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List of cryptids

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This is a list of cryptids, which are animals presumed by followers of the cryptozoology pseudoscientific subculture to exist on the basis of anecdotal or other evidence considered insufficient by mainstream science. While biologists regularly identify new species following established scientific methodology, cryptozoologists focus on entities mentioned in the folklore record and rumour. Entities that may be considered cryptids by cryptozoologists include Bigfoot, Yeti, the chupacabra, the Jersey Devil, the Loch Ness Monster, or Mokele-mbembe. Related pseudosciences include young Earth creationism,[1][2] ghost hunting, and ufology. Some dictionaries and encyclopedias define the term "cryptid" as an animal whose existence is unsubstantiated.[3][4]



Aquatic or semi-aquatic

Name Other names Description Purported location Depiction
Altamaha-ha[citation needed] Altie Sturgeon or plesiosaur-like river animal Georgia, United States Altamaha-ha.jpg
Bear Lake Monster[citation needed] Lake monster Idaho/Utah, United States
Bessie[citation needed] Lake Erie Monster Lake monster Lake Erie, North America
Brosno Dragon[5] Brosnya Lake monster Lake Brosno, Russia
Bunyip[6] Lake and cave animal Australia Bunyip 1890.jpg
Buru[7] Reptile or giant lungfish Arunachal Pradesh, India
Cadborosaurus[8] Caddy Sea animal Pacific Coast of North America Cadborosaurus October 1937.jpg
Canvey Island Monster[9][unreliable source?] Fish, originally described as bipedal England
Champ[5][10] Champtanystropheus americanus, Champy Lake monster Lake Champlain, North America Artistic representation of Sandra Mansi's 1977 photograph of "Champ" lake monster.jpg
Chessie[citation needed] Sea animal Atlantic Coast of the United States, especially Chesapeake Bay
Dingonek[11] Jungle walrus A tusked water-dwelling animal Western Africa
Dobhar-chú[12] Water Hound Extra-large otter-like carnivorous aquatic mammal Ireland Dobhar-chu encounter.jpg
Giant anaconda[13] Megaconda Giant snake South America
Igopogo[5] Kempenfelt Kelly Lake monster Lake Simcoe, Ontario (Canada)
Isshii[5] Issie Lake monster Japan
Kraken Sea animal World's oceans Colossal octopus by Pierre Denys de Montfort.jpg
Kusshii[5] Lake monster Japan
Lagarfljót Worm[14] lagarfljóts ormurinn Lake monster Iceland
Loch Ness Monster[15] Nessie, Nessiteras rhombopteryx Lake monster Loch Ness, Scotland Loch-Ness-Monster.jpg
Mamlambo[5] Lake monster South Africa
Manipogo[5] Winnipogo Lake monster Lake Manitoba, Canada
Mokele-Mbembe[8] Dinosaur Republic of the Congo
Nahuelito[5] Nahuel Huapi Lake Monster Lake monster Nahuel Huapi Lake, Argentina
Ogopogo[5][10] N'ha•a•itk, Naitaka Lake monster Lake Okanagan, Canada
Sea serpents[16] Sea animals, dinosaurs All bodies of water Soe Orm 1555.jpg
Selma[5] Seljordsormen Lake monster Lake Seljord, Telemark, Norway
Steller's sea ape[17] Sea animal Pacific Ocean
Tahoe Tessie[citation needed] Lake Tahoe monster Lake monster Lake Tahoe, in California and Nevada, United States
Trinity Alps giant salamander Giant salamander[18] California, United States


Name Other names Description Purported location Depiction
Almas[5][10] Abnauayu, almasty, albasty, bekk-bok,
biabin-guli, golub-yavan, gul-biavan, auli-avan,
kaptar, kra-dhun, ksy-giik, ksy-gyik, ochokochi,
mirygdy, mulen, voita, wind-man, Zana
Non-human ape or hominid Asia/Caucasus
Barmanou[5] Barmanu, Big Hairy One Ape or hominid Middle East/Asia
Batutut[5] Ujit, Người rừng Hominid Vietnam, Laos, and Borneo
Beast of Bodmin[19] Large felid Cornwall, England
Beast of Exmoor[13] Big cat England
Bigfoot[20] Sasquatch Large and hairy ape-like creature United States and Canada
British big cats[19] Alien big cats (ABCs), phantom cats, mystery cats, English lions,
Beast of Bodmin, Beast of Exmoor
Carnivorous mammal Great Britain
Bukit Timah Monkey Man[21] BTM, BTMM Forest-dwelling hominid or other primate Singapore
Chuchunya[22][5] Large hominid Russia
Chupacabra[23] Chupacabras (Brazilian Portuguese for goat-sucker) Puerto Rico (originally),
South and Central America,
Southern North America
Ebu Gogo[24] Small primate, possible early hominid Flores, Indonesia
Elwetritsch[25] Mammal Germany
Fouke Monster[citation needed] Jonesville Monster, Southern Sasquatch, Boggy Creek Monster Hominid or other primate Arkansas, United States
Honey Island Swamp monster[citation needed] Letiche, Tainted Keitre Hominid or other primate Louisiana, United States
Lizard Man of Scape Ore Swamp[citation needed] Lizard Man of Lee County Bipedal South Carolina, United States
Maricoxi[citation needed] Hominid or other primate South America
Minhocão[5] Big Earthworm Caecilian South America
Mngwa[19] Nunda Carnivorous mammal Tanzania
Mogollon Monster[citation needed] Mug-ee-yun Monster Bipedal primate Mogollon Rim, Arizona, United States
Mongolian death worm[13] Allghoi (or orghoi) khorkhoi Worm-like animal Gobi Desert (Asia)
Monkey-man of Delhi[13] Black Monkey Big black monkey Old Delhi, India
Orang-bati[5] Bipedal Indonesia
Orang Mawas[5] Mawas, Orang Dalam, Hantu Jarang Gigi Primate Malaysia
Ozark Howler[citation needed] Ozark Black Howler Carnivorous mammal Arkansas, Missouri, Oklahoma, and Texas, United States
Shunka Warakin[citation needed] Carnivorous mammal; wolf-like, boar-like, hyena-like Western United States (especially Montana)
Skunk Ape[26] Stink Ape, Myakka Ape, Myakka Skunk Ape Primate Florida, United States
Yeren[27][26] Yiren, Yeh Ren, Chinese Wildman Primate (possible hominin) China
Yeti[28] Abominable Snowman Large and hairy human-like entity, various other descriptions Himalayas (Asia)
Yowie[29] Large and hairy human-like entity, various other descriptions Australia


Name Other names Description Purported location Depiction
Jersey Devil[15] Leeds Devil Winged bipedal horse United States, mainly the South Jersey Pine Barrens, as well as other parts of New Jersey and southeastern Pennsylvania Jersey Devil Philadelphia Post 1909.jpg
Mothman[30] Popularized by John A. Keel's book The Mothman Prophecies Winged bipedal Mason County, West Virginia, United States
Thunderbird[31] Giant bird North America

See also


  1. ^ Hill, Sharon A. (2017), Scientifical Americans: The Culture of Amateur Paranormal Researchers, McFarland, p. 66, ISBN 9781476630823
  2. ^ Card, Jeb J. (2016), "Steampunk Inquiry: A Comparative Vivisection of Discovery Pseudoscience", in Card, Jeb J.; Anderson, David S. (eds.), Lost City, Found Pyramid: Understanding Alternative Archaeologies and Pseudoscientific Practices, University of Alabama Press, p. 32., ISBN 9780817319113, Creationists have embraced cryptozoology and some cryptozoological expeditions are funded by and conducted by creationists hoping to disprove evolution.
  3. ^ "Cryptid". The Oxford Dictionary. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  4. ^ "Sasquatch". Canadian Encyclopedia. Retrieved 17 June 2016.
  5. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q "The world's greatest imaginary animals". Salon. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  6. ^ "Australia's terrifying cryptid of the swamp". Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  7. ^ "Loch Ness monster: Why we can't let science kill mystery". The Daily O. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  8. ^ a b Loxton and Prothero (2015:261-295).
  9. ^ "The Canvey Island Monster was a cryptid". The Canvey Community Archive. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  10. ^ a b c Michael Shermer" Pat Linse (November 2002). The Skeptic Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience, Volume 1. ABC-CLIO. p. 72. ISBN 9781576076538.
  11. ^ "10 mysterious monsters of Africa". Afrikanza. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  12. ^ "Ireland's hound of deep - Dobhar Chu". Irish Central News. Retrieved 19 December 2018.
  13. ^ a b c d "Cryptozoology: What else is out there?". TNT magazine. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  14. ^ "Is this Iceland's Loch Ness monster? Lagarfljot river worm caught on film". The Independent. Retrieved 12 December 2018.
  15. ^ a b S.J. Velasquez (31 October 2015). "The monster you should never find". BBC Online. British Broadcasting Corporation. Retrieved 11 August 2018.
  16. ^ Loxton and Prothero (2015:228-326).
  17. ^ Nickell, Joe (Winter 2016–2017). "Steller's Sea Ape: Identifying an Eighteenth-Century Cryptid". Skeptical Briefs. Vol. 26 no. 4. Committee for Skeptical Inquiry.
  18. ^ Fortean Times. John Brown Pub. 1997. p. 43.
  19. ^ a b c "Fantastic Cryptids And Where To Find Them". Forbes. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  20. ^ Loxton and Prothero (2015:29–70).
  21. ^ "On the hunt for the elusive Bukit Timah Monkey Man". Channel NewsAsia. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  22. ^ O'Carroll, Eoin (28 September 2018). "Bigfoot and beyond: Why tales of wild men endure". The Christian Science Monitor. Retrieved 11 December 2018.
  23. ^ Brian Regal (15 October 2009). Pseudoscience: A Critical Encyclopedia: A Critical Encyclopedia. ABC-CLIO. ISBN 978-0-313-35508-0.
  24. ^ "Maybe Bigfoot believers aren't crazy after all". New York Post. Retrieved 18 December 2018.
  25. ^ Press, Clayton. "Oliver Laric Celebrates the Year Of The Dog At Metro Pictures". Forbes. Retrieved 28 June 2018.
  26. ^ a b Caleb W. Lack, PhD; Jacques Rousseau, MA (8 March 2016). Critical Thinking, Science, and Pseudoscience: Why We Can't Trust Our Brains. Springer Publishing Company. p. 170. ISBN 978-0-8261-9426-8.
  27. ^ "It's the monstrous new trend sweeping travel – what is cryptid-tourism?". Irish Examiner. Retrieved 13 December 2018.
  28. ^ Loxton and Prothero (2015:73–117).
  29. ^ Caleb W. Lack, PhD; Jacques Rousseau, MA (8 March 2016). Critical Thinking, Science, and Pseudoscience: Why We Can't Trust Our Brains. Springer Publishing Company. p. 154. ISBN 978-0-8261-9426-8.
  30. ^ Kantrowitz, Lia; Fitzmaurice, Larry; Terry, Josh (16 January 2018). "People Keep Seeing the Mothman in Chicago". Vice. Retrieved 26 April 2019.
  31. ^ "The mythic child-stealing Thunderbirds of Illinois". Atlas Obscura. Retrieved 11 December 2018.


  • Loxton, Daniel and Donald Prothero (2013). Abominable Science: Origins of the Yeti, Nessie, and Other Famous Cryptids. Columbia University Press. ISBN 978-0-231-52681-4.

External links

  • The dictionary definition of cryptid at Wiktionary
  • Media related to Cryptozoology at Wikimedia Commons