, 2015). "Survivor of Oregon Shooting Writes About Encounter With an Emotionless Gunman". The New York Times. Retrieved November 13, 2015.
- "Oregon gunman killed himself after police wounded him". Chicago Tribune. October 7, 2015. Retrieved November 15, 2015.
- "Oregon college shooting: Alleged gunman ID'd as Chris Harper Mercer, 26". CBC News. Associated Press. October 1, 2015. Retrieved October 1, 2015.
- Cain Miller, Claire; Wines, Michael; Turkewitz, Julie (October 3, 2015). "Confusion, Horror and Heroism in Oregon Shooting". The New York Times. Retrieved October 3, 2015.
- Keneally, Meghan (October 2, 2015). "'Hero' Umpqua Community College Student Chris Mintz Speaks After Being Shot 7 Times". ABC News. Retrieved October 3, 2015.
- Shapiro, T. Rees; Dewey, Caitlyn; Bernstein, Lenny (October 3, 2015). "Oregon shooter killed himself after 3 officers arrived at community college". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 3, 2015.
- "Over $650K raised for hero shot 7 times standing up to shooter". Portland, Oregon: KGW-TV. October 3, 2015. Retrieved October 3, 2015.
- Theen, Andrew (October 8, 2015). "Chris Mintz released from Roseburg hospital; 3 Umpqua shooting victims remain in care". OregonLive.com. Retrieved October 17, 2015.
- Whitcomb, Dan (October 13, 2015). "Girl critically wounded in Oregon college massacre is released from hospital". Reuters. Retrieved October 16, 2015.
- Berger, Sarah (October 1, 2015). "Who Is Chris Harper Mercer? Oregon's Alleged Umqua Community College Shooter Identified, Police Say". International Business Times. Retrieved October 1, 2015.
- Mai-Duc, Christine (October 2, 2015). "Gun-obsessed, timid, and his mom called him 'baby': What we know of Chris Harper-Mercer's life". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 6, 2015.
- Ziv, Stav (October 5, 2015). "Father of Umpqua Community College Shooter Says Gun Laws Must Change". Newsweek. Retrieved October 6, 2015.
- Walker, Tim (October 2, 2015). "Oregon shooting: Shooter Chris Harper Mercer was reclusive 26-year-old with an interest in IRA and Nazism". The Independent. Retrieved October 8, 2015.
- "What we know about suspected Oregon shooter Chris Harper Mercer". CBS News. Associated Press. October 1, 2015. Retrieved October 1, 2015.
- Lovett, Ian; Stack, Liam (October 2, 2015). "Chris Mercer, Oregon Gunman, Hinted of Anger and Loneliness". The New York Times. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
- Crilly, Rob (October 7, 2015). "Oregon shooting: Chris Harper-Mercer 'discharged from army after suicide attempt'". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved October 8, 2015.
- Altman, Larry; Green, Nick (October 1, 2015). "Oregon shooting suspect lived in Torrance, graduated from Switzer Center". The Daily Bulletin. Retrieved October 1, 2015.
- Winton, Richard; Mejia, Brittny; Mozingo, Joe (October 2, 2015). "Online and off, a mystifying portrait of the Oregon college gunman emerges". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 3, 2015.
(Article author[s]:) Harper-Mercer long struggled with mental health issues, law enforcement sources said. The allegations add to a messy and mystifying portrait emerging of Harper-Mercer, who, despite his allegedly white supremacist leanings, was mixed-race and lived with a hyper-protective black mother who appeared to be his only true companion.
- Gunderson, Laura (October 22, 2015). "Oregon school shooting: Umpqua shooter on academic probation". OregonLive.com. Retrieved October 22, 2015.
- Sherwood, Courtney; Flitter, Emily (October 4, 2015). "Gunman in Oregon college massacre committed suicide". Reuters. Retrieved October 4, 2015.
- "What we know about Oregon shooter Chris Harper Mercer". CBS News. Associated Press. October 1, 2015. Archived from the original on October 3, 2015. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
- "Umpqua Gunman Chris Harper Mercer Hated Religion Online". The Daily Beast. October 2, 2015. Retrieved October 6, 2015.
- Parry, Ryan; Hodgson, Grant; MacLaughlin, Kelly (October 3, 2015). "Oregon college shooter's mom boasted about her gun collection online and said she would openly carry an assault rifle 'when the mood strikes'". The Daily Mail. Retrieved October 5, 2015.
- Carroll, Rory (October 3, 2015). "Chris Harper Mercer was enrolled at the college where he made a bloody last stand". The Guardian. Retrieved October 6, 2015.
- Ryall, Jenni (October 2, 2015). "Who is Chris Harper-Mercer, the man suspected of killing 9 in Oregon?". Mashable. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
- Muskal, Michael; Winton, Richard; Gerber, Marisa (October 2, 2015). "Death in a classroom: Oregon shooter targeted his English class". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
- Gillman, Ollie; Bates, Daniel; Pleasance, Chris (October 3, 2015). "'Welcomed in Hell and embraced by the devil': Details of twisted letter left behind by Oregon college gunman as it's revealed he had Asperger's and was kicked out of the Army in 2008". Daily Mail. Retrieved October 6, 2015.
Mercer, who died in a shoot-out with police after the massacre, was suffering from Asperger's Syndrome, according to online posts written by his mother. His mother Laurel, a nurse, wrote on a medical forum that she had an 'Asperger's kid' and told neighbors her son had 'mental issues', according to reports. The e-mail she used was linked to her by public records, which also confirmed her profession.
- Healy, Jack; McIntire, Mike; Turkewitz, Julie (October 5, 2015). "Oregon killer and mother had close bond with guns". The Seattle Times. Retrieved October 6, 2015.
[The mother] opened up about her difficulties raising a troubled son, who used to bang his head against the wall, and said she and her son struggled with Asperger's syndrome, an autism spectrum disorder.
- Healy, Jack; McIntire, Mike; Turkewitz, Julie (October 5, 2015). "Oregon Killer's Mother Wrote of Troubled Son and Gun Rights". The New York Times. Retrieved October 6, 2015.
- Johnson, Eric M.; Flitter, Emily (October 7, 2015). "Oregon gunman slipped into isolation after California move". Yahoo! News. Reuters. Retrieved October 7, 2015.
- Sidner, Sara; Lah, Kyung; Almasy, Steve; Ellis, Ralph (October 2, 2015). "Oregon shooting: Gunman was student in class where he killed 9". CNN. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
- Levine, Mike; Thomas, Pierre; Margolin, Josh; Date, Jack (October 2, 2015). "Umpqua Community College Shooter Chris Harper-Mercer Had Hate-Filled Writings, Sources Say". ABC News. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
- Hughes, Trevor; Johnson, Kevin (October 2, 2015). "Official: Oregon gunman left angry note glorifying mass killers". USA Today. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
- Gray, Melissa (October 5, 2015). "Merciless gunman shot woman in a wheelchair, Oregon survivor says". CNN. Retrieved October 5, 2015.
The shooter also expressed frustration at not having a girlfriend and being a virgin, the law enforcement officials say.
- Cooper, Jonathan J.; Abdollah, Tami (October 6, 2015). "In writings, Oregon gunman Christopher Harper-Mercer ranted about others being crazy". Los Angeles Daily News. Associated Press. Retrieved October 6, 2015.
- Vinograd, Cassandra; Williams, Pete; Blankstein, Andrew; Winter, Tom (October 2, 2015). "Oregon Shooting: Umpqua Gunman Chris Harper Mercer — What We Know". NBC News. Retrieved October 3, 2015.
- Corcoran, Kieran (October 2, 2015). "'People like him have nothing to live for': College gunman praised Vester Flanagan, shared a Sandy Hook documentary three days before shooting spree and glorified the IRA online". The Daily Mail. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
- S.J., Prince (October 1, 2015). "Was Chris Mercer Harper Inspired by Vester Flanagan?". Heavy. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
- Glum, Julia (October 2, 2015). "Oregon Shooting Suspect Chris Harper-Mercer Linked To Blog Post About Roanoke Gunman Vester Flanagan: Reports". IB Times. Retrieved 30 August 2016.
- Ortiz, Erik; Johnson, M. Alex; Winter, Tom (October 1, 2015). "13 Killed in Shooting at Oregon's Umpqua Community College: Officials". NBC News. Retrieved October 1, 2015.
- Saslow, Eli; Kaplan, Sarah; Hoyt, Joseph (October 2, 2015). "Oregon shooter said to have singled out Christians for killing in 'horrific act of cowardice'". The Washington Post. Retrieved October 2, 2015.
- Gurman, Sadie (October 3, 2015). "More police refusing to name shooters for fear of copycats". Yahoo! News. Associated Press. Retrieved October 4, 2015.
- Yukich, Joshua; Towers, Sherry; Gomez-Lievano, Andres; Khan, Maryam; Mubayi, Anuj; Castillo-Chavez, Carlos (2015). "Contagion in Mass Killings and School Shootings". PLOS ONE. 10 (7): e0117259. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0117259. ISSN 1932-6203. PMC . PMID 26135941.
- "Daily Press Briefing by Press Secretary Josh Earnest, 10/5/2015". The White House. October 5, 2015. Retrieved October 5, 2015.
- Wozniacka, Gosia (October 9, 2015). "Strong emotions as Obama visits grieving Oregon town". The Seattle Times. Retrieved October 26, 2015.
- UCC shooting: New gun law may have applied to deeply troubled shooter, Oregonlive, September 15, 2017. Retrieved September 23, 2017.