Greater Cleveland

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Greater Cleveland
Cleveland, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area
Downtown Cleveland
Downtown Cleveland
Map of Cleveland–Akron–Canton, OH CSA
Country United States
States Ohio
Largest cityCleveland
Other cities in MSA
 • MSA
2,185,825 (33rd)
 • CSA
3,769,834 (17th)
 • MSA$162.8 billion (2022)
Time zoneUTC−5 (EST)
 • Summer (DST)UTC−4 (EDT)
Area code(s)216, 330, 440, 234

The Cleveland metropolitan area, or Greater Cleveland as it is more commonly known, is the metropolitan area surrounding the city of Cleveland in Northeast Ohio, United States. According to the 2020 census results, the six-county Cleveland, OH Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) consists of Cuyahoga County, Ashtabula County, Geauga County, Lake County, Lorain County, and Medina County, and has a population of 2,185,825, making it the 33rd-most populous metropolitan area in the United States and the third largest metropolitan area in Ohio.[2][3] The metro area is also part of the larger Cleveland–Akron–Canton Combined Statistical Area with a population of over 3.7 million people, the most populous statistical area in Ohio and the 17th most populous in the United States.

Northeast Ohio refers to a similar but substantially larger region that is home to over 4.5 million residents that also includes areas not part of Greater Cleveland. This article covers the area considered to be Greater Cleveland, but includes some information generally applicable to the larger region, which is itself part of what is known historically as the Connecticut Western Reserve.

Northeast Ohio[edit]

Northeast Ohio consists of 16 counties (Ashland, Ashtabula, Carroll, Columbiana, Cuyahoga, Geauga, Lake, Lorain, Mahoning, Medina, Portage, Richland, Stark, Summit, Trumbull and Wayne counties)[4] and includes the cities of Akron, Ashland, Ashtabula, Brunswick, Canton, Cleveland, Elyria, Lorain, Mansfield, Medina, Wadsworth, Wooster, Warren, and Youngstown. Northeast Ohio is home to approximately 4 million people, has a labor force of almost 2 million, and a gross regional product of nearly $170 billion.[5] Other counties are sometimes considered to be in Northeast Ohio. These include Erie, Holmes, Huron and Tuscarawas counties, and their inclusion makes the total population of the entire northeastern section of Ohio well over 4.5 million people.[6]

Cities, townships, and villages[edit]

Cuyahoga County[edit]

Ashtabula County[edit]

Geauga County[edit]

Lake County[edit]

Lorain County[edit]

Medina County[edit]

Cities by population[edit]

These, in decreasing order of population, are the twelve largest cities in Greater Cleveland of (2020):

City 2020
Cleveland 372,624
Parma 81,146
Lorain 65,211
Elyria 52,656
Lakewood 50,942
Euclid 49,692
Mentor 47,450
Strongsville 46,491
Cleveland Heights 45,312
North Ridgeville 35,280
Westlake 34,228
North Olmsted 32,442
North Royalton 31,322


Historical population
1850 159,874—    
1860 193,501+21.0%
1870 245,052+26.6%
1880 321,638+31.3%
1890 447,386+39.1%
1900 603,807+35.0%
1910 834,204+38.2%
1920 1,169,422+40.2%
1930 1,466,057+25.4%
1940 1,500,798+2.4%
1950 1,759,431+17.2%
1960 2,220,050+26.2%
1970 2,419,274+9.0%
1980 2,277,949−5.8%
1990 2,202,069−3.3%
2000 2,250,871+2.2%
2010 2,178,737−3.2%
2020 2,185,825+0.3%
2022* 2,160,145−1.2%
* = Population estimate.
Source: U.S. Decennial Census

According to the 2020 United States Census, the population was 2.186 million in the five-county MSA of the Greater Cleveland Area, making it the second largest metropolitan-statistical area entirely within the state of Ohio.[8] Approximately 48.1% of the population was male and 51.9% were female. In 2010 the racial makeup of the five-county Area was 71.7% (1,490,074) Non-Hispanic Whites, 19.7% (409,582) Blacks or African Americans, 0.2% (4,056) American Indians and Alaskan Natives, 2.0% (40,522) Asian (0.7% Asian Indian 0.5% Chinese 0.2% Filipino, 0.1% Korean, 0.1% Vietnamese, 0.1% Japanese, 0.0% (398) Pacific Islander, 1.7% (35,224) from other races, and 2.0% (42,130) from two or more races. 4.7% (98,133) of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race (2.8% Puerto Rican, 1.0% Mexican, 0.1% Dominican, and 0.1% Cuban).[9]

NASA satellite photograph of Cleveland at night

The median income for a household in Greater Cleveland was $46,231 and the median income for a family, $59,611. The per capita income was $25,668. Persons living below the poverty line was 15.1%.[10] According to a study by Capgemini and the World Wealth Report by Merrill Lynch, the Cleveland area has nearly 54,000 millionaire households, and is expected to continue to grow at 17% over the next five years.[11][12]

The Greater Cleveland area is the most diverse region in the state of Ohio and is becoming increasingly more diverse with new waves of immigration.[13][14] As of 2010, both the Hispanic and Asian population in the Cleveland-Akron-Ashtabula area grew by almost 40%, Hispanics now number at 112,307 (up from 80,738 in 2000).[15] The Asian population alone accounts for 55,087 (up from 39,586 in 2000) but people who cite Asian and other ethnicities enumerate 67,231. The Chinese Americans are the oldest Asian group residing in Northeast Ohio, most visible in Cleveland's Asiatown. Nevertheless, the area is also home to hundreds of Indians, Thais, Taiwanese, Pakistanis, Laotians, Cambodians, and Burmese peoples as well.

The Cleveland area has a substantial African American population with origins in the First and Second Great Migrations.[16] It also boasts some of the nation's largest Irish, Italian (numbering over 205,000), Slavic, and Hungarian populations. At one time, the Hungarian population of Cleveland proper was so great that the city boasted of having the highest concentration of Hungarians in the world outside of Budapest.[17] Today, the Greater Cleveland area is home to the largest Slovak, Slovene, and Hungarian communities in the world, outside of Slovakia, Slovenia, and Hungary respectively.[18] The Slavic population of the Cleveland-Akron area comprises 17.2%, far higher than the nation's rate of 6%. There are 171,000 Poles, 38,000 Slovaks, 66,000 Slovenes, 38,000 Czechs, 31,000 Russians, and 23,000 Ukrainians in Greater Cleveland. Slavic Village and Tremont historically had some of the largest concentrations of Eastern Europeans within Cleveland proper. Today, both neighborhoods continue to be home to many Slavic Ohioans. In addition, Slovenia maintains a Consulate-General in Downtown Cleveland.[19] The city of Cleveland has also received visits from the Presidents of Hungary and Poland.[20]

Greater Cleveland is home to a sizable Jewish community. According to the North American Jewish Data Bank, the community comprises an estimated 86,600 people or 3.0% as of 2011, above the nation's 1.7%, and up from 81,500 in 1996.[21] The highest proportion is in Cuyahoga County at 5.5% (of the county's total population). Today, 23% of Greater Cleveland's Jewish population is under the age of 17, and 27% reside in the Heights area (Cleveland Heights, Shaker Heights, and University Heights). In 2010 nearly 2,600 people spoke Hebrew and 1,100 Yiddish.[22][23][24]


The top largest ancestries in the Greater Cleveland MSA, were the following:[25][26]

Place of birth[edit]

Approximately 94.1% of the metropolitan area's population was native to the United States. Approximately 92.8% were born in the U.S. while 1.3% were born in Puerto Rico, a U.S. territory, or born abroad to American parents. The rest of the population (5.9%) were foreign-born. The highest percentages of immigrants came from Europe (46.2%), Asia (32.7%), Latin America (14.3%); smaller percentages of newcomers came from Africa (3.6%), other parts of North America (3.0%), and Oceania (0.3%).[25]

According to the American Community Survey 2006–2010, the number of Greater Cleveland area residents born overseas was 119,136 and the leading countries of origin were India (10,067), China (7,756), Mexico (6,051), Ukraine (7,211), Germany (5,742), Italy (4,114), Canada (4,102), United Kingdom (4,048), Romania (3,947), Poland (3,834), Russia (3,826), and Yugoslavia (3,820).[27]


English is by far the most commonly spoken language at home by residents in the Cleveland-Akron-Elyria area; approximately 91.2% of the population over the age of five spoke only English at home. Spanish speakers made up 2.8% of the population; speakers of Asian languages made up 1.1% of the population; speakers of other Indo-European languages made up 3.9% of the population. Individuals who spoke languages other than the ones above represented the remaining 1.0% of the populace. As of 2011, individually in addition to English, 2.7% spoke Spanish, 0.6% German, 0.5% Arabic, and 0.5% Chinese. 1.4% also spoke a Slavic language.[28] In 2007, Cleveland area was home to the nation's 3rd highest proportion of Hungarian speakers.[29]

County 2021 Estimate 2020 Census Change Area Density
Cuyahoga County 1,236,041 1,264,817 −2.28% 457.19 sq mi (1,184.1 km2) 2,704/sq mi (1,044/km2)
Lorain County 316,268 312,964 +1.06% 491.10 sq mi (1,271.9 km2) 644/sq mi (249/km2)
Lake County 231,842 232,603 −0.33% 227.49 sq mi (589.2 km2) 1,019/sq mi (393/km2)
Medina County 183,512 182,470 +0.57% 421.36 sq mi (1,091.3 km2) 436/sq mi (168/km2)
Ashtabula County 97,013 97,574 −0.57% 702 sq mi (1,820 km2) 139/sq mi (54/km2)
Geauga County 95,469 95,397 +0.08% 400.16 sq mi (1,036.4 km2) 239/sq mi (92/km2)
Total 2,160,145 2,185,825 −1.17% 2,747.81 sq mi (7,116.8 km2) 786/sq mi (304/km2)

Area codes[edit]

In the 1950s, AT&T assigned Greater Cleveland Area code 216, which included all of Northeast Ohio. In 1996, Area code 216 was reduced in size to cover the northern half of its prior area, centering on Cleveland and its lake shore suburbs. Area code 330 was introduced for the southern half of Greater Cleveland, including Medina County. The western half of the region, including Ashland and Richland counties, and parts of Huron, Wayne, and Erie counties, are assigned area codes 419 and 567.

In 1997, area code 216 was further split as the need for additional phone numbers grew. Area code 216 was reduced in geographical area to cover the city of Cleveland and its inner ring suburbs. Area code 440 was introduced to cover the remainder of was what previously area code 216, including all of Lorain, Geauga, and Lake counties, and parts of Cuyahoga County. Some communities, such as Parma, and Parma Heights were divided between the 216 and 440 area codes. In 1999, Congressman Dennis Kucinich introduced federal legislation to protect small and medium-sized cities from being split into two or more area codes.[30][31]

In 2000, it was anticipated that the available phone numbers in area code 330 would be exhausted, and an overlay area code was introduced. Area code 234 was assigned to overlap existing area code 330. With the creation of area code 234, any new phone number in the geographical area formerly covered by area code 330 could be assigned a phone number in either the 234 or 330 area codes, with no change in local or long-distance toll status. This made necessary the use of ten-digit dialing within the 330/234 area code region. After the introduction of area code 234, assignments of new telephone numbers in the area did not continue at an accelerated pace, and new phone numbers for area code 234 were not assigned until 2003.[32]


Commerce by Daniel Chester French at the Metzenbaum U.S. Courthouse on Superior Avenue, Cleveland

In 2011 the Greater Cleveland area had a GDP of $134.4 billion (up from $130.7 billion in 2008), which would rank 57th among countries. Cleveland also has the twelfth highest merchandise value at $109.2 billion.[5]

Business and industry[edit]

More than 37% of Fortune 500 companies are present in Northeast Ohio, through corporate headquarters, major divisions, subsidiaries, and sales offices. In addition, more than 150 international companies have a presence there. As of 2006, Northeast Ohio serves as the corporate headquarters of 22 Fortune 1000 firms (shown with 2017 rankings below):

Other large employers include:

Small businesses and startups[edit]

The Council of Smaller Enterprises coordinates and advocates for small businesses in the region.[33][34] Many of the area's sustainability-oriented companies are tied into the network Entrepreneurs for Sustainability.[35][36]

Colleges and universities[edit]

Greater Cleveland is home to a number of higher education institutions, including:



Greater Cleveland is served by international, regional and county airports, including:


The Greater Cleveland highway network

Highway notes[edit]

  • I-271 and I-480 were the only two auxiliary Interstates in the nation that ran concurrently with each other for any distance until 2022, when a concurrency between I-587 and I-795 in North Carolina was established with the designation of I-587.[37]

Public transit[edit]

The Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority operates a bus system and heavy and light rail in Cuyahoga County. Other transit agencies serve the surrounding counties and provide connections with RTA, including Laketran in Lake County, and Lorain County Transit in Lorain County. Cleveland's RTA Red Line which started in 1955, is the eighth oldest heavy rail rapid transit in the Country In 2007, RTA was named the best public transit system in North America by the American Public Transportation Association, for "demonstrating achievement in efficiency and effectiveness."[38]



Playhouse Square, Cleveland

Playhouse Square Center is the epicenter of the Cleveland Theater District and the second largest theater district in the United States.[39]

Playhouse Square Theaters[edit]

In addition, Greater Cleveland has additional theaters throughout the region.


Theatrical companies[edit]


Cleveland is home to the Cleveland Orchestra, widely considered one of the finest orchestras in the world, and often referred to as the finest in the United States.[62] It is one of the "Big Five" major orchestras in the United States. The Orchestra plays at Severance Hall in University Circle during the winter and at Blossom Music Center in Cuyahoga Falls during the summer.[63] The city is also home to the Cleveland Pops Orchestra.


There are two main art museums in Cleveland. The Cleveland Museum of Art is a major American art museum,[64] with a collection that includes more than 40,000 works of art ranging over 6,000 years, from ancient masterpieces to contemporary pieces. Museum of Contemporary Art Cleveland showcases established and emerging artists, particularly from the Cleveland area, through hosting and producing temporary exhibitions.[65]

Sports and recreation[edit]

Progressive Field, home of the Cleveland Guardians

Cleveland's professional sports teams include the Cleveland Guardians (Major League Baseball), Cleveland Browns (National Football League), and Cleveland Cavaliers (National Basketball Association). The Lake County Captains, a Single-A minor league affiliate of the Cleveland Guardians, play in Eastlake at Classic Park. Additionally, the Lake Erie Crushers of the Frontier League play at Sprenger Stadium in Avon.

Minor league hockey is represented in the area by the Cleveland Monsters of the American Hockey League. They began play in the 2007–08 AHL season at the Quicken Loans Arena. The team is the top minor league affiliate of the Columbus Blue Jackets of the National Hockey League.

The Cleveland Metroparks are a system of nature preserves that encircle the city, and the Cuyahoga Valley National Park encompasses the Cuyahoga River valley between Cleveland and Akron. The region is home to Mentor Headlands Beach, the longest natural beach on the Great Lakes.

Notable natives[edit]

See also[edit]


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External links[edit]