|Other cities in MSA|
|• Urban||1,780,673 (25th)|
|• MSA||2,077,240 (29th)|
|• CSA||3,515,646 (15th)|
|Time zone||ET (UTC-5)|
|• Summer (DST)||EDT (UTC-4)|
|Area code(s)||216, 330, 440, 234|
The Cleveland metropolitan area, or Greater Cleveland as it is more commonly known, is the metropolitan area surrounding the city of Cleveland in Northeast Ohio, United States. According to the 2010 Census, the five-county Cleveland-Elyria Metropolitan Statistical Area (MSA) consists of Cuyahoga County, Geauga County, Lake County, Lorain County, and Medina County, and has a population of 2,077,240. Greater Cleveland is the 29th most populous metropolitan area in the United States and largest metro entirely in Ohio.
Northeast Ohio refers to a similar but substantially larger area. This article covers the area generally considered to be Greater Cleveland, but includes some information generally applicable to the larger region, which is itself part of what is known historically as the Connecticut Western Reserve.
- 1 Combined Statistical Area
- 2 Northeast Ohio
- 3 Counties
- 4 Cities, townships, and villages
- 5 Demographics
- 6 Area codes
- 7 Economy
- 8 Colleges and universities
- 9 Transportation
- 10 Culture
- 11 Sports and recreation
- 12 Notable natives
- 13 See also
- 14 References
- 15 External links
Combined Statistical Area
The larger Cleveland-Akron-Canton Combined Statistical Area is the 15th-largest Combined Statistical Area in the United States, and includes the above counties plus Ashtabula County, Carroll County, Erie County, Huron County, Portage County, Stark County, Summit County, and Tuscarawas County, with a population of 3,515,646.
The Cleveland-Akron-Canton television Designated Market Area covers this area, and all of Northeast Ohio except for the Youngstown/Warren region. It is the 18th largest in the United States, according to Nielsen Media Research. Changes in house prices for Greater Cleveland are publicly tracked on a regular basis using the Case–Shiller index; the statistic is published by Standard & Poor's and is also a component of S&P's 20-city composite index of the value of the U.S. residential real estate market. The Greater Cleveland area is also part of the larger Great Lakes Megalopolis.
Northeast Ohio consists of 16 counties (Ashland, Ashtabula, Carroll, Columbiana, Cuyahoga, Geauga, Lake, Lorain, Mahoning, Medina, Portage, Richland, Stark, Summit, Trumbull and Wayne counties) and includes the cities of Cleveland, Akron, Canton, Lorain, Elyria, Mansfield, Medina, Ashtabula, Youngstown, and Warren. Northeast Ohio is home to approximately 4 million people, has a labor force of almost 2 million, and a gross regional product of nearly $170 billion. Other counties are sometimes considered to be in Northeast Ohio. These include Erie, Holmes, Huron and Tuscarawas counties, and their inclusion makes the total population of the entire northeastern section of Ohio well over 4.5 million people.
Cities, townships, and villages
- Bay Village
- Bedford Heights
- Broadview Heights
- Brook Park
- Brooklyn Heights
- Chagrin Falls
- Chagrin Falls Township
- Cleveland Heights
- Cuyahoga Heights
- East Cleveland
- Fairview Park
- Garfield Heights
- Gates Mills
- Highland Heights
- Highland Hills
- Hunting Valley
- Maple Heights
- Mayfield Heights
- Mayfield Village
- Middleburg Heights
- Moreland Hills
- Newburgh Heights
- North Olmsted
- North Randall
- North Royalton
- Olmsted Falls
- Olmsted Township
- Parma Heights
- Pepper Pike
- Richmond Heights
- Rocky River
- Seven Hills
- Shaker Heights
- South Euclid
- University Heights
- Valley View
- Walton Hills
- Warrensville Heights
- Auburn Township
- Bainbridge Township
- Burton Township
- Chardon Township
- Claridon Township
- Hambden Township
- Hunting Valley (part)
- Huntsburg Township
- Middlefield Township
- Montville Township
- Munson Township
- Newbury Township
- Parkman Township
- Russell Township
- South Russell
- Thompson Township
- Troy Township
- Amherst Township
- Avon Lake
- Brighton Township
- Brownhelm Township
- Camden Township
- Carlisle Township
- Columbia Township
- Eaton Estates
- Eaton Township
- Elyria Township
- Grafton Township
- Henrietta Township
- Huntington Township
- LaGrange Township
- New Russia Township
- North Ridgeville
- Penfield Township
- Pittsfield Township
- Rochester Township
- Sheffield Lake
- Sheffield Township
- South Amherst
- Vermilion (portions in Erie and Lorain Counties)
- Wellington Township
- Brunswick Hills Township
- Chatham Township
- Chippewa Lake
- Gloria Glens Park
- Granger Township
- Guilford Township
- Harrisville Township
- Hinckley Township
- Homer Township
- Lafayette Township
- Litchfield Township
- Liverpool Township
- Medina Township
- Montville Township
- Sharon Township
- Spencer Township
- Wadsworth Township
- Westfield Center
- Westfield Township
- York Township
Cities by population
These, in decreasing order of population, are the eight largest cities in Greater Cleveland of (2010):
According to the 2010 United States Census, the population was 2.077 million in the five-county MSA of the Greater Cleveland Area, making it the largest metropolitan-statistical area entirely within the state of Ohio. Approximately 48.1% of the population was male and 51.9% were female. In 2010 the racial makeup of the five-county Area was 71.7% (1,490,074) Non-Hispanic Whites, 19.7% (409,582) Non-Hispanic Blacks or African Americans, 0.2% (4,056) American Indians and Alaskan Natives, 2.0% (40,522) Asian (0.7% Asian Indian 0.5% Chinese 0.2% Filipino, 0.1% Korean, 0.1% Vietnamese, 0.1% Japanese, 0.0% (398) Pacific Islander, 1.7% (35,224) from other races, and 2.0% (42,130) from two or more races. 4.7% (98,133) of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race (2.8% Puerto Rican, 1.0% Mexican, 0.1% Dominican, and 0.1% Cuban).
The median income for a household in Greater Cleveland was $46,231 and the median income for a family, $59,611. The per capita income was $25,668. Persons living below the poverty line was 15.1%. According performed by Capgemini and the World Wealth Report by Merrill Lynch, the Cleveland area has nearly 54,000 millionaire household, and is expected to continue to grow at seventeen percent over the next five years.
For the past thirty years the Greater Cleveland area population has been in decline especially in terms of Non-Hispanic whites all the while still being the most diverse region in the State. But at the same time has become even more increasingly diverse as well. ethnic groups. As of 2010 both the Hispanic and Asian population in the Cleveland-Akron-Ashtabula area grew by almost 40%, Hispanics now number at 112,307 (up from 80,738 in 2000). And Asian alone accounts for 55,087 (up from 39,586 in 2000) but people who cite Asian and other ethnicites enumerate 67,231. The Chinese Americans are the oldest Asian group residing in Northeast Ohio, most visible in Cleveland's Chinatown. Nevertheless the area is also home to hundreds of Thais, Taiwanese, Pakistanis, Laotians, Cambodians, and Burmese peoples as well.
The Cleveland area is also home to some of the nation's largest Italian (numbering over 205,000), Slavic, and Hungarian populations. The Hungarian population was so great at one time that Cleveland boasted of having the highest concentration of Hungarians outside of Budapest. Cleveland-Akron area is home to a large Slavic population (17.2% far higher than the nation's rate of 6%). The Greater Cleveland area is home to roughly 171,000 Polish, 38,000 Slovaks, 66,000 Slovenes 38,000 Czechs, 31,000 Russians, and 23,000 Ukrainians. Slavic Village and Shaker Square once had some of the larger concentration in the city of Cleveland. Today, Slavic Village still continues to be home to many Slavic Ohioans. The Greater Cleveland area is home to the largest Slovak, Slovene, and Hungarian community in the world, outside of Slovakia, Slovenia, and Hungary. In addition Slovenia maintains a Consulate-General in Downtown Cleveland. The city of Cleveland has also received visits from the Presidents of Hungary and Poland.
Greater Cleveland is home to a sizable Jewish community. According to the North American Jewish Data Bank, an estimated 86,600 people or 3.0% as of 2011, above the nation's 1.7%, and up from 81,500 in 1996. The highest proportion in Cuyahoga County at 5.5% (of the county's total population). Today 23 percent of Greater Cleveland's Jewish population is under 17. Twenty-seven percent of Jewish people reside in The Heights (Cleveland Heights, Shaker Heights, and University Heights). In 2010 nearly 2,600 people spoke Hebrew and 1,100 Yiddish.
- German: 20.4%
- Slavic: 18.9% (8.2% Polish, 3.2% Slovak, 1.8% Slovene, 1.5% Czech, 1.5% Russian, 1.1% Ukrainian, 1.0% Croatian, 0.4% Serbian, Rusyn, Yugoslav)
- Irish: 14.5%
- British: 11.3% (8.0% English, 1.8% Scottish, 0.8% Scot-Irish, 0.7% Welsh)
- Italian: 9.9%
- Hungarian: 3.7%
- Puerto Rican: 2.8%
- French and French Canadian: 1.9%
- Scandinavian: 1.2% (0.7% Swedish, 0.3% Norwegian, and Danish)
- Arab: 1.0%
Place of birth
Approximately 94.1% of the metropolitan area's population was native to the United States. Approximately 92.8% were born in the U.S. while 1.3% were born in Puerto Rico, a U.S. territory, or born abroad to American parents. The rest of the population (5.9%) were foreign-born. The highest percentages of immigrants came from Europe (46.2%), Asia (32.7%), Latin America (14.3%); smaller percentages of newcomers came from Africa (3.6%), other parts of North America (3.0%), and Oceania (0.3%).
According to the American Community Survey 2006-2010, the number of Greater Cleveland area residents born overseas was 119,136 and the leading countries of origin were India (10,067), China (7,756), Mexico (6,051), Ukraine (7,211), Germany (5,742), Italy (4,114), Canada (4,102), United Kingdom (4,048), Romania (3,947), Poland (3,834), Russia (3,826), and Yugoslavia (3,820).
Language spoken at home
English is by far the most commonly spoken language at home by residents in the Cleveland-Akron-Elyria area; approximately 91.2% of the population over the age of five spoke only English at home. Spanish speakers made up 2.8% of the population; speakers of Asian languages made up 1.1% of the population; speakers of other Indo-European languages made up 3.9% of the population. Individuals who spoke languages other than the ones above represented the remaining 1.0% of the populace. As of 2011, individually in addition to English, 2.7% spoke Spanish, 0.6% German, 0.5% Arabic, and 0.5% Chinese. 1.4% also spoke a Slavic language. In 2007, Cleveland area was home to the nation's 3rd highest proportion of Hungarian speakers.
In the 1950s, AT&T assigned Greater Cleveland Area code 216, which included all of Northeast Ohio. In 1996, Area code 216 was reduced in size to cover the northern half of its prior area, centering on Cleveland and its lake shore suburbs. Area code 330 was introduced for the southern half of Greater Cleveland, including Medina County.
In 1997, area code 216 was further split as the need for additional phone numbers grew. Area code 216 was reduced in geographical area to cover the city of Cleveland and its inner ring suburbs. Area code 440 was introduced to cover the remainder of was what previously area code 216, including all of Lorain, Geauga, and Lake counties, and parts of Cuyahoga County. Some communities, such as Parma, and Parma Heights were divided between the 216 and 440 area codes. In 1999, Congressman Dennis Kucinich introduced federal legislation to protect small and medium-sized cities from being split into two or more area codes.
In 2000, it was anticipated that the available phone numbers in area code 330 would be exhausted, and an overlay area code was introduced. Area code 234 was assigned to overlap existing area code 330. With the creation of area code 234, any new phone number in the geographical area formerly covered by area code 330 could be assigned a phone number in either the 234 or 330 area codes, with no change in local or long distance toll status. This made necessary the use of ten-digit dialing within the 330/234 area code region. After the introduction of area code 234, assignments of new telephone numbers in the area did not continue at an accelerated pace, and new phone numbers for area code 234 were not assigned until 2003.
In 2011 the Greater Cleveland area had a GDP of $134.4 billion (up from $130.7 billion in 2008), which would rank 57th among countries. Cleveland also has the twelfth highest merchandise value at $109.2 billion.
Business and industry
More than 37% of Fortune 500 companies are present in Northeast Ohio, through corporate headquarters, major divisions, subsidiaries, and sales offices. In addition, more than 150 international companies have a presence there. As of 2006[update], Northeast Ohio serves as the corporate headquarters of 25 Fortune 1000 firms (shown with 2006 rankings below):
- (#112) Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company (Akron, rubber)
- (#153) Progressive Insurance (Mayfield Village, insurance)
- (#184) FirstEnergy (Akron, utilities)
- (#210) Eaton Corporation (Cleveland, motor vehicle parts)
- (#279) Parker-Hannifin (Mayfield Heights, aerospace)
- (#311) Sherwin-Williams (Cleveland, paint)
- (#325) KeyCorp (Cleveland, banking)
- (#417) The Timken Company (Canton, specialty steel)
- (#486) Lubrizol Corporation (Wickliffe, lubricants and chemicals)
- (#589) Nacco Industries (Cleveland, industrial equipment)
- (#671) Diebold (Green, electronics)
- (#674) PolyOne Corporation (Avon Lake, chemicals)
- (#678) RPM International (Medina, chemicals)
- (#704) Aleris International, Inc. (Beachwood, metals)
- (#765) The J.M. Smucker Co. (Orrville, food consumer products)
- (#825) American Greetings (Brooklyn, greeting cards)
- (#839) Jo Ann Stores (Hudson, specialty retailer)
- (#846) Medical Mutual of Ohio (Cleveland, health insurance)
- (#878) Cliffs Natural Resources (Cleveland, iron ore mining)
- (#888) Applied Industrial Technologies (Cleveland, bearings)
- (#922) Agilysis (Mayfield Heights, electronics)
- (#928) Lincoln Electric (Cleveland, arc welding equipment)
- (#955) Invacare (Elyria, medical products and equipment)
- (#995) A. Schulman (Fairlawn, chemicals)
Other large employers include:
- Babcock & Wilcox (Barberton, engineering)
- Cafaro Corp (Youngstown, mall management and properties)
- Cleveland Clinic (Cleveland, health care)
- Developers Diversified Realty Corporation (Beachwood, real estate development)
- DeBartolo-York Corp (Boardman Township, Youngstown, mall management and properties)
- Exal Corp Aluminum Production (Youngstown, metals)
- FirstMerit (Akron, banking)
- Forest City Enterprises (Cleveland, real estate development)
- Gojo (Akron, chemicals)
- Home Savings and Loan (Youngstown, banking)
- IMG (Cleveland, sports marketing and management)
- Jones Day (Cleveland, legal services)
- Nestlé USA (Solon, food processing)
- Mayfran International (Cleveland, conveyors)
- Roadway Express (Akron, logistics)
- Summa Health System (Akron, health care)
- (#429 in 2009) Rockwell Automation (Mayfield Heights, industrial controls)
- University Hospitals of Cleveland (Cleveland, health care)
Small businesses and startups
The Council of Smaller Enterprises coordinates and advocates for small businesses in the region. Many of the area's sustainability-oriented companies are tied into the network Entrepreneurs for Sustainability.
Cleveland area has many options for shopping. Some of the well known shopping areas include:
- Beachwood Place: stores include Saks Fifth Avenue, Nordstrom, Coach, True Religion, Lacoste, H&M, Michael Kors.
- Eton Square: stores include Anthropologie, Apple Store, Brooks Brothers, Tiffany & Co., The North Face, Orvis, Sur La Table.
- Legacy Village: stores include Crate & Barrel, Arhaus Furniture, Ethan Allen, Restoration Hardware, Nordstrom Rack, The Cheesecake Factory.
- Crocker Park: stores include Apple Store, Banana Republic, Nordstrom Rack, Guess, BCBGMAXAZRIA, Lucky Brand Jeans, Arhaus Furniture.
Colleges and universities
Greater Cleveland is home to a number of higher education institutions, including:
- Baldwin Wallace University (Berea)
- Case Western Reserve University (Cleveland)
- Cleveland College of Jewish Studies (Beachwood)
- Cleveland Institute of Art (Cleveland)
- Cleveland Institute of Music (Cleveland)
- Cleveland State University (Cleveland)
- Cuyahoga Community College (Cleveland, Highland Hills, and Parma)
- DeVry University (Seven Hills)
- John Carroll University (University Heights)
- Kent State University at Geauga (Burton)
- Kent State University College of Podiatric Medicine (Independence)
- Lake Erie College (Painesville)
- Lakeland Community College (Kirtland)
- Lorain County Community College (Elyria)
- Myers University (formerly Dyke College) (Cleveland)
- Notre Dame College (South Euclid)
- Oberlin College (Oberlin)
- Stautzenberger College (Brecksville)
- Ursuline College (Pepper Pike)
Greater Cleveland is served by international, regional and county airports, including:
- Burke Lakefront Airport (Cleveland)
- Concord Airpark Airport (Concord Township)
- Cuyahoga County Airport
- Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (Cleveland)
- Lorain County Regional Airport (Russia Township)
- Willoughby Lost Nation Municipal Airport (Willoughby)
- Interstate 71
- Interstate 77
- Interstate 80 (Ohio Turnpike)
- Interstate 90
- Interstate 271
- Interstate 277
- Interstate 480
- Interstate 490
- U.S. Route 6
- U.S. Route 20
- U.S. Route 42
- U.S. Route 224
- U.S. Route 250
- U.S. Route 322
- U.S. Route 422
- Ohio State Route 2
- Ohio State Route 3
- Ohio State Route 8
- Ohio State Route 10
- Ohio State Route 11
- Ohio State Route 14
- Ohio State Route 17
- Ohio State Route 18
- Ohio State Route 21
- Ohio State Route 43
- Ohio State Route 44
- Ohio State Route 83
- Ohio State Route 88
- Ohio State Route 91
- Ohio State Route 113
- Ohio State Route 175
- Ohio State Route 176
- Ohio State Route 225
- Ohio State Route 254
- Ohio State Route 700
- Ohio State Route 711
- I-271 and I-480 are the only two three-digit interstates in the nation to be concurrent, near Bedford Heights in Cuyahoga County.
The Greater Cleveland Regional Transit Authority operates a bus system and heavy and light rail in Cuyahoga County. Other transit agencies serve the surrounding counties and provide connections with RTA, including Laketran in Lake County, and Lorain County Transit in Lorain County. Cleveland's RTA Red Line which started in 1955, is the eighth oldest heavy rail rapid transit in the Country In 2007, RTA was named the best public transit system in North America by the American Public Transportation Association, for "demonstrating achievement in efficiency and effectiveness."
Playhouse Square Theaters
- Allen Theatre
- Hanna Theatre
- Ohio Theatre
- State Theatre
- Palace Theatre
- Kennedy's Cabaret
- Second Stage
- The Helen Rosenfeld Lewis Bialosky Lab Theatre
- Westfield Insurance Studio Theatre
In addition, Greater Cleveland has additional theaters throughout the region.
- Beck Center (Lakewood)
- Cabaret Dada (Cleveland)
- Cassidy Theater (Parma Heights)
- Cleveland Play House (Cleveland)
- Cleveland Public Theater (Cleveland)
- Dobama Theater (Cleveland Heights)
- Euclid Avenue Opera House (destroyed)
- Lorain Palace Theatre (Lorain)
- Geauga Lyric Theater (Chardon)
- Huntington Playhouse (Bay Village)
- Karamu House (Cleveland)
- Near West Theatre (Cleveland)
- Olde Towne Hall Theatre (North Ridgeville)
- The Bang and Clatter Theatre Company
- Beck Center for the Arts
- Bodwin Theater Company
- Charenton Theatre Company
- Cleveland Shakespeare Festival
- Cleveland Signstage Theatre
- Fairmount Center for the Arts (Mayfield Village Performing Arts Center)
- Fourth Wall Productions
- Great Lakes Theater Festival
- The Group
- Portage Lakes Players
- The Public Squares
- Red Hen Productions
Cleveland is home to the Cleveland Orchestra, widely considered one of the finest orchestras in the world, and often referred to as the finest in the United States. It is one of the "Big Five" major orchestras in the United States. The Orchestra plays at Severance Hall in University Circle during the winter and at Blossom Music Center in Cuyahoga Falls during the summer. The city is also home to the Cleveland Pops Orchestra.
There are two main art museums in Cleveland. The Cleveland Museum of Art is a major American art museum, with a collection that includes more than 40,000 works of art ranging over 6,000 years, from ancient masterpieces to contemporary pieces. Museum of Contemporary Art Cleveland showcases established and emerging artists, particularly from the Cleveland area, through hosting and producing temporary exhibitions.
Sports and recreation
Cleveland's professional sports teams include the Cleveland Indians (Major League Baseball), Cleveland Browns (National Football League), and Cleveland Cavaliers (National Basketball Association). The Lake County Captains, a Single-A minor league affiliate of the Cleveland Indians, play in Eastlake at Classic Park. Additionally, the Lake Erie Crushers of the Frontier League play at All Pro Freight Stadium in Avon.
Minor league hockey is represented in the area by the Lake Erie Monsters of the American Hockey League. They began play in the 2007–08 AHL season at the Quicken Loans Arena. The team is the top minor league affiliate of the Colorado Avalanche of the National Hockey League.
The Cleveland Metroparks are a system of nature preserves that encircle the city, and the Cuyahoga Valley National Park encompasses the Cuyahoga River valley between Cleveland and Akron. The region is home to Mentor Headlands Beach, the longest natural beach on the Great Lakes.
- Albert Ayler
- Jim Backus
- Kaye Ballard
- LeCharles Bentley
- Halle Berry
- Chris Butler
- Eric Carmen
- Drew Carey
- Mary Carey
- Ray Cash
- Drew Carter
- Gerald Casale
- Chris Chambers
- Tracy Chapman
- Cheetah Chrome
- Tim Conway
- Wes Craven
- Kid Cudi
- Dorothy Dandridge
- Cheri Dennis
- Ruby Dee
- Donald DeFreeze
- Phil Donahue
- Stephen R. Donaldson
- Harlan Ellison
- Lee Evans
- James A. Garfield
- Sonny Geraci
- Donald A. Glaser
- Ted Ginn Jr.
- Bob Golic
- Mike Golic
- Anthony Gonzalez
- Jim Graner
- Joel Grey
- Arsenio Hall
- Roy Hall
- Margaret Hamilton
- Steve Harvey
- Patricia Heaton
- Anne Heche
- Mike Hegan
- John W. Heisman
- Kim Herring
- Hal Holbrook
- Bob Hope
- Langston Hughes
- Chrissie Hynde
- LeBron James
- Philip Johnson
- Joe Jurevicius
- Sammy Kaye
- Don King
- Bobby Knight
- Heather Kozar
- Dennis Kucinich
- Dante Lavelli
- Mike Lebowitz
- Gerald Levert
- D. A. Levy
- Bob Lewis
- Peter B. Lewis
- Jim Lovell
- Henry Mancini
- Scott Mescudi
- Howard Metzenbaum
- O.J. McDuffie
- Burgess Meredith
- Toni Morrison
- Bob Mothersbaugh
- Mark Mothersbaugh
- Paul Newman
- Urban Meyer
- Chuck Noll
- Andre Norton
- Charles Oakley
- Jesse Owens
- Harvey Pekar
- Scott Raab
- Dave Ragone
- John D. Rockefeller
- Michael Ruhlman
- Screamin' Jay Hawkins
- Molly Shannon
- Sam Sheppard
- Don Shula
- Jerry Siegel
- Robert Smith
- Troy Smith
- Ruth Simpson
- Steve Stone
- George Steinbrenner
- Carl B. Stokes
- Michael Symon
- David Thomas
- Jim Tressel
- George Voinovich
- David Wain
- Carl E. Walz
- Lew Wasserman
- Debra Winger
- Archibald Willard
- Fred Willard
- Frank Yankovic
- Roger Zelazny
- Connecticut Western Reserve
- List of United States metropolitan statistical areas by population
- List of United States combined statistical areas
- Great Lakes Megalopolis
- Great lakes region
- Rust Belt
- Table of United States Metropolitan Statistical Areas
- Table of United States Combined Statistical Areas
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- H.R.2439, 106th United States Congress
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- "Making Change: Sustainable Businesses", 90.3 WCPN ideastream, Wednesday, May 28, 2003.
- "Beachwood Place Directory - Top Stores, Shops, Brands in Cleveland, Ohio". Beachwoodplace.com. 2013-01-04. Retrieved 2013-04-20.
- "E T O N : Chagrin Boulevard : Stores". Etonchagrinblvd.com. Retrieved 2013-04-20.
- "Directory". Legacy Village. Retrieved 2013-04-20.
- "Retail Stores – Westlake, Ohio". Crocker Park. Retrieved 2013-04-20.
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