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Clay County, North Carolina

Coordinates: 35°03′N 83°45′W / 35.05°N 83.75°W / 35.05; -83.75
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Clay County
Clay County Government Center
Clay County Government Center
Official seal of Clay County
"Clay County – It's Good for the Soul"
Map of North Carolina highlighting Clay County
Location within the U.S. state of North Carolina
Map of the United States highlighting North Carolina
North Carolina's location within the U.S.
Coordinates: 35°03′N 83°45′W / 35.05°N 83.75°W / 35.05; -83.75
Country United States
State North Carolina
Named forHenry Clay
Largest communityHayesville
 • Total220.78 sq mi (571.8 km2)
 • Land214.98 sq mi (556.8 km2)
 • Water5.80 sq mi (15.0 km2)  2.63%
 • Total11,089
 • Estimate 
 • Density51.58/sq mi (19.92/km2)
Time zoneUTC−5 (Eastern)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Congressional district11th

Clay County is a county located in the far western part of U.S. state North Carolina. As of the 2020 census, the county population was 11,089.[1] The county seat is Hayesville.[2]


Former Clay County Courthouse in Hayesville

Early inhabitants[edit]

The area that became Clay County has long been occupied by indigenous people. An earthwork platform mound was built around 1000 CE in modern-day Hayesville, likely by people of the South Appalachian Mississippian culture as the center of their village. The Cherokee Native Americans later constructed a town known as Quanassee at the site.[3] Quanassee had several hundred residents by 1550. In 1716, South Carolina officials met with Cherokee leaders at Quanassee to gain the Cherokee's alliance in the Yamassee War. The next year South Carolina built a trading site in Quanassee to provide English goods in exchange for Cherokee commodities like deerskins. A Coosa (Creek) war party "cut off" Quanassee in 1725, wrecking the village and enslaving or killing most of its residents. The village was briefly reestablished before the American Revolution; Rutherford expedition forces camped there in 1776.[4]

The Unicoi Turnpike, a 1,000-year-old Native American trading route, ran through the site of Quanassee and modern-day Brasstown.[5] In 1813, the trail was developed into a toll road from Tennessee to Georgia, creating the first highway through the area.[6] Today Brasstown is the oldest continuous settlement in the county, having hosted residents since the establishment of the toll road.[7]

The land which would become Clay County was claimed by Buncombe County in 1791, Haywood County by 1810, and Macon County in 1828. In the 1820s, Baptist missionaries visited Quanassee to preach to families living there.[4] The first white settlers moved into what would become Clay County in the early 1830s.[8] Migrants into the area were primarily of Scots-Irish descent, who had moved into the backcountry of the Appalachians from eastern areas. They moved south from Pennsylvania and Virginia after the American Revolution. Most became yeomen farmers and few owned slaves in the antebellum years. The first school in the area began operation in 1834. It was a tuition-based academy started by Leonard Butterfield on a farm near Hyatt's Creek.[9] From 1836–1838, the state of North Carolina surveyed and subdivided land in the area to be sold.[10] The parcels were put on public sale in Franklin in fall 1838.[11]

In October 1837, Tennessee militia established Fort Hembree at present-day Hayesville to prepare for deporting the Cherokee people.[12] Approximately 1,000 Cherokee were held prisoner there and removed from the area. The U.S. Military abandoned Fort Hembree in June 1838.[10] In 1839, most of the area became part of Cherokee County, which was formed from western Macon County.[13]

County formation[edit]

In the fall of 1860, George Hayes, who was running for state representative from Cherokee County, promised his constituents to introduce legislation to organize a new county in the region. That would bring business associated with a new county seat, and make government accessible to more people. In February 1861 the legislation was introduced and passed by the North Carolina General Assembly.[14] Clay County was formed primarily from Cherokee County, however a small area was taken from Macon County; it was named for statesman Henry Clay, former Secretary of State and member of the United States Senate from Kentucky. In honor of Mr. Hayes, the legislature designated the new county seat as Hayesville.[14] The town was incorporated on March 12, 1913.[8]

In 1860 Fort Hembree was reactivated to train soldiers for the Civil War. Early county trials and the first county commissioners’ meetings were held at the fort. It also contained a general store. Given the interruption of the war, Clay County lacked an organized, formal government until 1868.[10] Hicksville Academy, which became Hayesville High School (today the county's only public high school), was founded in 1870.[15] In the 1890s it was bought by Duke University and offered college courses.[16]

After the initial wood-frame county courthouse was destroyed by arson in 1870, the brick courthouse was constructed in 1888.[10] It has been listed on the National Register of Historic Places.[17] In mid-2007, courthouse operations moved to a new complex built 1 mile (1.6 km) west of the town square.[10]

The first post office to open in what became Clay County began service January 8, 1844, at Fort Hembree. At its peak, Clay County boasted 17 post offices. By 1976 there were only three remaining, in Hayesville, Warne, and Brasstown.[8]

Clay County’s borders have expanded twice since its formation. In 1872, the county annexed Buck Creek and Black Mountain from Macon County. In 1874, the county added a part of the Brasstown Creek area extending to the Georgia state line.[10]

In the late 1870s and early 1880s the Tusquittee Turnpike toll road operated from Clay County to the Nantahala River in Macon County.[10] Tiger’s Store is thought to be the oldest continuously operating business in Clay County. It was established around 1899 in Shooting Creek and moved to Hayesville around 1908.[10]

20th century to present[edit]

Clay County’s two-story brick jail was built in 1912 to replace a log building. In 1972, shop class students from Hayesville High School constructed a replacement prison in downtown Hayesville.[8] That was in use until 2008 when a new $4.3 million detention center opened at the judicial complex site.[18] Today the brick jail is home to the Clay County Historical & Arts Museum.[19]

Clay County's first official bank opened on May 18, 1910. A creamery opened in Brasstown in 1924. Mission Dam was constructed on the western end of the county in 1924.[8] Gold mines operated in Tusquittee, Warne and Brasstown around the 1930s. In the 1940s and 50s, Clay County’s largest employers were band saw lumber mills. One of the county’s only manufacturing companies, Lidseen of North Carolina, Inc., has operated a metal fabrication plant in Warne since 1957. Another manufacturing plant, American Components Incorporated, made a metal film resistor for the Saturn V rocket that carried Neil Armstrong to the moon. Clay County has also manufactured ladies’ dresses, items for combat soldiers, and kitchen and bathroom fixtures.[10]

The county’s first electric power came from a small dam across Shooting Creek near the Elf community in January 1920. The Blue Ridge Electric Association of Young Harris, Georgia, took over providing electricity for all of Clay County in 1939. By 1950, every community in the county had electricity.[8]

The first automobile came to Clay County in 1914. From the early 1900s until the 1930s, every male citizen of Clay County between the ages of 18 and 45 was required to work five days per year without pay to help maintain public roads.[8][10] Construction on US 64 between Hayesville, Warne, and Brasstown started in 1921. In 1959 a new highway was built from Hayesville through Sweetwater to Peachtree to provide Clay County residents with faster access to Andrews' new District Memorial Hospital.[8][20] The US 64 moniker moved to this new route and the former route became Old Hwy. 64. US 64 connected Hayesville to Franklin in the early 1930s. NC 69 was built between Hayesville and Georgia in 1922. The entire road had to be relocated when Chatuge Lake was created twenty years later.[8]

In October 1920, Clay County’s first and only railroad line, the Peavine, was completed between Hayesville and Andrews, where it connected with the Southern Railway.[21] Cherokee and Clay counties each contributed $75,000 toward its construction. The Peavine hauled mainly lumber, but also kaolin mined in Clay County. The line was dismantled in 1951.[8][10]

A silent film theater opened in the county in the 1920s. A movie theater later operated in Hayesville from the 1940s to the 1960s. The county has not had a movie theater since.[10] Clay County's public library was established by the 1930s. It began in a two-story building on Hayesville's town square and at some point moved to a small room in the courthouse.[22] In 1940 it became part of Nantahala Regional Library system. Its first librarian, Ellen Scroggs, was hired in 1943. A new $80,000 library building opened downtown on June 25, 1967.[23][24] It was named in honor of local-born Dr. Fred A. Moss, who gave $10,000 towards its construction and donated books.[24] Today Moss Memorial Library is the only public library in Clay County.[22]

Lake Chatuge was created in 1942

Chatuge Dam was constructed near Hayesville in the early 1940s by the Tennessee Valley Authority, creating Chatuge Lake. At the time, Chatuge Dam was the highest earthen dam in the world until the Aswan Dam was constructed in Egypt in 1964.[22] The dam was listed on the National Register of Historic Places in 2017.[25]

In the 1950s, Clay County's official song was written. Willie Forrest Standridge wrote "Clay County Song" to the tune of Onward Christian Soldiers. The Clay County Rescue Squad was organized in 1964.[8] The county's first golf course opened in 1970.[8] The Clay County Historical & Arts Council was founded February 6, 1974.[26] The Peacock Performing Arts Center, the only community theatre in far-west North Carolina, opened in Hayesville in 1986.[27] Clay County's building inspections department started in 1987.[10] The Clay County Recreation Center was built in Hayesville in 2007 and expanded in 2013.[28]

Since the nineteenth century, Clay County has remained largely agricultural.[14] Given its relative isolation, in the 21st century, residents continue to be overwhelmingly of European-American ancestry.


Interactive map of Clay County
Downtown Hayesville from the air

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 220.78 square miles (571.8 km2), of which 214.98 square miles (556.8 km2) is land and 5.80 square miles (15.0 km2) (2.63%) is water.[29] It is the third-smallest county in North Carolina by land area and smallest by total area.

Clay County is bordered to the south by the state of Georgia and the Chattahoochee National Forest. The Nantahala River forms part of its northeastern border. The county is drained by the Hiwassee River. In the southern part of Clay County is Chatuge Lake, on the North Carolina–Georgia border. Much of Clay County exists within the Nantahala National Forest. Fires Creek Bear Reserve is north of the township of Tusquittee and offers multiple hiking trails. The Appalachian Trail winds through southeast Clay County.[10]

Before 1941 the U.S. government purchased most of Clay County’s forest land to preserve it as National Forest Service property. The Forest Service oversees approximately 60 percent of Clay County’s land.[10] Of Clay County's 136,096 acres, 110,096 are forested lands, including 65,934 in the eastern part of the county owned and maintained by the federal government as part of Nantahala National Forest.[10]


Clay County has a humid subtropical climate, (Cfa) according to the Köppen classification, with hot, humid summers and mild, but occasionally cold winters by the standards of the southern United States.[30]

Like the rest of the southeastern U.S., Clay County receives abundant rainfall, which is relatively evenly distributed throughout the year. Average annual rainfall is 55.9 inches (1,420 mm). Blizzards are rare but possible; one nicknamed the Storm of the Century hit the entire Eastern United States in March 1993.

National protected areas[edit]

State and local protected areas[edit]

Major water bodies[edit]

Adjacent counties[edit]

Major highways[edit]


Historical population
2023 (est.)11,864[1]7.0%
U.S. Decennial Census[32]
1790–1960[33] 1900–1990[34]
1990–2000[35] 2010[36] 2020[1]

2020 census[edit]

Clay County racial composition[37]
Race Number Percentage
White (non-Hispanic) 10,044 90.58%
Black or African American (non-Hispanic) 60 0.54%
Native American 44 0.4%
Asian 40 0.36%
Pacific Islander 7 0.06%
Other/Mixed 456 4.11%
Hispanic or Latino 438 3.95%

As of the 2020 census, there were 11,089 people, 4,996 households, and 3,424 families residing in the county.

2000 census[edit]

At the 2000 census,[38] there were 8,775 people, 3,847 households, and 2,727 families residing in the county. The population density was 41 people per square mile (16 people/km2). There were 5,425 housing units at an average density of 25 per square mile (9.7/km2). The racial makeup of the county was 98.01% White, 0.80% Black or African American, 0.33% Native American, 0.09% Asian, 0.07% Pacific Islander, 0.15% from other races, and 0.56% from two or more races. 0.83% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race.

There were 3,847 households, out of which 23.50% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 59.80% were married couples living together, 7.50% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.10% were non-families. 26.30% of all households were made up of individuals, and 14.40% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.68.

In the county, the population was spread out, with 18.60% under the age of 18, 6.20% from 18 to 24, 22.80% from 25 to 44, 29.80% from 45 to 64, and 22.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 47 years. For every 100 females there were 94.90 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.40 males.

The median income for a household in the county was $31,397, and the median income for a family was $38,264. Males had a median income of $29,677 versus $19,529 for females. The per capita income for the county was $18,221. About 7.80% of families and 11.40% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.60% of those under age 18 and 13.00% of those age 65 or over.

Law, government, and politics[edit]


The Clay County government is a constitutional body and is granted specific powers by the Constitution of North Carolina, most of which are determined by the state's General Assembly. The county is governed by an elected five member four-year term Board of Commissioners.[39]

Clay County is a member of the regional Southwestern Commission Council of Governments.


In the North Carolina Senate, Clay County is part of the 50th Senate district and is represented by Republican Jim Davis. In the North Carolina House of Representatives, Clay County is part of the 120th district, represented by Republican Kevin Corbin.

No Democratic presidential candidate has won Clay County since Jimmy Carter in 1976. Bill Clinton in 1996 was the last Democratic candidate to reach forty percent of the county's vote. Before the Progressive Era, Clay County was uniformly Democratic, but since Charles Evans Hughes became the first Republican to carry the county in 1916, it has voted for the GOP in all but five elections.

United States presidential election results for Clay County, North Carolina[40]
Year Republican Democratic Third party
No.  % No.  % No.  %
2020 5,112 74.16% 1,699 24.65% 82 1.19%
2016 4,437 73.83% 1,367 22.75% 206 3.43%
2012 3,973 70.42% 1,579 27.99% 90 1.60%
2008 3,707 66.88% 1,734 31.28% 102 1.84%
2004 3,209 65.95% 1,628 33.46% 29 0.60%
2000 2,416 62.72% 1,361 35.33% 75 1.95%
1996 1,769 48.40% 1,462 40.00% 424 11.60%
1992 1,890 47.73% 1,600 40.40% 470 11.87%
1988 2,174 62.47% 1,289 37.04% 17 0.49%
1984 2,259 62.42% 1,340 37.03% 20 0.55%
1980 2,136 60.22% 1,324 37.33% 87 2.45%
1976 1,428 47.41% 1,569 52.09% 15 0.50%
1972 1,545 65.19% 797 33.63% 28 1.18%
1968 1,390 54.94% 847 33.48% 293 11.58%
1964 1,286 46.88% 1,457 53.12% 0 0.00%
1960 1,657 56.73% 1,264 43.27% 0 0.00%
1956 1,442 52.84% 1,287 47.16% 0 0.00%
1952 1,443 50.07% 1,439 49.93% 0 0.00%
1948 1,213 47.11% 1,307 50.76% 55 2.14%
1944 1,263 50.36% 1,245 49.64% 0 0.00%
1940 1,176 46.57% 1,349 53.43% 0 0.00%
1936 1,525 53.23% 1,340 46.77% 0 0.00%
1932 1,265 48.39% 1,341 51.30% 8 0.31%
1928 1,106 55.05% 903 44.95% 0 0.00%
1924 1,090 52.89% 953 46.24% 18 0.87%
1920 911 54.68% 755 45.32% 0 0.00%
1916 453 53.11% 400 46.89% 0 0.00%
1912 17 2.19% 372 47.94% 387 49.87%

Law and public safety[edit]

The Clay County sheriff's office is the sole policing agency for the county. The sheriff protects the court and county owned facilities, manages the jail, and provides patrol and detective services.


Clay County Schools serves all of the county with about 1,200 students attending a total of 4 separate schools, located on a central campus in Hayesville. After county government, Clay County Schools is the largest employer in the county with a staff of 205 people.[41] Hayesville High School serves grades 9–12.

Higher education is offered nearby at Tri-County Community College,[42] Young Harris College,[43] and Western Carolina University.[44]

The largest and oldest folk school in the United States, the John C. Campbell Folk School, is located in Brasstown, an unincorporated community that exists partly in Cherokee County and partly in Clay County.[45][46] The school focuses on creative folk arts for all ages and offers community dance and concert entertainment.[47]


The Clay County Progress is published weekly in Hayesville. It is the only newspaper in the county. Between 1902 and at least 1909 the community was served by the Clay County Courier newspaper.[48] Between 1926 and 1943 the area was served by the Clay County News.[49] The Progress was founded in 1951 and faced competition from weekly newspaper The Smoky Mountain Sentinel between 1987 and 2012.[50]


Map of Clay County with municipal and township labels


Unincorporated communities[edit]


The county is divided into six townships:

  • Brasstown comprises the westernmost township
  • Hayesville is centrally located and home to the county seat
  • Hiawassee, named after the major river in the region, is the smallest township, surrounding Chatuge Lake
  • Shooting Creek is the easternmost township
  • Sweetwater is a small township northwest of Hayesville
  • Tusquittee is one of the larger townships and the most northern

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c "QuickFacts: Clay County, North Carolina". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved March 21, 2024.
  2. ^ "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Archived from the original on May 31, 2011. Retrieved June 7, 2011.
  3. ^ Duncan, Barbara R.; Riggs, Brett H. (2003). Cherokee Heritage Trails Guidebook. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press. ISBN 0-8078-5457-3.
  4. ^ a b "Quanassee Town and the Spikebuck Mound Historical Marker". www.hmdb.org. Retrieved April 13, 2024.
  5. ^ "About Hayesville". Town of Hayesville. Retrieved April 13, 2024.
  6. ^ "Uncovering A 200-Year-Old Road with Modern Technology". Smoky Mountain Living. June 1, 2022. Retrieved April 13, 2024.
  7. ^ Hyatt, Jr., Bass (2018). "Unicoi Turnpike". In Avett, Wally (ed.). Brasstown Valley Myths & History. Blairsville, Georgia: Straub Publishing. p. 13. ISBN 9780991372669.
  8. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Padgett, Guy (1976). A History of Clay County, North Carolina. Clay County Bicentennial Committee.
  9. ^ Moore, Carl S. (January 1, 2007). Clay County, NC Then and Now: A Written and Pictorial History. Genealogy Publishing Service. ISBN 9781881851240.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p Moore, Carl S. (2008). Clay County, N.C.: Then and Now. Franklin, N.C.: Genealogy Publishing Service. ISBN 978-1881851240.
  11. ^ Williams, Ms. Michael Ann (July 14, 1983), National Register of Historic Places Inventory-Nomination Form – Harshaw Chapel and Cemetery (PDF) Retrieved April 15, 2024.
  12. ^ "Fort Hembree". North Carolina Trail of Tears Association.
  13. ^ Corbitt, David Leroy (1987). The formation of the North Carolina counties, 1663–1943. Raleigh: North Carolina Division of Archives and History. p. 62.
  14. ^ a b c "Welcome to the Clay County Chamber of Commerce". Ncmtnchamber.com. Archived from the original on August 3, 2012. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
  15. ^ Leek, Mark (2003). History of Clay County Schools From 1850 until Present. Doctoral project in the Issues of Rural Education class at Western Carolina University.
  16. ^ Padgett, Guy (1976). A History of Clay County, North Carolina. Clay County Bicentennial Committee.
  17. ^ "Hayesville, North Carolina - Home Page". Hayesville.org. Archived from the original on August 24, 2012. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
  18. ^ Keely, Harrison (June 4, 2008). "New jailhouse rocks". Smoky Mountain Sentinel. Hayesville, NC: Sentinel Newspapers. p. A1. Retrieved February 5, 2024.
  19. ^ "Clay County Historical & Arts Museum". VisitNC. Economic Development Partnership of North Carolina. Retrieved February 5, 2024. The Clay County Historical & Arts Museum is housed in the Old County Jail Museum which was constructed in 1912 and used as a jail until 1972.
  20. ^ McKeever, Mrs. Hobart (January 29, 1961). "Cherokee County Shows Greatest Progress During 1950-60 Decade". Asheville Citizen-Times. p. 77. Retrieved March 21, 2024.
  21. ^ Laney, Gideon Thomas. "Train from Hayesville arriving at the Tusquittee station pulled by Climax locomotive #10". Southern Appalachian Digital Collections. Western Carolina University and University of North Carolina Asheville. Retrieved February 27, 2024.
  22. ^ a b c Moore, Carl S. (2008). Clay County, N.C.: Then and Now. Franklin, N.C.: Genealogy Publishing Service. ISBN 978-1881851240.
  23. ^ "Moss Library Dedicated Sunday". The Cherokee Scout and Clay County Progress. June 29, 1967. p. 4.
  24. ^ a b "Clay ready to start library construction; fund raising meeting set for Friday". The Cherokee Scout and Clay County Progress. June 23, 1966. p. 9.
  25. ^ "National Register Database and Research - National Register of Historic Places (U.S. National Park Service)". www.nps.gov. Retrieved March 15, 2024.
  26. ^ Beck, Reba (February 29, 2024). "Historical & Arts Council: We are 50 and struttin' our stuff". Clay County Progress. Hayesville, NC: Community Newspapers, Inc. p. B6.
  27. ^ "About Us - Peacock Performing Arts Center - Hayesville, NC". July 23, 2019. Retrieved March 22, 2024.
  28. ^ "About Us". Clay County Recreation Center & Parks. Retrieved April 19, 2024.
  29. ^ "2020 County Gazetteer Files – North Carolina". United States Census Bureau. August 23, 2022. Retrieved September 9, 2023.
  30. ^ "Koppen Climate Classification Chart". Geography.about.com. April 9, 2012. Archived from the original on August 18, 2016. Retrieved October 27, 2012.
  31. ^ a b "NCWRC Game Lands". www.ncpaws.org. Retrieved March 30, 2023.
  32. ^ "U.S. Decennial Census". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 13, 2015.
  33. ^ "Historical Census Browser". University of Virginia Library. Archived from the original on August 11, 2012. Retrieved January 13, 2015.
  34. ^ Forstall, Richard L., ed. (March 27, 1995). "Population of Counties by Decennial Census: 1900 to 1990". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 13, 2015.
  35. ^ "Census 2000 PHC-T-4. Ranking Tables for Counties: 1990 and 2000" (PDF). United States Census Bureau. April 2, 2001. Retrieved January 13, 2015.
  36. ^ "State & County QuickFacts". United States Census Bureau. Archived from the original on June 6, 2011. Retrieved October 18, 2013.
  37. ^ "Explore Census Data". data.census.gov. Retrieved December 19, 2021.
  38. ^ "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  39. ^ "County Government | Clay County | NC Government | United States". Retrieved April 21, 2022.
  40. ^ Leip, David. "Dave Leip's Atlas of U.S. Presidential Elections". uselectionatlas.org. Retrieved March 15, 2018.
  41. ^ Ross, Lorrie (August 30, 2023). "Labor Day: Who creates the most jobs in Clay County?". Clay County Progress. Hayesville, NC: Community Newspapers, Inc.
  42. ^ "Tri-County Community College - -". Tri-County Community College. Retrieved February 23, 2016.
  43. ^ "A private, four-year, liberal arts college located in the mountains of North Georgia". Young Harris College. Retrieved February 23, 2016.
  44. ^ "Western Carolina University - Home | Choose Great". Home | Choose Great. Retrieved November 1, 2018.
  45. ^ Eiben, Vicky (2015). "A brief history of folk schools". Folk Education Association of America. Folk School Alliance. The John C. Campbell Folk School founded in 1925 in Brasstown, North Carolina is the largest folk school in the U.S. today.
  46. ^ "region: Brasstown, Hayesville". Great Smoky Mountains North Carolina. Nation's oldest folk school founded in 1925.
  47. ^ "John C. Campbell Folk School". www.folkschool.org. Retrieved February 23, 2016.
  48. ^ "Clay County Courier (Hayesville, N.C.) 1902-19??". Directory of U.S. Newspapers in American Libraries. Library of Congress. Retrieved January 25, 2024.
  49. ^ "The Clay County News (Hayesville, N.C.)". DigitalNC Newspapers. DigitalNC. Retrieved August 25, 2023.
  50. ^ "Smoky Mountain Sentinel". mondotimes. Mondo Code LLC.

External links[edit]