Demographics of Kyrgyzstan

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Demographics of Kyrgyzstan
Population of Kyrgyzstan.PNG
Population of Kyrgyzstan (in millions) from 1950-2009
Population 5,776,500 (2014 est.)[1]
Density 27.4/km2; 71/sq mi
Growth rate 1.32/1,000 population (2010 est.)
Birth rate 22.88 births/1,000 population (2010 est.)
Death rate 2.69 deaths/1,000 population (2010 est.)
Life expectancy 69.43 years
 • male 65.53 years
 • female 73.64 years (2009 est.)
Fertility rate 2.65 children born/woman (2010 est.)
Infant mortality rate 31.26 deaths/1,000 live births
Age structure
0–14 years 23.6%
15–64 years 62.9%
65 and over 6.2%
Sex ratio
At birth 1.05 male(s)/female
Under 15 1.04 male(s)/female
15–64 years 0.96 male(s)/female
65 and over 0.64 male(s)/female
Nationality
Nationality Kyrgyzstani
Major ethnic Kyrgyz
Minor ethnic Russian, Uzbek, Dungan, Uyghur
Language
Official Kyrgyz
Spoken Kyrgyz, Russian
A Yurt and family

The Demographics of Kyrgyzstan is about the demographic features of the population of Kyrgyzstan, including population growth, population density, ethnicity, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population. The name Kyrgyz, both for the people and the country, means "forty girls" or "forty tribes", a reference to the epic hero Manas who unified forty tribes against the Oirats, as symbolized by the 40-ray sun on the flag of Kyrgyzstan.

Demographic trends[edit]

Musicians

Kyrgyzstan's population increased from 2.1 million to 4.8 million between the censuses of 1959 and 1999.[2] Official estimates set the population at 5.2 million in 2007.[3] Of those, 34.4% are under the age of 15 and 6.2% are over the age of 65. The country is rural: only about one-third of Kyrgyzstan's population live in urban areas. The average population density is 69 people per square mile (29 people per km²).

The nation's largest ethnic group are the Kyrgyz, a Turkic people, which comprise 70.9% of the population (2009 census). Other ethnic groups include Russians (9.0%) concentrated in the north and Uzbeks (14.5%) living in the south. Small but noticeable minorities include Dungans (1.9%), Uyghurs (1.1%), Tajiks (1.1%), Kazakhs (0.7%) and Ukrainians (0.5%), and other smaller ethnic minorities (1.7%). Of the formerly sizable Volga German community, exiled here by Joseph Stalin from their earlier homes in the Volga German Republic, most have returned to Germany, and only a few small groups remain. A small percentage of the population are also Koreans, who are the descendants of the Koreans deported in 1937 from the Soviet Far East to Central Asia.

Kyrgyzstan has undergone a pronounced change in its ethnic composition since independence.[4][5] The percentage of ethnic Kyrgyz increased from around 50% in 1979 to nearly 70% in 2007, while the percentage of European ethnic groups (Russians, Ukrainians and Germans) dropped from 35% to about 10%.[2][3]

The Kyrgyz have historically been semi-nomadic herders, living in round tents called yurts and tending sheep, horses and yaks. This nomadic tradition continues to function seasonally (see transhumance) as herding families return to the high mountain pasture (or jailoo) in the summer. The retention of this nomadic heritage and the freedoms that it implies continue to have an impact on the political atmosphere in the country.

Vital statistics[edit]

Births and deaths[edit]

Statistics are taken from the United Nations Demographic Yearbook, the National Statistical Committee of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan, the Demographic Annual of the Kyrgyz Republic, and Demoskop Weekly.[6][7][8][9][10]

Average population (x 1000) Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) TFR
1950 1 740 56 471 14 845 41 626 32.5 8.5 23.9
1951 1 768 58 828 13 927 44 901 33.3 7.9 25.4
1952 1 788 57 632 13 868 43 764 32.2 7.8 24.5
1953 1 818 60 755 14 288 46 467 33.4 7.9 25.6
1954 1 859 63 803 13 684 50 119 34.3 7.4 26.7
1955 1 903 63 883 14 923 48 960 33.6 7.8 25.7
1956 1 941 65 667 11 918 53 749 33.8 6.1 27.7
1957 1 978 68 644 12 275 56 369 34.7 6.2 28.5
1958 2 030 70 521 12 324 58 197 34.7 6.1 28.7
1959 2 099 70 501 12 930 57 571 33.6 6.2 27.4
1960 2 172 80 209 13 259 66 950 36.9 6.1 30.8
1961 2 256 80 671 15 175 65 496 35.8 6.7 29.1
1962 2 333 79 010 15 141 63 869 33.9 6.5 27.4
1963 2 413 80 279 14 986 65 293 33.3 6.2 27.1
1964 2 495 79 342 15 834 63 508 31.8 6.3 25.5
1965 2 573 80 812 16 693 64 119 31.4 6.5 24.9
1966 2 655 81 771 17 888 63 883 30.8 6.7 24.1
1967 2 737 83 609 19 550 64 059 30.5 7.1 23.4
1968 2 818 86 741 19 840 66 901 30.8 7.0 23.8
1969 2 896 87 210 21 683 65 527 30.1 7.5 22.6
1970 2 964 90 442 21 828 68 614 30.5 7.4 23.1
1971 3 028 95 932 21 343 74 589 31.7 7.0 24.7
1972 3 094 94 923 23 157 71 766 30.7 7.5 23.2
1973 3 160 97 421 24 181 73 240 30.8 7.7 23.1
1974 3 230 99 433 23 747 75 686 30.8 7.4 23.4
1975 3 299 101 287 26 920 74 367 30.7 8.2 22.5
1976 3 365 106 606 27 864 78 742 31.7 8.3 23.4
1977 3 430 104 971 28 510 76 461 30.6 8.3 22.3
1978 3 495 106 176 28 385 77 791 30.4 8.1 22.3
1979 3 558 107 091 29 578 77 513 30.1 8.3 21.8
1980 3 628 107 278 30 460 76 818 29.6 8.4 21.2
1981 3 699 113 434 29 591 83 843 30.7 8.0 22.7
1982 3 775 117 235 29 194 88 041 31.1 7.7 23.4
1983 3 857 120 708 30 241 90 467 31.3 7.8 23.5
1984 3 937 126 075 32 603 93 472 32.0 8.3 23.7
1985 4 014 128 460 32 332 96 128 32.0 8.1 23.9
1986 4 093 133 728 29 083 104 645 32.7 7.1 25.6
1987 4 173 136 588 30 597 105 991 32.7 7.3 25.4
1988 4 250 133 710 31 879 101 831 31.5 7.5 24.0
1989 4 327 131 508 31 156 100 352 30.4 7.2 23.2
1990 4 395 128 810 30 580 98 230 29.3 7.0 22.4
1991 4 464 129 536 30 859 98 677 29.0 6.9 22.1
1992 4 515 128 352 32 163 96 189 28.4 7.1 21.3
1993 4 515 116 795 34 513 82 282 25.9 7.6 18.2
1994 4 513 110 113 37 109 73 004 24.4 8.2 16.2
1995 4 560 117 340 36 915 80 425 25.7 8.1 17.6
1996 4 628 108 007 34 562 73 445 23.3 7.5 15.9
1997 4 696 102 050 34 540 67 510 21.7 7.4 14.4
1998 4 769 104 183 34 596 69 587 21.8 7.3 14.6
1999 4 837 104 068 32 850 71 218 21.5 6.8 14.7
2000 4 888 96 770 34 111 62 659 19.8 7.0 12.8
2001 4 927 98 138 32 677 65 461 19.9 6.6 13.3
2002 4 965 101 012 35 235 65 777 20.3 7.1 13.2
2003 5 011 105 490 35 941 69 549 21.1 7.2 13.9
2004 5 065 109 939 35 061 74 878 21.7 6.9 14.8
2005 5 116 109 839 36 992 72 847 21.5 7.2 14.2
2006 5 164 120 737 38 566 82 171 23.4 7.5 15.9
2007 5 207 123 251 38 180 85 071 23.7 7.3 16.3
2008 5 250 127 332 37 710 89 622 24.3 7.2 17.1
2009 5 383 135 494 35 898 99 596 26.4 7.0 19.4 2.876
2010 5 448 146 123 36 174 109 949 28.1 7.0 21.2 3.062
2011 5 515 149 612 35 941 113 671 28.4 6.8 21.6 3.085
2012 5 608 154 918 36 186 118 732 28.9 6.8 22.2 3.148
2013 5 720 155 520 34 880 120 640 27.2 6.1 21.1
2014 5 836 165 398 35 964 129 434 28.3 6.2 22.2

Total fertility rate[edit]

2.65 children born/woman (2009 est.)[4]

The differences in the number of children by nationality are significant: Uzbeks (3.0 children), Tajiks (3.0 children), Turks (2.9), Kyrgyz (2.9), Dungans (2.8) Russians (1.7), Koreans (1.7), Germans (1.8), Ukrainians (2.1), Tatars (2.1), Kazakhs (2.3) and Ugyhurs (2.5).[2] The TFR for Russians, Ukrainians, Germans, and Koreans in Kyrgyzstan are considerably higher than in their home countries, possibly due to the much lower cost of living.[citation needed]

Fertility and Births[edit]

Total Fertility Rate (TFR) and Crude Birth Rate (CBR):[11]

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
1997 26 3,37 19 2,29 29 3,91
2012 27,7 3,6 26,1 3,0 28,5 4,0

Ethnic groups[edit]

According to the 1999 census,[2] the ethnic composition of the population was as follows: Kyrgyz 64.9%, Uzbeks 13.8%, Russians 12.5%, Dungans 1.1%, Ukrainians 1%, Ugyhurs 1%, other 5.7%, including Koreans 0.4% and Germans 0.4% (among them Low German-speaking Mennonites). Most Russians, Ukrainians, Tatars, Germans, and Koreans lived in northeast, especially around the city of Karakol. Most of the Dungans and Ugyhurs are found along the Chinese border. Most of the Tajiks and Uzbeks live in the south. The emigration of non-Turkic people to Russia, Ukraine, and Germany is now negligible, in part because most of them left prior to 1999.[citation needed] For example, the number of Germans has fallen by over 90% between the 1989 and 2009 censuses.

The table shows the ethnic composition of Kyrgyzstan's population according to all population censuses between 1926 and 2009. There has been a sharp decline in the European ethnic groups (Russians, Ukrainians, Germans) and also Tatars since independence (as captured in the 1989, 1999 and 2009 censuses).

Population of Kyrgyzstan according to ethnic group 1926–2014
Ethnic
group
census 19261 census 19392 census 19593 census 19704 census 19795 census 19896 census 19997 census 20098 census 20137 census 20147
Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  %
Kyrgyz 661,171 66.6 754,323 51.7 836,831 40.5 1,284,773 43.8 1,687,382 47.9 2,229,663 52.4 3,128,147 64.9 3,804,788 71.0 4,099,433 72.3 4,193,850 72.6
Uzbeks 110,463 11.1 151,551 10.4 218,640 10.6 332,638 11.3 426,194 12.1 550,096 12.9 664,950 13.8 768,405 14.3 816,219 14.4 836,065 14.4
Russians 116,436 11.7 302,916 20.8 623,562 30.2 855,935 29.2 911,703 25.9 916,558 21.5 603,201 12.5 419,583 7.8 375,438 6.6 369,939 6.4
Dungans 6,004 0.6 5,921 0.4 11,088 0.5 19,837 0.7 26,661 0.8 36,928 0.9 51,766 1.1 58,409 1.1 62,966 1.1 64,565 1.1
Uygurs 7,540 0.8 9,412 0.6 13,757 0.7 24,872 0.8 29,817 0.8 36,779 0.9 46,944 1.0 48,543 0.9 51,389 0.9 52,456 0.9
Tajiks 2,667 0.3 10,670 0.7 15,221 0.7 21,927 0.7 23,209 0.7 33,518 0.8 42,636 0.9 46,105 0.9 49,046 0.8 50,174 0.8
Turks 44 0.0 33 0.0 542 0.0 3,076 0.1 5,160 0.1 21,294 0.5 33,327 0.7 39,133 0.7 40,443 0.7 40,953 0.7
Kazakhs 1,766 0.2 23,925 1.6 20,067 1.0 21,998 0.8 27,442 0.8 37,318 0.9 42,657 0.9 33,198 0.6 33,368 0.5 33,701 0.5
Tatars 4,902 0.5 20,017 1.4 56,209 2.7 68,827 2.3 71,744 2.0 70,068 1.6 45,438 0.9 31,424 0.6 28,334 0.5 28,059 0.4
Ukrainians 64,128 6.5 137,299 9.4 137,031 6.6 120,081 4.1 109,324 3.1 108,027 2.5 50,442 1.0 21,924 0.4 15,527 0.2 14,485 0.2
Koreans 9 0.0 508 0.0 3,622 0.2 9,404 0.3 14,481 0.4 18,355 0.4 19,784 0.4 17,299 0.3 16,753 0.2 16,807 0.2
Azeris 3,631 0.4 7,724 0.5 10,428 0.5 12,536 0.4 17,207 0.5 15,775 0.4 14,014 0.3 17,267 0.3 18,516 0.3 18,946 0.3
Kurds - 1,490 0.1 4,783 0.2 7,974 0.3 9,544 0.3 14,262 0.3 11,620 0.2 13,171 0.3 - - - -
Germans 4,291 0.4 11,741 0.8 39,915 1.9 89,834 3.1 101,057 2.9 101,309 2.4 21,471 0.4 9,487 0.2 8,645 0.1 8,563 0.1
Chechens 1 0.0 7 0.0 25,208 1.2 3,391 0.1 2,654 0.1 2,873 0.1 2,612 0.1 1,875 0.0 1,737 0.0 1,719 0.0
Belarusians 333 0.0 1,520 0.1 4,613 0.2 6,868 0.2 7,676 0.2 9,187 0.2 3,208 0.1 1,394 0.0 1,070 0.0 1,029 0.0
Jews 318 0.0 1,895 0.1 8,607 0.4 7,677 0.3 6,836 0.2 6,005 0.1 1,571 0.0 604 0.0 501 0.0 491 0.0
Others 9,300 0.9 17,261 1.2 35,713 1.7 41,157 1.4 44,741 1.3 49,740 1.2 50,770 1.1 43,300 0.8 39,577 0.6 40,545 0.7
Total 993,004 1,458,213 2,065,837 2,932,805 3,522,832 4,257,755 4,822,938 5,362,793 5,663,133 5,776,570
1 Source: [1]. 2 Source: [2]. 3 Source: [3]. 4 Source: [4]. 5 Source: [5]. 6 Source: [6]. 7 Source: [7]. 8 Source: [8]

Languages[edit]

Kyrgyz - 64.7%, Uzbek - 13.6% Russian - 12.5%, Dungan 1%, other 8.2% (census 1999)

In March 1996, the Kyrgyzstani legislature amended the constitution to make Russian an official language, along with Kyrgyz, in territories and work places where Russian-speaking citizens predominate.

Religions[edit]

Islam are 85%, Russian Orthodox are 10%, and other are 5% of the Population (1999 census).

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

Data from CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Sex ratio[edit]

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/fe

Infant mortality rate[edit]

Total 31.26 deaths/1,000 live births
Male 36.19 deaths/1,000 live births
Female 26.06 deaths/1,000 live births (2009 est.)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

total population: 69.43 years
male: 65.43 years
female: 73.64 years (2009 est.)

Nationality[edit]

noun: Kyrgyzstani(s)
adjective: Kyrgyzstani

Literacy[edit]

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.7%
male: 99.3%
female: 98.1% (1999 census)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Population of Kyrgyz Republic 1999 - 2014" (PDF) (in Russian). National Statistical Committee of the Kyrgyz Republic. Retrieved 14 April 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d Population census for Kyrgyzstan, 1999 (Russian)
  3. ^ a b Ethnic composition of the population in Kyrgyzstan 1999-2007.
  4. ^ a b Spoorenberg, Thomas (2013). "Fertility changes in Central Asia since 1980". Asian Population Studies 9 (1): 50–77. doi:10.1080/17441730.2012.752238. 
  5. ^ Spoorenberg, Thomas (2015). "Explaining recent fertility increase in Central Asia". Asian Population Studies (Routledge). doi:10.1080/17441730.2015.1027275. 
  6. ^ United nations. Demographic Yearbooks
  7. ^ National Statistical Committee of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan
  8. ^ Численность населения областей, районов, городов и поселков городского типа Кыргызской Республики в 2015г. [Population of Regions, Districts, cities and towns of the Kyrgyz Republic in 2015] (PDF) (in Russian). National Committee for Statistics of the Kyrgyz Republic. Retrieved 31 March 2015. 
  9. ^ ДЕМОГРАФИЧЕСКИЙ ЕЖЕГОДНИК КЫРГЫЗСКОЙ РЕСПУБЛИКИ 2009-2013 гг. [Demographic Annual of the Kyrgyz Republic for 2009-2013] (PDF) (in Russian). National Committee for Statistics of the Kyrgyz Republic. 2014. Retrieved 31 March 2015. 
  10. ^ Естественное движение населения республик СССР, 1935 [Natural population growth of the Republics of the USSR, 1935] (in Russian). Demoscope.ru. Retrieved 31 March 2015. 
  11. ^ "Kyrgyz Republic - Demographic and Health Survey 1997". Microdata.worldbank.org. 1997. Retrieved 31 March 2015.