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List of cryptids

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This is a list of cryptids (from the Greek κρύπτω, krypto, meaning "hide" or "hidden") notable within cryptozoology, a pseudoscience that presumes the existence of animals and plants that have been derived from anecdotal or other evidence considered insufficient by mainstream science. While biologists regularly identify new species, cryptozoologists focus on entities mentioned in the folklore record (the academic study of which is folkloristics). Well-known examples of cryptids include the Yeti in the Himalayas, the Loch Ness Monster in Scotland, and Bigfoot in North America.


Cryptozoologists may consider any figure from folklore to be a "cryptid" (from the Greek κρύπτω, krypto, meaning "hide") after the term cryptozoology and meaning a 'hidden animal'. The Oxford English Dictionary defines the noun cryptid as "an animal whose existence or survival to the present day is disputed or unsubstantiated; any animal of interest to a cryptozoologist".[1] Some dictionaries and encyclopedias define the term "cryptid" as an animal whose existence is questionable.[2][3] While used by most cryptozoologists, the term 'cryptid' is not used by academic zoologists.[4]

While there have been attempts to codify cryptozoology approaches, unlike biologists, zoologists, botanists, and other academic disciplines, however, "there are no accepted, uniform, or successful methods for pursuing cryptids".[5] According to anthropologist Jeb J. Card, cryptozoologists frame "[m]ost cryptids as the subject of indigenous legends typically collected in the hayday of comparative folklore, though such legends may be heavily modified or worse. Cryptozoology's complicated mix of sympathy, interest, and appropriation of indigenous culture (or non-indigenous construction of it) is also found in New Age circles and dubious 'Indian burial grounds' and other legends ... invoked in hauntings such as the "Amityville" hoax ...".[6]

Eberhart's classification

Cryptozoologist George M. Eberhart classifies ten types of mystery animals under the cryptozoological umbrella:[7][8]

  1. Distribution anomalies, known animals reported outside their normal range (e.g. the anomalous big cats of the U.K.);
  2. Undescribed, unusual, or outsized variations of known species (e.g. the giant anacondas reported from Amazonia or the spotted lions of East Africa);
  3. Survivals of recently extinct species (e.g. the ivory-billed woodpecker presumed extinct c. 1960, the Tasmanian tiger (thylacine), declared extinct in 1936, or the Steller's sea cow presumed extinct c. 1768, all of which are occasionally claimed to have survived to the present);
  4. Survivals of species known only from the fossil record into modern times (e.g. the mokele-mbembe of central Africa, sometimes described as a living dinosaur);
  5. Lingerlings, or survivals of species known from the fossil record much later into historical times than currently thought (e.g. the woolly mammoth, presumed extinct c. 12,000 BCE but occasionally purported to have survived into later eras);
  6. Animals not known from the fossil record but related to known species (e.g. the Andean wolf or the striped manta-ray reported by William Beebe in the 1930s);
  7. Animals not known from the fossil record nor related to any known species (e.g. North America's Bigfoot or most sea serpents);
  8. Mythical animals with a zoological basis;
  9. Seemingly paranormal or supernatural entities with some animal-like characteristics (e.g. Mothman, black dogs, or some fairies from folklore);
  10. Known hoaxes or probable misidentifications (e.g. the jackalope, an antlered rabbit, a popular hoax in taxidermy).

Additionally, Eberhart argues for six exclusions from classification as a cryptid:

  1. Insignificance. "Cryptids must be big, weird, dangerous or significant to humans in some way."
  2. Lack of controversy. "Someone needs to observe a mystery animal and someone else needs to discredit the sighting. Cryptozoologists function as interventionists between witnesses and skeptical scientists."
  3. Erratics. "The out-of-place alligator […] that turns up in an odd spot, undoubtedly through human agency, is not a zoological mystery […] [I]f someone discovers a new species of alligator that lives only in sewers, that is a different matter."
  4. Bizarre humans (e.g. zombies or vampires)
  5. Angels or demons […] "the paranormal or supernatural is admitted only if it has an animal shape (a werewolf sighting, which might involve a real dog or wolf, or a mystery canid)."
  6. Aliens "[unless such extraterrestrials] arrived a long time ago and thus classify as residents."



Aquatic or semi-aquatic

Name Other names Description Purported location Depiction
Altamaha-ha Altie Sturgeon or plesiosaur-like river animal Georgia, United States Altamaha-ha.jpg
Ayia Napa sea monster To filiko teras (The Friendly Monster), Nappis Speculated to be something like a crocodile or sea serpent Cyprus Scyllaeastmedmonster.jpg
Bear Lake Monster Lake monster Idaho/Utah, United States
Bessie Lake Erie Monster Lake monster Lake Erie, North America
Bownessie Lake Windermere Monster Lake monster Windermere, England, UK
Brosno Dragon Brosnya Lake monster Lake Brosno, Russia
Bunyip Lake and cave animal Australia Bunyip 1890.jpg
Buru Reptile or giant lungfish Arunachal Pradesh, India
Cadborosaurus[9] Caddy Sea animal Pacific Coast of North America Cadborosaurus October 1937.jpg
Canvey Island Monster Fish, originally described as bipedal England
Champ Champtanystropheus americanus, Champy Lake monster Lake Champlain, North America Artistic representation of Sandra Mansi's 1977 photograph of "Champ" lake monster.jpg
Chessie Sea animal Atlantic Coast of the United States, especially Chesapeake Bay
Dingonek Jungle walrus A walrus or otherwise tusked water-animal that reportedly lives in the heart of Africa Western Africa
Dewey Lake Monster "Michigan Bigfoot," "Sisters Lakes Bigfoot" Primate Sister Lakes, Dowagiac, Michigan, USA The Dewey Lake Monster (1).jpg
Dobhar-chú Water Hound Extra-large otter-like carnivorous aquatic mammal Ireland Dobhar-chu encounter.jpg
Flying rod Skyfish, rod, sky squid Photographic artifact Worldwide Long exposure photograph of moths showing exaggerated rod effect
Gambo Sea animal Gambia
Giant anaconda Megaconda Giant snake South America
Giglioli's Whale Amphiptera pacifica Sea animal Off Chile, Scotland, and France (in the Mediterranean Sea) Amphiptera pacifica.jpg
Globster Blob Decaying sea animal Australia, New Zealand, and the Caribbean St augustine carcass.jpg
Gloucester sea serpent Scoliophis atlanticus Sea serpent Massachusetts, United States 1817 Gloucester sea serpent.jpg
Honey Island Swamp monster Letiche, Tainted Keitre Hominid or other primate Louisiana, United States
Igopogo Kempenfelt Kelly Lake monster Lake Simcoe, Ontario (Canada)
Iliamna Lake Monster Lake monster. It is most likely a giant white sturgeon, though some reports have compared it to a shark or a whale Lake Iliamna, Alaska White sturgeon
Inkanyamba Lake monster Africa
Isshii Issie Lake monster Japan
Kraken Sea animal World's oceans Colossal octopus by Pierre Denys de Montfort.jpg
Kusshii Lake monster Japan
Lagarfljót Worm lagarfljóts ormurinn Lake monster Iceland
Lake Tianchi Monster Lake Chonji Monster Lake monster China and North Korea
Lake Van Monster Monster of Lake Van Lake monster Turkey
Lariosauro Como Lake Monster Water reptile Italy Lariosaurus BW.jpg
Loch Ness Monster[10] Nessie, Nessiteras rhombopteryx Lake monster Loch Ness, Scotland
Loveland Frog Loveland Lizard Bipedal lizard or frog, allegedly first seen in Loveland, Ohio Ohio, United States Loveland frog.png
Lukwata Lake monster African Great Lakes
Lusca Gigantic octopus Large octopus World's oceans
Mahamba Giant crocodile Lake Tele swamp region, Democratic Republic of the Congo
Mamlambo Lake monster South Africa
Manatee of Helena Manatee Saint Helena
Manipogo Winnipogo Lake monster Lake Manitoba, Canada
Modern megalodon or giant predatory sharks Carcharodon megalodon, Carcharocles megalodon Giant shark[9][11][12] World's oceans Carcharodon megalodon SI.jpg
Memphre Memphré, Lake Memphremagog Monster Lake monster Lake Memphremagog (United States and Canada)
Mermaid Human-fish All five oceans and several seas Waterhouse a mermaid.jpg
Merman Human-fish All five oceans and several seas MermenLubok.jpg
Mokele-Mbembe Reptile/dinosaur Republic of the Congo Mokele-mbembe ill artlibre jnl.png
Morag Lake monster Scotland
Morgawr Sea Serpert Cornwall
Muckie Lake monster Lakes of Killarney, Ireland
Muc-sheilche Lake monster Scotland
Mussie Lake monster Ontario, Canada Mussie sighting.png
Nahuelito Nahuel Huapi Lake Monster Lake monster Nahuel Huapi Lake, Argentina Nahuelito.jpg
Ogopogo N'ha•a•itk, Naitaka Lake monster Lake Okanagan, Canada OgoPogo crop.jpg
Phaya Naga River monster Laos and Thailand Laonaga.jpg
Reptilians Lizard People, Draconian, Reptoid, Dinosauroid, Dragonoid Bipedal Worldwide Dinosauroid.jpg
Sea monk Sea animal World's oceans The Sea Monk-1.jpg
Sea monsters Sea animals World's oceans Prima fontana dei mostri marini 04.JPG
Sea serpent Sea animal World's oceans Soe Orm 1555.jpg
Selma Seljordsormen Lake monster Lake Seljord, Telemark, Norway
Sharlie Slimy Slim, The twilight dragon of Payette lake Lake monster Lake Payette, McCall, Idaho, United States
Shōjō Xing-xing, translates to "heavy drinker" or "orangutan" Sea creature with red face and hair Japan Sheng1sheng1.jpg
Snallygaster Schneller Geist "A dragon-like beast... The earliest incarnations mixed the half-bird features of a siren with the nightmarish features of demons and ghouls. The Snallygaster was described as half-reptile, half-bird with a metallic beak lined with razor-sharp teeth, occasionally with octopus-like tentacles." The hills surrounding Washington D.C., Frederick County, Maryland, and West Virginia
Steller's sea ape Sea animal Pacific Ocean
Storsjöodjuret Lake monster Sweden Storsjöodjuret.jpg
Stronsay Beast Sea animal Orkney, Scotland Stronsay beast1.jpg
Sucuriju Gigante Giant Bull Eater (Spanish: Matatoro); giant anaconda; megaconda Giant boa Amazon rainforest Eunectes murinus2.jpg
Tahoe Tessie Lake Tahoe monster Lake monster Lake Tahoe, in California and Nevada, United States
Thetis Lake Monster Reptilian humanoid Vancouver Island, Canada
Trinity Alps giant salamander Giant salamander[9][13] California, United States
Trunko The Margate monster Whale carcass South Africa Trunkowhale.JPG
Turtle Lake Monster Lake monster Saskatchewan, Canada
Waitoreke Maori otter, New Zealand otter; Waitoreki, Waitorete Carnivorous mammal South Island, New Zealand
Tapire-iauara Jaguar/tapir Amazon rainforest


Name Other names Description Purported location Depiction
Adjule Kelb-el-khela Unrecognized canine from the western part of the Sahara by local people, said to live in packs North Africa Adjule.jpg
Agogwe Agogure, Kakundakari, Kikomba, Sehite Small human-shaped bipedal East Africa
Akkorokamui Cephalopod Japan and Thailand
Almas Abnauayu, almasty, albasty, bekk-bok,
biabin-guli, golub-yavan, gul-biavan, auli-avan,
kaptar, kra-dhun, ksy-giik, ksy-gyik, ochokochi,
mirygdy, mulen, voita, wind-man, Zana
Non-human ape or hominid Asia/Caucasus
Amomongo Negros Ape Primate Negros Island, Philippines
Andean wolf Hagenbeck wolf, Andean mountain wolf, Dasycyon hagenbecki Canine High Andes, South America
Barmanou Barmanu, Big Hairy One Ape or hominid Middle East/Asia
Batutut Ujit, Người rừng Hominid Vietnam, Laos, and Borneo
Beaman Ape or hominid Missouri, United States
Beast of Bladenboro Vampire Beast Blood-sucking feline-like predator North Carolina, United States Davis's Bobcat and Mayor Fussell.png
Beast of Bodmin Large felid Cornwall, England
Beast of Bray Road Wisconsin Werewolf, Wolfman Carnivorous mammal Wisconsin, United States
Beast of Dartmoor Lion-pig Boar and lion-like mammal Dartmoor National Park, England
Beast of Dean Moose-pig Boar and moose-like mammal England Beast of Dean.jpg
Beast of Exmoor Big cat England
Beast of Gévaudan Bête du Gévaudan, Arenotelicon Canid Gévaudan (Lozère), France Gevaudanwolf.jpg
Bergman's bear God bear, irkuiem, Ursus arctos piscator Bear, proposed Arctodus simus Kamchatka Peninsula, Russia
Bigfoot Sasquatch Hominid or other primate United States and Canada Pie Grande.jpg
Black Shuck Old Shuck Black dog (ghost) Coast of East Anglia, England Blackdog.jpg
British big cats Alien big cats (ABCs), phantom cats, mystery cats, English lions,
Beast of Bodmin, Beast of Exmoor
Carnivorous mammal Great Britain Lynx lynx.jpg
Bukit Timah Monkey Man BTM, BTMM Forest-dwelling hominid or other primate Singapore
Burmese gray wild dog Gray dhole Canine Burma
Chuchunya Large hominid Russia
Chupacabra Chupacabras (Brazilian Portuguese for goat-sucker) Puerto Rico (originally),
South and Central America,
Southern North America
De Loys' Ape Ameranthropoides loysi Primate Near the Tarra River, Colombia De Loys' Ape.jpg
Dover Demon Bipedal Dover, Massachusetts, United States
Eastern cougar Puma concolor couguar Felid predator Eastern United States EasternCougar.jpg
Ebu Gogo Small primate, possible early hominid Flores, Indonesia
Elwetritsch[14] Mammal Germany Elwetritschen-Brunnen in Neustadt 09.jpg
Enfield Monster Three legs, short body, two little short arms with claws, grayish epidermis and big reddish eyes Enfield, Illinois, United States
Ennedi tiger Hadjel, Gassingram, Vossoko, Mourou N'gou, Mamaimé, Dilali, saber-toothed cat Carnivorous mammal Chad Ennedi tiger.svg
Am Fear Liath Mòr Fear Liath, Big Grey Man of Ben MacDhui, Greyman Primate; possible humanoid Scotland
Fiskerton Phantom Phantom cat/bear Fiskerton, Lincolnshire, UK
Fouke Monster Jonesville Monster, Southern Sasquatch, Boggy Creek Monster Hominid or other primate Arkansas, United States
Garou Loup Garou, Cajun werewolf Wolf-like creature Louisiana, United States
Gazeka Mammal Papua New Guinea
Gambo Sea animal Gambia
Ghost deer Large deer, supposedly impervious to bullets Northern California, United States
Goatman The Maryland Goatman, Chevo Man Bipedal Wisconsin, Maryland, and Kentucky, United States
Grassman Kenmore Grassman, Ohio Grassman Bigfoot-like primate Kenmore, Akron, Ohio, and eastern Iowa, both in the United States
Hellhound Barghest, Black Shuck, Dip, Gwyllgi, Gytrash Large, black, spectral hound with red eyes Worldwide
Hibagon Hinagon Primate Japan
Hodag The Dag; Nasobatilus Carnivorous mammal/lizard Rhinelander, Wisconsin, United States Hodag 002.jpg
Homo gardarensis Hominid (acromegalic Homo sapiens?) Greenland
Honey Island Swamp monster Letiche, Tainted Keitre Hominid or other primate Louisiana, United States
Hoop snake Snake United States/Australia
Huay Chivo Huaychivo Carnivorous mammal Yucatán, Campeche, and Quintana Roo, Mexico
Jba Fofi Great Spider Large spider-like creature Central Africa
Jackalope Antelabbit, aunt benny, Wyoming thistled hare, stagbunny Herbivorous mammal North America Rabbit shopes papilloma virus 3.jpg
Koolakamba Ape hybrid, KoolooKamba A cross between a chimpanzee and a gorilla West Africa
Kting Voar Holy Goat, Snake-eating Cow, Khting Vor, Linh Duong, Pseudonovibos spiralis Herbivorous mammal Vietnam and Cambodia
Kumi Lizard/Ngarara Reptile: giant monitor lizard New Zealand
Lake Worth Monster Lake Worth Goatman, Texas Bigfoot Carnivorous mammal Texas, United States
Lizard Man of Scape Ore Swamp Lizard Man of Lee County Bipedal South Carolina, United States
MacFarlane's bear Ursus inopinatus Carnivorous mammal, possibly a grizzly-polar bear hybrid Canada
Maero Mohoao Cannibalistic hominids in Māori mythology New Zealand
Maltese tiger Blue tiger Carnivorous mammal China Maltese Tiger.jpg
Mapinguari Herbivorous mammal Amazon rainforest
Maricoxi Primate South America
Marozi Spotted lion, Panthera leo maculatus[15] Lion-like felid, possibly a leopon (lion-leopard hybrid) Africa Peau de Marozi .jpg
Melon heads Humanoids with enlarged heads Allegan County woods, Michigan, and parts of Ohio and Connecticut, United States
Menehune Primate Hawaii, United States
Michigan Dogman Wolfman of Wexford County Carnivorous mammal Michigan, United States
Minhocão Big Earthworm Caecilian South America Minhocao-cryptid.png
Milton lizard Giant monitor lizard-like lizard Trimble County, Kentucky
Minnesota Iceman Homo pongoides Primate Minnesota, United States
Mitla Fawcett's zorro or Fawcett's cat Carnivorous mammal Bolivian rainforest
Mngwa Nunda Carnivorous mammal Tanzania
Moehau Maeroero, The Hairy Moehau, The Moehau Monster Primate New Zealand
Mogollon Monster Mug-ee-yun Monster Bipedal primate Mogollon Rim, Arizona, United States
Momo the Monster Missouri Monster Primate Missouri, United States
Mongolian death worm Allghoi (or orghoi) khorkhoi Worm-like animal Gobi Desert (Asia) Allghoikhorkhoi.jpg
Monkey-man of Delhi Black Monkey Big black monkey Old Delhi, India
Mono Grande Hominid South America
Montauk Monster Mounty Small, decomposed quadruped carcass Montauk, Long Island, United States
Mountain fennec Fox Southern Algeria and northern Chad, in the central Sahara mountains
Nandi Bear Chemosit, Chimiset, Chimisit, Duba, Engargiya, Gadett, Ikimizi, Kerit, Kikambangwe, Kikomba, Koddoelo, Ngoloko, Sabrookoo, Shivuverre Carnivorous mammal Africa Nandibear.jpg
Old Yellow Top Primate Canada
Onza Big felid: possibly a cougar Latin America Cougar
Orang-bati Bipedal Indonesia
Orang Mawas Mawas, Orang Dalam, Hantu Jarang Gigi Primate Malaysia
Orang Pendek Primate, has been associated with Homo floresiensis Sumatra Orang Pendek.png
Ozark Howler Ozark Black Howler Carnivorous mammal Arkansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas, United States
Panthera tigris sudanensis Big felid or tiger, possibly a mistaken Caspian tiger (formerly Panthera tigris virgata, currently Panthera tigris tigris)[16] whose skin was imported to Africa.[17] Cairo, Egypt
Peluda Shaggy Beast, La Velue A dragon-like beast with a porcupine-like body, a snake's neck, head, and tail, large tortoise-like feet, and a green color La Ferté-Bernard, France
Phantom cat Alien Big Cats (ABCs) Carnivorous mammal Worldwide
Phantom kangaroo Marsupial Various
Pogeyan[18] Gray felid; possible color morph of the Indian leopard Area of Anamudi, Western Ghats, India
Pope Lick Monster Bipedal Kentucky, United States
Queensland tiger Yarri, the Beast of Buderim Carnivorous mammal Australia
Shug Monkey Primate Europe
Shunka Warakin Carnivorous mammal; wolf-like, boar-like, hyena-like Western United States (especially Montana)
Sigbin Canine, cat-fox, civet Philippines
Sirrush Mushrushu Reptile/dinosaur Africa and ancient Babylon Sirrush.jpg
Skookum Cannibalistic wildmen of Mount St. Helens, Washington State Ape-like hominid Pacific Northwest
Skunk Ape Stink Ape, Myakka Ape, Myakka Skunk Ape Primate Florida, United States
Tatzelwurm Reptile/amphibian European Alps Tatzelwurm.JPG
Tsuchinoko Snake Japan Tsuchinoko photo 01.jpg
Tsul 'Kalu Primate American West
Urayuli Arulataq, Bushman, Tent Monster, Nant'ina, Woodsman Hominid or other primate Southwest Alaska, near Lake Iliamna, United States
Veo[19] An anteater-like creature that eats insects Indonesia
Waheela Carnivorous mammal Canada
Waitoreke Maori otter, New Zealand otter; Waitoreki, Waitorete Carnivorous mammal South Island, New Zealand
Wampus cat Foot Craver, Masked Cat, Canable Cat Legendary felid Southern and Southwestern United States
Wendigo Windiga, Witiko, Wihtikow, Weendigo Legendary creature Northern United States and Canada
Wild Man of the Navidad Wild Woman of the Navidad, Wildman of the Navidad Legendary creature South Texas, United States
Wolpertinger Crisensus bavaricus Mammal Germany Wolpertinger.jpg
Yeren Yiren, Yeh Ren, Chinese Wildman Primate (possible hominin) China
Yeti Abominable Snowman Primate / Ursidae Himalayas (Asia) Yeti by Philippe Semeria.jpg
Yowie Yahoo Primate Australia Yowie-statue-Kilcoy-Queensland.JPG


Name Other names Description Purported location Depiction
Chickcharney Flightless bird Andros Island in The Bahamas Tyto pollens.jpg
Devil Bird Ulama Bird Sri Lanka
Hakawai Hokioi Mythological bird heard but not seen New Zealand Chatham snipe
Ivory-billed woodpecker Campephilus principalis Sightings of species presumed extinct. Southeastern United States and Cuba Ivory-billed Woodpecker by Jerry A. Payne.jpg
Jersey Devil[10] Leeds Devil Winged bipedal horse United States, mainly the South Jersey Pine Barrens, as well as other parts of New Jersey and southeastern Pennsylvania Jersey Devil Philadelphia Post 1909.jpg
Kongamato Pterosaur/bird/bat Kenya Kongamato.png
Mothman Popularized by John A. Keel's book The Mothman Prophecies Winged bipedal Mason County, West Virginia, United States Mothman Artist's Impression.png
Olitiau Winged animal: bat or flying reptile Cameroon
Owlman Cornish Owlman, Owlman of Mawnan Human-owl England
Poukai Pouakai, Hakawai Large carnivorous bird New Zealand
Thunderbird Giant bird North America Thunderbird (artistic rendition).jpg


Name Other names Description Purported location Depiction
Umdhlebi Poisonous tree Zululand, South Africa
Man-eating trees[20][21][22] Madagascar tree, Nubian tree, Yateveo, Vampire vine Carnivorous tree Africa and Central America The ya-te-veo.jpg

See also


  1. ^ "cryptid, n." OED Online. Oxford University Press, September 2016. Web. 25 October 2016.
  2. ^ "The Oxford Dictionary". Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  3. ^ "Canadian Encyclopedia". Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  4. ^ Paxton, C. G. M. (2011), Putting the "ology" into cryptozoology, 7, Biofortean Notes, pp. 7–20
  5. ^ Regal, Brian (2011) "Cryptozoology", pp. 326–329 as published in McCormick, Charlie T. and Kim Kennedy (2011). Folklore: An Encyclopedia of Beliefs, Customs, Tales, Music, and Art. 2nd edition. ABC-CLIO. {{ISBN|978-1-59884-241-8}.}
  6. ^ Card, Jeb J. 2016. "Steampunk Inquiry: A Comparative Vivisection of Discovery Pseudoscience" in Card, Jeb J. and Anderson, David S. Lost City, Found Pyramid: Understanding Alternative Archaeologies and Pseudoscientific Practices, p. 24-25. University of Alabama Press. ISBN 9780817319113
  7. ^ Eberhart, George M. (2005). "Mysterious Creatures: Creating A Cryptozoological Encyclopedia" (PDF). Journal of Scientific Exploration. 19 (1): 103–113.
  8. ^ Jobling, Mark A. (2013). "The truth is out there". Investigative Genetics. 4 (24): 24. doi:10.1186/2041-2223-4-24. PMC 4121952. PMID 25097746.
  9. ^ a b c Coleman, Loren; Clark, Jerome (2013-05-07). "Mapinguary". Cryptozoology A To Z: The Encyclopedia Of Loch Monsters Sasquatch Chupacabras And Other Authentic Mysteries of Nature. The United States of America: Simon & Schuster. p. 155. ISBN 1-4391-4779-5.
  10. ^ a b S.J. Velasquez (31 October 2015). "The monster you should never find". BBC Online. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  11. ^ Renz, Mark (2002). "4 (Then Again What If? What if Meg still exists?); Bibliography". Megalodon: Hunting the Hunter. Lehigh Acres: PaleoPress. pp. 44–164. ISBN 0-9719-4770-8.
  12. ^ Emmer, Rick (2010). "Megalodon The Fishermans Nightmare; Final Report Megalodon". Megalodon: Fact Or Fiction?. New York: Chelsea House Publishers. pp. 23–84. ISBN 1-4381-3210-7.
  13. ^ Fortean Times. John Brown Pub. 1997. p. 43.
  14. ^ "Cryptozoology, the study of hidden animals". Forbes. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
  15. ^ Shuker, Karl P. N. (1989). Mystery Cats of the World. Robert Hale. ISBN 978-0-7090-3706-4.
  16. ^ Kitchener, A. C.; Breitenmoser-Würsten, C.; Eizirik, E.; Gentry, A.; Werdelin, L.; Wilting, A.; Yamaguchi, N.; Abramov, A. V.; Christiansen, P.; Driscoll, C.; Duckworth, J. W.; Johnson, W.; Luo, S.-J.; Meijaard, E.; O’Donoghue, P.; Sanderson, J.; Seymour, K.; Bruford, M.; Groves, C.; Hoffmann, M.; Nowell, K.; Timmons, Z.; Tobe, S. (2017). "A revised taxonomy of the Felidae: The final report of the Cat Classification Task Force of the IUCN Cat Specialist Group" (PDF). Cat News (Special Issue 11). ISSN 1027-2992.
  17. ^ Mazák, V. (1981). "Panthera tigris" (PDF). Mammalian Species. 152: 1–8. doi:10.2307/3504004. Archived from the original (PDF) on 9 March 2012.
  18. ^ Naish, D. "The Pogeyan, a new mystery cat". Retrieved 2009-01-19.
  19. ^ "Veo entry: The Cryptopedia". The Cryptopedia: A Dictionary of the Weird, Strange & Downright Bizarre. Kensington Publishing Corp. 2007. p. 33. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
  20. ^ TIME-LIFE Mysteries of the Unknown: Inside the World of the Strange and Unexplained. Time Inc. Books. 2015-12-15. ISBN 9781618933003. Retrieved 14 May 2018.
  21. ^ McGrath, Timothy (19 October 2013). "The world's greatest imaginary animals". Salon. Retrieved 14 May 2018.
  22. ^ Shuker, Karl (2014-06-12). The Beasts That Hide from Man: Seeking the World's Last Undiscovered Animals. Cosimo, Inc. pp. 108–114. ISBN 9781616406219. Retrieved 14 May 2018.

Further reading