Demographics of Russia

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Demographics of Russia
Russian population (demographic) pyramid (structure) on January, 1st, 2022.png
Population pyramid of Russia as of 1 January 2022
PopulationIncrease147,182,123 (2021 census)[1]
Growth rateNeutral decrease -7.2 (December 1st, 2021)
Birth rate9.8 births/1,000 population (2021)[2]
Death rateNeutral increase16.7 deaths/1,000 population (2021)[2]
Life expectancyDecrease 72.84 years (2022)[3]
 • male65.51 years (2021)[3]
 • female74.51 years (2021)[3]
Fertility rateIncrease 1.52 (2021)[4]
Infant mortality rate4.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2019)[5]
Net migration rate1.69 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2014)
Age structure
Under 18 years~23.21%[6]
18–44 years~34.73%[6]
45–64 years26.55%[6]
65 and over15.6%[6]
Sex ratio
Total0.86 male(s)/female (2009)
At birth1.06 male(s)/female
Under 151.06 male(s)/female (male 11,980,138/female 11,344,818)
15–64 years0.925 male(s)/female (male 48,166,470/female 52,088,967)
65 and over0.44 male(s)/female (male 5,783,983/female 13,105,896)
Nationality
Nationalitynoun: Russian(s) adjective: Russian
Major ethnicRussians
Language
SpokenRussian, others
Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
0 1,210,000—    
1000 2,520,000+0.07%
1500 7,560,000+0.22%
1600 9,450,000+0.22%
1700 10,710,000+0.13%
1800 31,300,000+1.08%
1897 67,473,000+0.80%
1926 93,459,000+1.13%
1939 108,377,000+1.15%
1959 117,534,000+0.41%
1970 130,079,000+0.93%
1979 137,552,000+0.62%
1989 147,386,000+0.69%
2002 145,166,731−0.12%
2010 142,856,836−0.20%
2021 147,182,123+0.27%
Source:[7][8][9][failed verification][10]

Russia, the largest country in the world by area, had a population of 147.2 million according to the 2021 census,[1] up from 142.8 million in the 2010 census.[11] It is the most populous country in Europe, and the ninth-most populous country in the world; with a population density of 9 inhabitants per square kilometre (23 per square mile).[12] The overall life expectancy in Russia at birth is 70.1 years (65.5 years for males and 74.5 years for females).[3]

From the 1990s to 2001, Russia's death rate had exceeded its birth rate, which has been called a demographic crisis by analysts.[13] Subsequently, the nation has an ageing population, with the median age of the country being 40.3 years.[14] In 2009, Russia recorded annual population growth for the first time in fifteen years; and during the mid-2010s, Russia had seen increased population growth due to declining death rates, increased birth rates and increased immigration.[15] However, since 2020, due to excess deaths from the COVID-19 pandemic, Russia's population has undergone its largest peacetime decline in recorded history.[16] In 2020, the total fertility rate across Russia was estimated to be 1.5 children born per woman,[17] which is below the replacement rate of 2.1 and about equal to the European average.[15]

Russia is a multinational state,[18] home to over 193 ethnic groups nationwide. In the 2010 Census, roughly 81% of the population were ethnic Russians, and the remaining 19% of the population were ethnic minorities;[19] and over four-fifths of Russia's population was of European descent, of which the vast majority were East Slavs,[20] with a substantial minority of Finnic and Germanic peoples.[21][22] According to the United Nations, Russia's immigrant population is the world's third-largest, numbering over 11.6 million; most of whom are from other post-Soviet states.[23]

Population[edit]

Demographic statistics according to the latest Rosstat vital statistics[2] and the World Population Review in 2019.[24]

  • One birth every 22 seconds[2]
  • One death every 13 seconds[2]
  • Net loss of one person every 30 seconds[2]
  • One net migrant every 4 minutes

Note: Crude migration change (per 1000) is a trend analysis, an extrapolation [25]

Fertility[edit]

The total fertility rate is the number of children born to each woman. It is based on fairly good data for the entire period. Sources: Our World In Data and Gapminder Foundation.[26]

TFR of Russia from 1843 to 2016

In many of the following years, Russia had the highest total fertility rate in the world.[26] These elevated fertility rates did not lead to population growth due to the casualties of the Russian Revolution, the two world wars and political killings.

TFR Years
1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849[26]
7 7 7 7.01 7.02 7.03 7.05 7.06 7.08 7.08
1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859[26]
7.07 7.07 7.07 7.06 7.05 7.03 7.01 7 6.98 6.97
1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869[26]
6.95 6.93 6.95 6.96 6.98 6.99 7.01 7.02 6.51 6.87
1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879[26]
6.74 7.03 6.85 7.24 7.17 7.15 7.02 6.87 6.58 6.98
1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889[26]
6.8 6.66 7.03 6.89 6.83 6.74 6.47 6.61 6.96 6.8
1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899[26]
6.71 7.44 6.57 7.17 7.18 7.34 7.43 7.52 7.28 7.36
1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908 1909[26]
7.36 7.2 7.36 7.2 7.24 6.72 7.04 7.08 7.44 7.12
1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919[26]
7.2 7.2 7.2 6.96 6.88 3.36 5.2 5.04 5.72 3.44
1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926[26]
6.72 4.72 6 6.48 6.72 6.8 6.72
Years 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945[26]
4.60 2.96 1.68 1.72 1.92
Birth and death rates and natural growth, 1950–2014

Historical crude birth rates[edit]

Births and deaths in Russia: a) moving 12-month sum, b) daily average, Jan 1956 – Feb 2022
Years 1801–1810 1811–1820 1821–1830 1831–1840 1841–1850 1851–1860[27]
Crude birth rates of Russia 43.7 40.0 42.7 45.6 49.7 52.4
Years 1861–1870 1871–1880 1881–1890 1891–1900 1901–1910 1911–1914 18th century
(only Orthodoxs)
1801–1860
(only Orthodoxs)[27]
Crude birth rates of Russia 50.3 50.4 50.4 49.2 46.8 43.9 51.0 50.0

Age structure[edit]

Median age[edit]

total: 39.8 years. Country comparison to the world: 52nd
male: 36.9 years
female: 42.7 years (2018 est.)

Life expectancy[edit]

Life expectancy at birth in Russia by sex and its intersex difference, 1920–2021
total population: 70.1 years. Country comparison to the world: 155th
male: 65.5 years
female: 74.5 years (2021)

Infant mortality rate

total: 6.8 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 7.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2017 est.) Country comparison to the world: 163rd
Life expectancy in Russia, 1896–2019

Vital statistics[edit]

Before WW2[edit]

Average population[28] Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Total fertility rates Life Expectancy (male) Life Expectancy (female)
1927 94,596,000 4,688,000 2,705,000 1,983,000 49.6 28.6 21.0 6.73 33.7 37.9
1928 96,654,000 4,723,000 2,589,000 2,134,000 48.9 26.8 22.1 6.56 35.9 40.4
1929 98,644,000 4,633,000 2,819,000 1,814,000 47.0 28.6 18.4 6.23 33.7 38.2
1930 100,419,000 4,413,000 2,738,000 1,675,000 43.9 27.3 16.7 5.83 34.6 38.7
1931 101,948,000 4,412,000 3,090,000 1,322,000 43.3 30.3 13.0 5.63 30.7 35.5
1932 103,136,000 4,058,000 3,077,000 981,000 39.3 29.8 9.5 5.09 30.5 35.7
1933 102,706,000 3,313,000 5,239,000 -1,926,000 32.3 51.0 -18.8 4.15 15.2 19.5
1934 102,922,000 2,923,000 2,659,000 264,000 28.7 26.1 2.6 3.57 30.5 35.7
1935 102,684,000 3,577,000 2,421,000 1,156,000 34.8 23.6 11.3 4.31 33.1 38.4
1936 103,904,000 3,899,000 2,719,000 1,180,000 37.5 26.2 11.4 4.54 30.4 35.7
1937 105,358,000 4,377,000 2,760,000 1,617,000 41.5 26.2 15.3 5.08 30.5 40.0
1938 107,044,000 4,379,000 2,739,000 1,640,000 40.9 25.6 15.3 4.99 31.7 42.5
1939 108,785,000 4,329,000 2,600,000 1,729,000 39.8 23.9 15.9 4.91 34.9 42.6
1940 110,333,000 3,814,000 2,561,000 1,253,000 34.6 23.2 11.4 4.26 35.7 41.9

After WW2[edit]

Vital Statistics of Russia 1946–2021[28][29][30][31][32][33][34][35][36]
Total average midyear population Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1,000) Crude death rate (per 1,000) Natural change (per 1,000) Total fertility rates[fn 1] Urban fertility Rural fertility Life Expectancy (male) Life Expectancy (female) Life Expectancy (total) Abortions (including miscarriage) reported
1946 98,028,000 2,546,000 1,210,000 1,336,000 26.0 12.3 13.6 2.81 46.6 55.3
1947 98,834,000 2,715,000 1,680,000 1,035,000 27.5 17.0 10.5 2.94 39.9 49.8
1948 99,706,000 2,516,000 1,310,000 1,206,000 25.2 13.1 12.1 2.60 47.0 56.0
1949 101,160,000 3,089,000 1,187,000 1,902,000 30.5 11.7 18.8 3.21 51.0 59.8
1950 102,833,000 2,859,000 1,180,000 1,679,000 27.8 11.5 16.3 2.89 52.3 61.0
1951 104,439,000 2,938,000 1,210,000 1,728,000 28.1 11.6 16.5 2.92 52.3 60.6
1952 106,164,000 2,928,000 1,138,000 1,790,000 27.6 10.7 16.9 2.87 54.6 62.9
1953 107,828,000 2,822,000 1,118,000 1,704,000 26.2 10.4 15.8 2.73 55.5 63.9
1954 109,643,000 3,048,000 1,133,000 1,915,000 27.8 10.3 17.5 2.97 55.9 64.1
1955 111,572,000 2,942,000 1,037,000 1,905,000 26.4 9.3 17.1 2.82 58.3 66.6
1956 113,327,000 2,827,000 956,000 1,871,000 24.9 8.4 16.5 2.73 60.1 68.8
1957 115,035,000 2,880,000 1,017,000 1,863,000 25.0 8.8 16.2 2.75 59.7 68.4 3,407,398
1958 116,749,000 2,861,000 931,000 1,930,000 24.5 8.0 16.5 2.69 61.8 70.4 3,939,362
1959 118,307,000 2,796,228 920,225 1,876,003 23.6 7.8 15.9 2.58 2.03 3.34 62.84 71.14 67.65 4,174,111
1960 119,906,000 2,782,353 886,090 1,896,263 23.2 7.4 15.8 2.56 2.06 3.26 63.67 72.31 68.67 4,373,042
1961 121,586,000 2,662,135 901,637 1,760,498 21.9 7.4 14.5 2.47 2.04 3.08 63.91 72.63 68.92 4,759,040
1962 123,128,000 2,482,539 949,648 1,532,891 20.2 7.7 12.4 2.36 1.98 2.92 63.67 72.27 68.58 4,925,124
1963 124,514,000 2,331,505 932,055 1,399,450 18.7 7.5 11.2 2.31 1.93 2.87 64.12 72.78 69.05 5,134,100
1964 125,744,000 2,121,994 901,751 1,220,243 16.9 7.2 9.7 2.19 1.88 2.66 64.89 73.58 69.85 5,376,200
1965 126,749,000 1,990,520 958,789 1,031,731 15.7 7.6 8.1 2.14 1.82 2.58 64.37 73.33 69.44 5,463,300
1966 127,608,000 1,957,763 974,299 983,464 15.3 7.6 7.7 2.13 1.85 2.58 64.29 73.55 69.51 5,322,500
1967 128,361,000 1,851,041 1,017,034 834,007 14.4 7.9 6.5 2.03 1.79 2.46 64.02 73.43 69.30 5,005,000
1968 129,037,000 1,816,509 1,040,096 776,413 14.1 8.1 6.0 1.98 1.75 2.44 63.73 73.56 69.26 4,872,900
1969 129,660,000 1,847,592 1,106,640 740,952 14.2 8.5 5.7 1.99 1.78 2.44 63.07 73.29 68.74 4,751,100
1970 130,252,000 1,903,713 1,131,183 772,530 14.6 8.7 5.9 2.00 1.77 2.52 63.07 73.44 68.86 4,837,700
1971 130,934,000 1,974,637 1,143,359 831,278 15.1 8.7 6.3 2.02 1.80 2.60 63.24 73.77 69.12 4,838,749
1972 131,687,000 2,014,638 1,181,802 832,836 15.3 9.0 6.3 2.03 1.81 2.59 63.24 73.62 69.02 4,765,900
1973 132,434,000 1,994,621 1,214,204 780,417 15.1 9.2 5.9 1.96 1.75 2.55 63.28 73.56 69.00 4,747,037
1974 133,217,000 2,079,812 1,222,495 857,317 15.6 9.2 6.4 2.00 1.78 2.63 63.12 73.77 68.99 4,674,050
1975 134,092,000 2,106,147 1,309,710 796,437 15.7 9.8 5.9 1.97 1.76 2.64 62.48 73.23 68.35 4,670,700
1976 135,026,000 2,146,711 1,352,950 793,761 15.9 10.0 5.9 1.96 1.74 2.62 62.19 73.04 68.10 4,757,055
1977 135,979,000 2,156,724 1,387,986 768,738 15.9 10.2 5.7 1.92 1.72 2.58 61.82 73.19 67.97 4,686,063
1978 136,922,000 2,179,030 1,417,377 761,653 15.9 10.4 5.6 1.90 1.70 2.55 61.83 73.23 68.01 4,656,057
1979 137,758,000 2,178,542 1,490,057 688,485 15.8 10.8 5.0 1.87 1.67 2.54 61.49 73.02 67.73 4,544,040
1980 138,483,000 2,202,779 1,525,755 677,024 15.9 11.0 4.9 1.87 1.68 2.51 61.38 72.96 67.70 4,506,249
1981 139,221,000 2,236,608 1,524,286 712,322 16.1 10.9 5.1 1.88 1.69 2.55 61.61 73.18 67.92 4,400,676
1982 140,067,420 2,328,044 1,504,200 823,844 16.6 10.7 5.9 1.96 1.76 2.63 62.24 73.64 68.38 4,462,825
1983 141,056,000 2,478,322 1,563,995 914,327 17.6 11.1 6.5 2.11 1.89 2.76 62.15 73.41 68.15 4,317,729
1984 142,061,000 2,409,614 1,650,866 758,748 17.0 11.6 5.3 2.06 1.86 2.69 61.71 72.96 67.67 4,361,959
1985 143,033,000 2,375,147 1,625,266 749,881 16.6 11.4 5.2 2.05 1.87 2.68 62.72 73.23 68.33 4,552,443
1986 144,156,000 2,485,915 1,497,975 987,940 17.2 10.4 6.9 2.18 1.98 2.83 64.77 74.22 69.95 4,579,400
1987 145,386,000 2,499,974 1,531,585 968,389 17.2 10.5 6.7 2.22 1.974 3.187 64.83 74.26 69.96 4,385,627
1988 146,505,000 2,348,494 1,569,112 779,382 16.0 10.7 5.3 2.13 1.90 3.06 64.61 74.25 69.81 4,608,953
1989 147,342,000 2,160,559 1,583,743 576,816 14.7 10.7 3.9 2.01 1.83 2.63 64.20 74.50 69.73 4,427,713
1990 147,969,000 1,988,858 1,655,993 332,865 13.4 11.2 2.2 1.892 1.698 2.600 63.76 74.32 69.36 4,103,425
1991 148,394,000 1,794,626 1,690,657 103,969 12.1 11.4 0.7 1.732 1.531 2.447 63.41 74.23 69.11 3,608,421
1992 148,538,000 1,587,644 1,807,441 –219,797 10.7 12.2 –1.5 1.547 1.351 2.219 61.96 73.71 67.98 3,436,695
1993 148,459,000 1,378,983 2,129,339 –750,356 9.3 14.3 –5.1 1.369 1.200 1.946 58.80 71.85 65.24 3,243,957
1994 148,408,000 1,408,159 2,301,366 –893,207 9.5 15.5 –6.0 1.394 1.238 1.917 57.38 71.07 63.93 3,060,237
1995 148,376,000 1,363,806 2,203,811 –840,005 9.2 14.9 –5.7 1.337 1.193 1.813 58.11 71.60 64.62 2,766,362
1996 148,160,000 1,304,638 2,082,249 –777,611 8.8 14.1 –5.2 1.270 1.140 1.705 59.61 72.41 65.89 2,652,038
1997 147,915,000 1,259,943 2,015,779 –755,836 8.5 13.6 –5.1 1.218 1.097 1.624 60.84 72.85 66.79 2,498,716
1998 147,671,000 1,283,292 1,988,744 –705,452 8.7 13.5 –4.8 1.232 1.109 1.643 61.19 73.12 67.14 2,346,138
1999 147,215,000 1,214,689 2,144,316 –929,627 8.3 14.6 –6.3 1.157 1.045 1.534 59.86 72.42 65.99 2,181,153
2000 146,597,000 1,266,800 2,225,332 –958,532 8.6 15.2 –6.5 1.195 1.089 1.554 58.99 72.25 65.38 2,138,800
2001 145,976,000 1,311,604 2,254,856 –943,252 9.0 15.4 –6.5 1.223 1.124 1.564 58.88 72.16 65.30 2,114,700
2002 145,306,496 1,396,967 2,332,272 –935,305 9.6 16.1 –6.4 1.286 1.189 1.633 58.68 71.90 64.95 1,944,481
2003 144,648,624 1,477,301 2,365,826 –888,525 10.2 16.4 –6.1 1.319 1.223 1.666 58.53 71.85 64.84 1,864,647
2004 144,067,312 1,502,477 2,295,402 –792,925 10.4 15.9 –5.5 1.344 1.253 1.654 58.91 72.36 65.31 1,797,567
2005 143,518,816 1,457,376 2,303,935 –846,559 10.2 16.1 –5.9 1.294 1.207 1.576 58.92 72.47 65.37 1,675,693
2006 143,049,632 1,479,637 2,166,703 –687,066 10.3 15.1 –4.8 1.305 1.210 1.601 60.43 73.34 66.69 1,582,398
2007 142,805,120 1,610,122 2,080,445 –470,323 11.3 14.6 –3.3 1.416 1.294 1.798 61.46 74.02 67.61 1,479,010
2008 142,742,368 1,713,947 2,075,954 –362,007 12.0 14.5 –2.6 1.502 1.372 1.912 61.92 74.28 67.99 1,385,600
2009 142,785,344 1,761,687 2,010,543 –248,856 12.3 14.1 –1.7 1.542 1.415 1.941 62.87 74.79 68.78 1,292,389
2010 142,849,472 1,788,948 2,028,516 –239,568 12.5 14.2 –1.7 1.567 1.439 1.983 63.09 74.88 68.94 1,186,108
2011 142,960,908 1,796,629 1,925,720 –129,091 12.6 13.5 –0.9 1.582 1.442 2.056 64.04 75.61 69.83 1,124,880
2012 143,201,700 1,902,084 1,906,335 –4,251 13.3 13.3 –0.0 1.691 1.541 2.215 64.56 75.86 70.24 1,063,982
2013 143,506,995 1,895,822 1,871,809 24,013 13.3 13.0 0.2 1.707 1.551 2.264 65.14 76.31 70.77 1,012,399
2014[a] 146,090,613 1,942,683 1,912,347 30,336 13.3 13.1 0.2 1.750 1.588 2.318 65.29 76.49 70.93 929,963
2015 146,405,999 1,940,579 1,908,541 32,038 13.3 13.1 0.2 1.777 1.678 2.111 65.92 76.71 71.39 848,180
2016 146,674,541 1,888,729 1,891,015 –2,286 12.9 12.9 –0.0 1.762 1.672 2.056 66.50 77.06 71.87 836,611
2017 146,842,402 1,690,307 1,826,125 –135,818 11.5 12.4 –0.9 1.621 1.527 1.923 67.51 77.64 72.70 779,848
2018 146,830,576 1,604,344 1,828,910 –224,566 10.9 12.5 –1.5 1.579 1.489 1.870 67.75 77.81 72.91 661,045
2019 146,764,655 1,481,074 1,798,307 –317,233 10.1 12.3 –2.2 1.504 1.427 1.754 68.24 78.17 73.34 621,652
2020 146,459,803 1,436,514 2,138,586 –702,072 9.8 14.5 –4.7 1.505 1.433 1.739 66.49 76.43 71.54 553,500
2021 145,864,296 1,398,258 2,441,599 –1,043,341 9.6 16.7 -7.2 1.505 1.436 1.734 65.51 74.51 70.06 490,419
  1. ^ Russian data includes Crimea starting in 2014

Current vital statistics[edit]

Period Live births Deaths Natural increase
January–July 2021 802,827 1,315,310 -512,482
January–July 2022 749,164 1,150,803 (*) -401,639
Difference Decrease -53,663 (−6.7%) Positive decrease -164,506 (-12.5%) Increase +110,843
Source:[2]

(*) The mortality figures for June and July 2022 should be taken with caution. They are respectively 49% and 35% lower than the average of the previous twelve months. The figure for June is lower than for any other month since the dissolution of the USSR.

Immigration[edit]

In 2006, in a bid to compensate for the country's demographic decline, the Russian government started simplifying immigration laws and launched a state program "for providing assistance to voluntary immigration of ethnic Russians from former Soviet republics".[37] In August 2012, as the country saw its first demographic growth since the 1990s, President Putin declared that Russia's population could reach 146 million by 2025, mainly as a result of immigration.[38] New citizenship rules introduced in April 2014 allowing eligible citizens from former Soviet republics to obtain Russian citizenship, have gained strong interest among Russian-speaking residents of those countries (i.e. Russians, Germans, Belarusians and Ukrainians).[39][40]

There are an estimated four million undocumented immigrants from the ex-Soviet states in Russia.[41] In 2012, the Russian Federal Security Service's Border Service stated there had been an increase in undocumented migration from the Middle East and Southeast Asia (Note that these were Temporary Contract Migrants)[42] Under legal changes made in 2012, undocumented immigrants who are caught will be banned from reentering the country for 10 years.[43][44]

Since the collapse of the USSR, most immigrants have come from Ukraine, Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, Azerbaijan, Moldova, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Armenia, Belarus, and China.[45]

Worker migration[edit]

Temporary migrant workers in Russia consists of about 7 million people, most of the temporary workers come from Central Asia, the Balkans and East Asia. Most of them work in the construction, cleaning and in the household industries. They primarily live in cities such as Moscow, Sochi and Blagoveshchensk. The mayor of Moscow said that Moscow cannot do without worker migrants. New laws are in place that require worker migrants to be fluent in Russian, know Russian history and laws. The Russian Opposition and most of the Russian population opposes worker migration. The hate of worker migration has become so severe it has caused a rise in Russian nationalism, and spawned groups like Movement Against Illegal Immigration.[46][47]

Employment and income[edit]

Unemployment, youth ages 15–24
total: 16%. Country comparison to the world: 83rd
male: 15.3%
female: 16.9% (2015 est.)

Health[edit]

Metallurg, a Soviet-era sanatorium in Sochi.[48]

Russia, by constitution, guarantees free, universal health care for all Russian citizens, through a compulsory state health insurance program.[49] The Ministry of Health of the Russian Federation oversees the Russian public healthcare system, and the sector employs more than two million people. Federal regions also have their own departments of health that oversee local administration. A separate private health insurance plan is needed to access private healthcare in Russia.[50]

Russia spent 5.32% of its GDP on healthcare in 2018.[51] Its healthcare expenditure is notably lower than other developed nations.[52] Russia has one of the world's most female-biased sex ratios, with 0.859 males to every female,[14] due to its high male mortality rate.[53] In 2019, the overall life expectancy in Russia at birth was 73.2 years (68.2 years for males and 78.0 years for females),[54] and it had a very low infant mortality rate (5 per 1,000 live births).[55]

The principal cause of death in Russia are cardiovascular diseases.[56] Obesity is a prevalent health issue in Russia; 61.1% of Russian adults were overweight or obese in 2016.[57] However, Russia's historically high alcohol consumption rate is the biggest health issue in the country,[58][59] as it remains one of the world's highest, despite a stark decrease in the last decade.[60] Smoking is another health issue in the country.[61] The country's high suicide rate, although on the decline,[62] remains a significant social issue.[63]

Ethnic groups[edit]

Ethnic groups in Russia
Ethnic groups in Russia of more than 1 million people in 2010
Percentage of ethnic Russians by region in 2010

Russia is a multinational state, with many subnational entities associated with different minorities.[18] There are over 193 ethnic groups nationwide. In the 2010 census, roughly 81% of the population were ethnic Russians, and the remaining 19% of the population were ethnic minorities;[19] while over four-fifths of Russia's population was of European descent—of which the vast majority were Slavs,[20] with a substantial minority of Finnic and Germanic peoples.[21][22] Turkic peoples form a large minority, and are spread around pockets across the vast nation.[64] Various distinct ethnic groups also inhabit the North Caucasus.[65] Other minorities include Mongolian peoples (Buryats and Kalmyks),[66][67] the Indigenous peoples of Siberia,[68] a historical Jewish population,[69] and the Koryo-saram (including Sakhalin Koreans).[70]

According to the United Nations, Russia's immigrant population is the third-largest in the world, numbering over 11.6 million;[23] most of which are from post-Soviet states, mainly Ukrainians.[71] There are 22 republics in Russia, who have their own ethnicities, cultures, and languages. In 13 of them, ethnic Russians constitute a minority:

Languages[edit]

Minority languages across Russia
Altaic and Uralic languages spoken across Russia

Russian is the official and the predominantly spoken language in Russia. It is the most spoken native language in Europe, the most geographically widespread language of Eurasia, as well as the world's most widely spoken Slavic language.[74] Russian is the second-most used language on the Internet after English,[75] and is one of two official languages aboard the International Space Station,[76] as well as one of the six official languages of the United Nations.[74]

Russia is a multilingual nation; approximately 100–150 minority languages are spoken across the country.[77][78] According to the Russian Census of 2002, 142.6 million across the country spoke Russian, 5.3 million spoke Tatar, and 1.8 million spoke Ukrainian.[79] The constitution allows the country's individual republics the right to establish their own state languages in addition to Russian, as well as guarantee its citizens the right to preserve their native language and to create conditions for its study and development.[80] However, various experts have claimed Russia's linguistic diversity is rapidly declining.[81][82]

Religion[edit]

Religion in Russia (2012)[83]

  Unaffiliated Christians (4.1%)
  Other Christians[a] (0.5%)
  Atheists (13%)
  Muslims[b] (6.5%)
  Pagans[c] (1.3%)
  Buddhists (0.5%)
  Other religions[d] (1.1%)
  Undeclared (5.5%)

Russia is a secular state by constitution, and its largest religion is Christianity. It has the world's largest Orthodox population.[84][85] As of a different sociological surveys on religious adherence; between 41% to over 80% of the total population of Russia adhere to the Russian Orthodox Church.[86][87][88] Other branches of Christianity present in Russia include Roman Catholicism (approx. 1%), Baptists, Pentecostals, Lutherans and other Protestant churches (together totalling about 0.5% of the population) and Old Believers.[89][90] There is some presence of Judaism, Buddhism, and Hinduism; pagan beliefs are also present to some extent in remote areas, sometimes syncretized with one of the mainstream religions.

In 2017, a survey made by the Pew Research Center showed that 73% of Russians declared themselves as Christians—out of which 71% were Orthodox, 1% were Catholic, and 2% were Other Christians, while 15% were unaffiliated, 10% were Muslims, and 1% followed other religions.[91] According to various reports, the proportion of Atheists in Russia is between 16% and 48% of the population.[92]

Islam is the second-largest religion in Russia, and it is the traditional religion amongst most peoples of the North Caucasus, and amongst some Turkic peoples scattered along the Volga-Ural region.[93] Buddhists are home to a sizeable population in three Siberian republics: Buryatia, Tuva, Zabaykalsky Krai, and in Kalmykia; the only region in Europe where Buddhism is the most practised religion.[94]

Education[edit]

Moscow State University, the most prestigious educational institution in Russia.[95]

Russia has an adult literacy rate of 99.7%.[96] It grants free education to its citizens under its constitution.[97] The Ministry of Education of Russia is responsible for primary and secondary education, as well as vocational education; while the Ministry of Education and Science of Russia is responsible for science and higher education.[98] Regional authorities regulate education within their jurisdictions within the prevailing framework of federal laws. Russia is among the world's most educated countries, and has the third-highest proportion of tertiary-level graduates in terms of percentage of population, at 62%.[99] It spent roughly 4.7% of its GDP on education in 2018.[100]

Russia has compulsory education for a duration of 11 years, exclusively for children aged 7 to 17–18.[98] Its pre-school education system is highly developed and optional,[101] some four-fifths of children aged 3 to 6 attend day nurseries or kindergartens. Primary school is compulsory for 11 year-olds, starting from age 6 to 7, and leads to a basic general education certificate.[98] An additional two or three years of schooling are required for the secondary-level certificate, and some seven-eighths of Russians continue their education past this level. Admission to an institute of higher education is selective and highly competitive:[97] first-degree courses usually take five years.[102] The oldest and largest universities in Russia are Moscow State University and Saint Petersburg State University.[103] There are ten highly prestigious federal universities across the country. Russia was the world's fifth-leading destination for international students in 2019, hosting roughly 300,000.[104]

Urbanized areas[edit]

Russia is one of the world's most urbanized countries, with roughly 75% of its total population living in urban areas.[14] Moscow, the capital and largest city, has a population estimated at 12.4 million residents within the city limits,[105] while over 17 million residents in the urban area,[106] and over 20 million residents in the metropolitan area.[107] Moscow is among the world's largest cities, being the most populous city entirely within Europe, the most populous urban area in Europe,[106] the most populous metropolitan area in Europe,[107] and also the largest city by land area on the European continent.[108] Saint Petersburg, the cultural capital, is the second-largest city, with a population of roughly 5.4 million inhabitants.[109] Other major urban areas are Yekaterinburg, Novosibirsk, Kazan, Nizhny Novgorod, and Chelyabinsk.

 
Largest cities or towns in Russia
Rank Name Federal subject Pop. Rank Name Federal subject Pop.
Moscow
Moscow
Saint Petersburg
Saint Petersburg
1 Moscow Moscow 13,010,112 11 Rostov-na-Donu Rostov Oblast 1,142,162 Novosibirsk
Novosibirsk
Yekaterinburg
Yekaterinburg
2 Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg 5,601,911 12 Omsk Omsk Oblast 1,125,695
3 Novosibirsk Novosibirsk Oblast 1,633,595 13 Krasnodar Krasnodar Krai 1,099,344
4 Yekaterinburg Sverdlovsk Oblast 1,544,376 14 Voronezh Voronezh Oblast 1,057,681
5 Kazan Tatarstan 1,308,660 15 Perm Perm Krai 1,034,002
6 Nizhny Novgorod Nizhny Novgorod Oblast 1,228,199 16 Volgograd Volgograd Oblast 1,028,036
7 Chelyabinsk Chelyabinsk Oblast 1,189,525 17 Saratov Saratov Oblast 901,361
8 Krasnoyarsk Krasnoyarsk Krai 1,187,771 18 Tyumen Tyumen Oblast 847,488
9 Samara Samara Oblast 1,173,299 19 Tolyatti Samara Oblast 684,709
10 Ufa Bashkortostan 1,144,809 20 Barnaul Altai Krai 630,877

See also[edit]

Census information:

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ In fertility rates, 2.1 and above is a stable population and has been marked blue, 2 and below leads to an aging population and the result is that the population decreases.
  1. ^ Including Old Believers (0.2%), Protestantism (0.2%), and Catholicism (0.1%).
  2. ^ The Sreda Arena Atlas 2012 did not count the populations of two Muslim-majority federal subjects of Russia, namely Chechnya and Ingushetia, which together had a population of nearly 2 million, thus the proportion of Muslims may be slightly underestimated.[83]
  3. ^ The category included Rodnovers accounting for 44%, Hinduists accounting for 0.1%; pagan religions and Siberian Tengrists and shamans account for the rest.[citation needed]
  4. ^ Including Judaism (0.1%) and other unspecified religions.

References[edit]

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Further reading[edit]

  • Gavrilova N.S., Gavrilov L.A. Aging Populations: Russia/Eastern Europe. In: P. Uhlenberg (Editor), International Handbook of the Demography of Aging, New York: Springer-Verlag, 2009, pp. 113–131.
  • Gavrilova N.S., Semyonova V.G., Dubrovina E., Evdokushkina G.N., Ivanova A.E., Gavrilov L.A. Russian Mortality Crisis and the Quality of Vital Statistics. Population Research and Policy Review, 2008, 27: 551–574.
  • Gavrilova, N.S., Gavrilov, L.A., Semyonova, V.G., Evdokushkina, G.N., Ivanova, A.E. 2005. Patterns of violent crime in Russia. In: Pridemore, W.A. (ed.). Ruling Russia: Law, Crime, and Justice in a Changing Society. Boulder, Colorado: Rowman & Littlefield Publ., Inc, 117–145
  • Gavrilova, N.S., Semyonova, V.G., Evdokushkina G.N., Gavrilov, L.A. The response of violent mortality to economic crisis in Russia. Population Research and Policy Review, 2000, 19: 397–419.

External links[edit]