Demographics of Thailand

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Life in Thailand

The demographics of Thailand paint a statistical portrait of the national population. It includes such measures as population density and distribution, ethnicity, educational levels, public health metrics, fertility, economic status, religious affiliation, and other national characteristics.

Population[edit]

Thailand's population (1950-2015).

The 2014 population of Thailand was estimated to be 67,200,000.[1]

Thailand's population is mostly rural. It is concentrated in the rice growing areas of the central, northeastern, and northern regions. Its urban population—principally in greater Bangkok—was 45.7 percent of the total population in 2010 according to National Economic and Social Development Board (NESDB). Accurate statistics are difficult to arrive at, as millions of Thai migrate from rural areas to cities, then return to their place of origin to help with seasonal field work. Officially they have rural residency, but spend most of the year in urban areas.[citation needed]

Thailand's successful government-sponsored family planning program has resulted in a decline in population growth from 3.1 percent in 1960 to around 0.4 percent in 2015.[citation needed] The World Bank forecasts a contraction of the working-age population of about 10 percent between 2010 and 2040.[2]:4,6 In 1970, an average of 5.7 people lived in a Thai household. At the time of the 2010 census, the figure was down to 3.2. Even though Thailand has one of the better social security systems in Asia, the increasing population of elderly people is a challenge for the country.[2][3]

Life expectancy has risen, a reflection of Thailand's efforts to implement effective public health policies. The Thai AIDS epidemic had a major impact on the Thai population. Today, over 700,000 Thai are HIV or AIDS positive, approximately two percent of adult men and 1.5 percent of adult women. Every year, 30,000–50,000 Thai die from HIV or AIDS-related illnesses. Ninety percent of them are ages 20–24, the youngest range of the workforce. It could have been worse. An aggressive public education campaign begun in the early-1990s reduced the number of new HIV infections from 150,000 to 25,000 annually.[citation needed]

Entirely preventable is the leading cause of death among the age cohort under 15 years of age: drowning. A study by the Child Safety Promotion and Injury Prevention Centre of Ramathibodi Hospital revealed that more than 1,400 youths under 15 years old died from drowning each year, or an average four deaths a day, becoming the top cause of deaths of children, even exceeding that of motorbike deaths. Thailand's Disease Control Department estimates that only 23 percent of Thai children under 15 can swim.[4] The Public Health Ministry said that from 2006 to 2015, 10,923 children drowned. Of the 8.3 million children aged 5–14 nationwide, only two million can swim, according to the Public Health Ministry.[5]

The United Nations classifies Thailand as an "aging society" (one-tenth of the population above 60), on track to become an "aged society" (one-fifth of the population above 60) by 2025. The Fiscal Policy Office projects that the number of Thais aged 60-plus will increase from 14 percent in 2016 to 17.5 percent in 2020, 21.2 percent in 2015, and 25.2 percent in 2030.[6] As of 2016 it is estimated that there are 94,000 employees aged 60 years or more in the workforce.[7]

Ethnic groups[edit]

Further information: Ethnic groups in Thailand
Ethnological map of Thailand, 1974

Thailand's ethnic origins are diverse and continue to evolve. The nation's ethnic makeup is obscured by the pressures of Thaification, Thai nationalism, and social pressure, which is intertwined with a caste-like mentality assigning some groups higher social status than others. In its report to the United Nations for the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination, the Thai government officially recognized 62 ethnic communities.[8]:3 Twenty million Central Thai (together with approximately 650,000 Khorat Thai) make up approximately 20,650,000 million (34.1 percent) of the nation's population of 60,544,937[9] at the time of completion of the Mahidol University Ethnolinguistic Maps of Thailand data (1997).[10]

Thailand's report to the UN provided population numbers for mountain peoples and ethnic communities in the northeast. Thus, though over 3.288 million people in the northeast alone could not be categorised, the population and percentages of other ethnic communities c. 1997 are known and constitute minimum populations. In descending order, the largest (equal to or greater than 400,000) are a) 15,080,000 Lao (24.9 percent) consisting of the Thai Lao[11] (14 million) and other smaller Lao groups, namely the Thai Loei (400-500,000), Lao Lom (350,000), Lao Wiang/Klang (200,000), Lao Khrang (90,000), Lao Ngaew (30,000), and Lao Ti (10,000; b) six million Khon Muang (9.9 percent, also called Northern Thais); c) 4.5 million Pak Tai (7.5 percent, also called Southern Thais); d) 1.4 million Khmer Leu (2.3 percent, also called Northern Khmer); e) 900,000 Malay (1.5%); f) 500,000 Ngaw (0.8 percent); g) 470,000 Phu Thai (0.8 percent); h) 400,000 Kuy/Kuay (also known as Suay) (0.7 percent), and i) 350,000 Karen (0.6 percent).[8]:7-13

There is a significant number of Thai-Chinese in Thailand. Chinese origins as evidenced by surname were erased in the 1920s by royal decree. Fourteen percent of Thais may have Chinese origins.[12] Significant intermixing has taken place such that there are few pure ethnic Chinese, and those of partially mixed Chinese ancestry account for as much as a third to a half of the Thai population. Those assigned Thai ethnicity in the census process made up the vast majority of the population in 2010 (95.9 percent); two percent were Burmese, 1.3 percent other, and 0.9 percent unspecified.[13] Thus, the actual ethnosocial and genetic makeup situation is very different from what is officially reported or self-claimed.

The vast majority of the Isan people, one-third of Thailand's population, are ethnic Lao[11] mixed with Khmer blood. They speak the Isan language. Additionally there have been more recent waves of immigration from Vietnam and Cambodia across porous borders due to wars and subsequent poverty over the last few decades, whose immigrants have tried to keep a low profile and blend in.

In more recent years the Isan people began mixing with the rest of the nation as urbanization and mobility increase. Myanmar's numerous ethnic wars between the army and tribes who speak more than 40 languages and control large fiefdoms or states, has led to waves of immigrants seeking refuge or work in Thailand. The makeup of Myanmar nationals is complex and includes, for example, people of Nepali ethnicity who escaped Nepal, entered Myanmar, and then emigrated to Thailand.

Following the 2014 Thai coup d'état, Thailand's Department of Employment released figures showing that 408,507 legal workers from Myanmar, Laos, and Cambodia worked in Thailand. An additional 1,630,279 Myanmar nationals of all ethnicities, 40,546 Laotians, and 153,683 Cambodians were without legal work authorization, but also worked and resided in Thailand.[14] Some 180,000 Cambodians were said to have left Thailand post-coup due to crackdown rumors, indicating government figures were an under count.[15] These statistics are merely a single snapshot and hardly authoritative as there is constant movement and much eluding of authority.

The language of the central Thai population is the educational and administrative language. Other dialects of Thai exist, most notably the Southern Thai language. Several other small Tai (not Thai) groups include the Shan, Lue, and Phu Thai.

Malay- and Yawi-speaking Muslims of the south are another significant minority group (2.3 percent), yet there are a substantial number of ethnic Malays who speak only Thai. Other groups include the Khmer; the Mon, who are substantially assimilated with the Thai, and the Vietnamese.

Smaller mountain-dwelling tribes, such as the Hmong and Mien, as well as the Karen, number about 788,024. Some 300,000 Hmong were to have received citizenship in 2010.[citation needed]

Thailand is also home to more than 200,000 foreigners—retirees, extended tourists, and workers from, for example, Europe, North America, and elsewhere.[16] Asians tend to be guest or technical workers in Thailand. A number of nationals from China are able to physically blend in after learning Thai claiming to be Thai themselves. Significant numbers of Filipinos work in Thailand due to their English-language skills, as well as technical workers from Japan and Korea. Thousands of Japanese also have retired in Thailand. In recent years there has been a large influx of Russian-speaking retirees and extended-stay tourists in the kingdom.

Languages[edit]

Further information: Languages of Thailand

Thailand is dominated by languages of the Southwestern Tai family. Karen languages are spoken along the border with Burma, Khmer is spoken near Cambodia (and previously throughout central Thailand), and Malay in the south near Malaysia.

The Thai hill tribes speak numerous small languages, many Chinese retain varieties of Chinese, and there are half a dozen sign languages. Thailand has 73 living languages.[17]

The following table shows official first languages in Thailand with 400,000 or more speakers according to the Royal Thai Government's 2011 Country Report to the Committee Responsible for the International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination.[8]

Official first languages of Thailand with 400,000 or more speakers[8]
Language Speakers Language Family
Central Thai 20.0 million Tai-Kadai
Lao 15.2 million Tai-Kadai
Kam Mueang 6.0 million Tai-Kadai
Pak Tai 4.5 million Tai-Kadai
Northern Khmer 1.4 million Austroasiatic
Yawi 1.4 million Austronesian
Ngaw 0.5 million Tai-Kadai
Phu Thai 0.5 million Tai-Kadai
Karen 0.4 million Sino-Tibetan
Kuy 0.4 million Austroasiatic

The following table employs 2000 census data. Caution should be exercised with Thai census data on first language. In Thai censuses, the four largest Tai-Kadai languages of Thailand (in order, Central Thai, Isan (majority Lao), Kam Mueang, Pak Tai) are not provided as options for language or ethnic group. People declaring one of these as a first language, including Lao, are assigned to "Thai".[18] This explains the disparity between the two tables. For instance, self-reporting as Lao has been prohibited, due to the prohibition of the Lao ethnonym in the context of describing Thai citizens for approximately one hundred years.[19][20] This was due to the promotion of "Thai" national identity to cement Siamese claims over the Lao city-states of what is now northern and northeast Thailand following the 1893 Franco Siamese War and subsequent threats posed by French Indochina to the Lao tributary states of Siam. The birth of a homogenizing Thai ethnocentric national identity sufficient to begin transforming Siam from an absolute monarchy into a modern nation-state was achieved by assimilating the Lao with this Thai "identity", equivalent to what is now known as the Tai–Kadai_languages, under a "Greater Thai Empire", and can be traced back to at least 1902.[21] This homogenization began affecting the Thai census from 1904 onwards. The 2011 UN report data is therefore more comprehensive and better differentiates between the large Tai-Kadai languages of Thailand. As a country submission to a UN convention ratified by Thailand, it is also arguably more authoritative.

Population of Thailand above the age of 5 by language (UN statistics 2000)[22]
Language Language family No. of speakers
Thai Tai-Kadai 52,325,037
Khmer Austroasiatic 1,291,024
Malay Austronesian 1,202,911
Karen Sino-Tibetan 317,968
Chinese Sino-Tibetan 231,350
Miao Hmong-Mien 112,686
Lahu Sino-Tibetan 70,058
Burmese Sino-Tibetan 67,061
Akha Sino-Tibetan 54,241
English Indo-European 48,202
Tai Tai-Kadai 44,004
Japanese Japonic 38,565
Lawa Austroasiatic 31,583
Lisu Sino-Tibetan 25,037
Vietnamese Austroasiatic 24,476
Yao Hmong-Mien 21,238
Khmu Austroasiatic 6,246
Indian Indo-European 5,598
Haw Yunnanese Sino-Tibetan 3,247
Htin Austroasiatic 2,317
Others 33,481
Unknown 325,134
Total 56,281,538

Religion[edit]

Further information: Religion in Thailand

Theravada Buddhism is the official religion of Thailand. 93.6 percent are estimated to be Buddhist; 4.9 percent Muslim; 1.2 percent Christian; 0.2 percent other; and 0.1 percent have no religion.[13]

In addition to Malay and Yawi speaking Thai and other southerners who are Muslim, the Muslim Cham of Cambodia in recent years began a large scale influx into Thailand. The government permits religious diversity, and other major religions are represented, though there is much social tension, especially in the Muslim south. Spirit worship and animism are widely practiced.

People with disabilities[edit]

According to Thailand's Social Development and Human Security Ministry, about 1.6 million Thais have some form of disability. That amounts to 2.4 percent of the population of 68 million. About half, 48 percent, are physically handicapped. Other disabilities include: hearing loss, 18 percent; visual impairment, 11 percent; mental disorder, seven percent; intellectually challenged, seven percent; autism, 0.54 percent.[23]

Vital statistics[edit]

Year Population[24] Live births Deaths Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000) Total Fertility Rate
1983 1 055 802 252 592 803 210 21.3 5.1 16.2
1984 956 680 225 282 731 398 19.0 4.5 14.5
1985 973 624 225 088 748 536 18.8 4.4 14.4
1986 945 827 218 025 727 802 18.0 4.1 13.9 2.45
1987 884 043 232 968 651 075 16.5 4.3 12.2 2.35
1988 873 842 231 227 642 615 16.0 4.2 11.8 2.26
1989 905 837 246 570 659 267 16.3 4.4 11.9 2.18
1990 956 237 252 512 703 725 17.0 4.5 12.5 2.11
1991 960 556 264 350 696 206 17.0 4.7 12.3 2.06
1992 57,788,965 964 557 275 313 689 244 16.8 4.8 12.0 1.98
1993 58,336,072 957 832 285 731 672 101 16.5 4.9 11.6 1.93
1994 59,095,419 960 248 305 526 654 722 16.3 5.2 11.1 1.89
1995 59,460,382 963 678 324 842 638 836 16.2 5.5 10.7 1.84
1996 60,116,182 994 118 342 645 651 473 15.8 5.7 10.1 1.81
1997 60,816,227 897 604 303 918 593 686 14.8 5.0 9.8 1.77
1998 61,466,178 897 201 310 534 586 667 14.7 5.1 9.6 1.74
1999 61,661,701 754 685 362 607 392 078 12.3 5.9 6.4 1.71
2000 61,878,746 773 009 365 741 407 268 12.5 5.9 6.6 1.68
2001 62,308,887 790 425 369 493 420 932 12.7 6.0 6.7 1.65
2002 62,799,872 782 911 380 364 402 547 12.5 6.1 6.4 1.61
2003 63,079,765 742 183 384 131 358 052 11.8 6.1 5.7 1.59
2004 61,973,621* 813 069 393 592 419 477 13.0 6.3 6.7 1.60
2005 62,418,054 809 485 395 374 414 111 13.0 6.4 6.6 1.56
2006 62,828,706 793 623 391 126 402 497 12.7 6.2 6.5 1.57
2007 63,038,247 797 588 393 255 404 333 12.7 6.3 6.4 1.56
2008 63,389,730 784 256 397 326 386 930 12.4 6.3 6.1 1.53
2009 63,525,062 765 047 393 916 371 131 12.1 6.2 5.9 1.52
2010 63,878,267 761 689 411 331 350 358 12.0 6.5 5.5 1.52
2011 64,076,033 795,031 414,670 380,361 12.4 6.5 5.7 1.53
2012 64,456,695 801,737 415,141 386,596 12.2 6.5 5.7 1.50
2013 64,456,695 748,081 426,065 322,016 11.6 6.6 5.0 1.46
2014 65,124,716 711,081 435,624 275,457 11.9 6.9 5.0 1.41
2015 65,729,098 736,352 456,391 279,961 11.2 6.9 4.3 1.48 1 Sources:[25]:12[26]

Births and deaths[edit]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR1 CDR1 NC1 TFR1 IMR1
1950–1955 940 000 344 000 596 000 42.5 15.6 27.0 6.14 130.3
1955–1960 1 093 000 348 000 745 000 43.0 13.7 29.3 6.14 108.7
1960–1965 1 249 000 353 000 896 000 42.3 12.0 30.3 6.13 90.5
1965–1970 1 386 000 362 000 1 025 000 40.4 10.5 29.8 5.99 75.5
1970–1975 1 371 000 355 000 1 016 000 34.6 8.9 25.6 5.05 63.2
1975–1980 1 297 000 338 000 959 000 28.9 7.5 21.3 3.92 50.4
1980–1985 1 201 000 300 000 901 000 24.1 6.0 18.1 2.95 38.9
1985–1990 1 113 000 266 000 848 000 20.4 4.9 15.5 2.30 29.1
1990–1995 1 050 000 313 000 737 000 18.0 5.4 12.6 1.99 22.6
1995–2000 955 000 373 000 582 000 15.6 6.1 9.5 1.77 18.6
2000–2005 914 000 426 000 488 000 14.1 6.6 7.5 1.68 15.1
2005–2010 872 000 486 000 386 000 12.9 7.2 5.7 1.63 12.4
1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births. Sources:[27]

Total fertility rate (TFR) in Thailand by region and year:[28]

Region 2005-06 1995-96 1985-86
Thailand (total) 1.471 2.022 2.730
Urban 1.033 1.332 1.766
Rural 1.727 2.285 2.962
Bangkok Metropolis 0.878 1.261 1.735
Central Region[29] 1.190 1.664 2.494
Northern Region 1.575 1.894 2.248
Northeastern Region 2.038 2.435 3.096
Southern Region 1.524 2.851 4.049

Population pyramids[30][edit]

Data | The World Bank[edit]

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

total: 74 years (2011)
male: 71 years(2011)
female: 77 years (2011)

Mortality rate, infant (per 1,000 live births)[edit]

11 deaths/1,000 live births (2011)

Mortality rate, under-5 (per 1,000 live births)[edit]

12 deaths/1,000 live births (2011)

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook, unless otherwise indicated.

Population[edit]

The population of Thailand is approximately 67.5 million people, with an annual growth rate of about 0.3 percent. In addition to Thais, it includes ethnic Chinese, Malay, Lao, Burmese, Cambodians, and Indians, among others. The 2010 decennial census revealed a population of 65,981,600 (up from 60,916,441 in 2000). Post-census adjustments are being made to lower reporting errors.

Age structure[edit]

0–14 years: 21.2 percent (male 7,104,776/female 6,781,453)
15–64 years: 70.3 percent (male 22,763,274/female 23,304,793)
65 years and over: 8.5 percent (male 2,516,721/female 3,022,281) (2008 est.)
0–14 years: 19.9 percent (male 6,779,723/female 6,466,625)
15–64 years: 70.9 percent (male 23,410,091/female 23,913,499)
65 years and over: 9.2 percent (male 2,778,012/female 3,372,203) (2011 est.)
0-14 years: 17.41 percent (male 6,062,868/female 5,774,631)
15-24 years: 14.78 percent (male 5,119,387/female 4,927,250)
25-54 years: 46.69 percent (male 15,675,425/female 16,061,864)
55-64 years: 11.26 percent (male 3,600,695/female 4,053,977)
65 years and over: 9.86 percent (male 2,935,703/female 3,764,605) (2015 est.)

According to the UN, the proportion of those over 65 will be 19.5 percent in 2030 and 25 percent by 2040.[31]

Population growth rate[edit]

  • 0.615 percent (2009 est.)
  • 0.566 percent (2011 est.)

Net migration rate[edit]

0 migrants/1,000 population (2011 est.)

Sex ratio[edit]

At birth: 1.06 males/female
Under 15 years: 1.05 males/female
15–64 years: 0.98 males/female
65 years and over: 0.83 males/female
Total population: 0.98 males/female (2009 est.)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

Total population: 73.6 years
Male: 71.24 years
Female: 76.08 years (2011 est.)

Ethnic groups[edit]

The CIA World Factbook lists Thai at 95.9 percent, Burmese 2 percent, others 1.3 percent, unspecified 0.9 percent. While 2 percent Burmese is accurate and reflects mainly illegal migrants, the Thai figure of 95.9 percent figures is not referenced and contradicts more detailed 2011 Royal Thai Government data which suggests ethnic Central Thai 34.1 percent, ethnic Lao[11] 24.9 percent, ethnic Khon Muang 9.9 percent, ethnic Pak Tai 7.4 percent, ethnic Khmer 2.3 percent, ethnic Malay 1.5 percent.[8]

Literacy[edit]

Definition: age 15 and over can read and write
Total population: 92.6 percent
Male: 94.9 percent
Female: 90.5 percent (2002 est.)

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Thailand Population 2014". World Population Review. Retrieved 2 Mar 2015. 
  2. ^ a b Live Long and Prosper; Aging in East Asia and Pacific (PDF). Washington, DC: World Bank. 2016. ISBN 978-1-4648-0470-0. Retrieved 18 January 2016. 
  3. ^ Dombrowski, Katja (2013-10-03). "Modernity has arrived". D+C Development and Cooperation. Retrieved 2015-01-05. 
  4. ^ "More parents send children to learn swimming as drowning topping cause of deaths among youths under 15". ThaiPBS. 2015-03-16. Retrieved 28 Mar 2015. 
  5. ^ "Water tops child killer list". Bangkok Post. 19 July 2016. Retrieved 19 July 2016. 
  6. ^ Paweewun, Oranan; Sirimai, Pawee (11 November 2016). "Resetting the economy". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 12 November 2016. 
  7. ^ Theparat, Chatrudee (15 November 2016). "Somkid presses for Thailand 4.0 labour reforms". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 15 November 2016. 
  8. ^ a b c d e International Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Racial Discrimination; Reports submitted by States parties under article 9 of the Convention: Thailand (PDF) (in English with appended Thai government translation). United Nations Committee on the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. 28 July 2011. Retrieved 8 October 2016. 
  9. ^ World Bank Group. (n.d.). Population, total [Thailand]. Washington, DC: Author. http://data.worldbank.org/indicator/SP.POP.TOTL?locations=TH
  10. ^ Ethnolinguistic Maps of Thailand (PDF) (in Thai). Office of the National Culture Commission. 2004. Retrieved 8 October 2016. 
  11. ^ a b c Draper, John; Kamnuansilpa, Peerasit (2016). "The Thai Lao Question: The Reappearance of Thailand's Ethnic Lao Community and Related Policy Questions". Asian Ethnicity. doi:10.1080/14631369.2016.1258300. Retrieved 23 November 2016. 
  12. ^ Barbara A. West (2009), Encyclopedia of the Peoples of Asia and Oceania, Facts on File, p. 794
  13. ^ a b "EAST & SOUTHEAST ASIA: THAILAND". The World Factbook. CIA. Retrieved 9 October 2016. 
  14. ^ "Junta: No crackdown on foreign workers". The Nation. 2014-06-17. Retrieved 9 October 2016. 
  15. ^ "Thailand, Cambodia to quash 'rumours' after worker exodus". Bangkok Post. Agence France Presse. 2014-06-17. Retrieved 9 October 2016. 
  16. ^ Bickerstaff, Bruce (Feb 2013). "An Attempt to Quantify the Number of Foreigners Living in Thailand". Burning Bison. Retrieved 1 Mar 2015. 
  17. ^ "Thailand". Ethnologue. Retrieved 9 October 2016. 
  18. ^ Luangthongkum, Theraphan. (2007). "The Position of Non-Thai Languages in Thailand". In Lee Hock Guan & L. Suryadinata (eds.), Language, Nation and Development in Southeast Asia (pp. 181-194). Singapore: ISEAS Publishing.
  19. ^ Breazeale, Kennon. (1975). The Integration of the Lao States. PhD dissertation, Oxford University.
  20. ^ Grabowsky, Volker. (1996). "The Thai census of 1904: Translation and analysis". Journal of the Siam Society, 84(1): 49-85.
  21. ^ Streckfuss, D. (1993). "The mixed colonial legacy in Siam: Origins of Thai Racialist Thought, 1890-1910". In L. J. Sears (ed.), Autonomous histories, particular truths: Essays in Honor of John R. W. Smail (pp.123-154). Madison, Wisconsin: University of Wisconsin.
  22. ^ Population by language, sex and urban/rural residence, UNSD Demographic Statistics, United Nations Statistics Division, UNdata, last updated 5 July 2013.
  23. ^ Karnjanatawe, Karnjana (7 November 2016). "Access for All?". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 7 November 2016. 
  24. ^ "Population from Registration Record by Sex, 1988-2012". Statistical Yearbook Thailand 2013. National Statistical Office Thailand. Retrieved 17 Feb 2015. 
  25. ^ Kijsanayotin, Boonchai; Ingun, Pianghatai; Sumputtanon, Kanet (Mar 2003). Review of National Civil Registration and Vital Statistics Systems: A case study of Thailand (PDF). Bangkok: Thai Health Information Standards Development Center (THIS). p. 12. ISBN 978-616-11-1913-3. Retrieved 15 Feb 2015. 
  26. ^ "4. Vital statistics summary and life expectancy at birth: 2010-2014" (PDF). UNstats. United Nations. Retrieved 26 January 2016. 
  27. ^ Population Division of the Department of Economic and Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects: The 2010 Revision Archived May 6, 2011, at the Wayback Machine.. Esa.un.org (2014-04-14). Retrieved on 2014-06-21.
  28. ^ http://web.nso.go.th/en/survey/popchan/data/Summary%20Results.pdf
  29. ^ excluding Bangkok
  30. ^ "Demographic Yearbook". UN Data. United Nations. Retrieved 4 December 2015. 
  31. ^ Mala, Dumrongkiat (2016-05-28). "Prawase calls for care of ageing society". Bangkok Post. Retrieved 28 May 2016. 

External links[edit]