Demographics of Tajikistan

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Tajikistan: Population and rural population 1958-2005 (millions). State Statistical Committee, Dushanbe, yearbooks from various years.
Tajik man in traditional headgear (2005)
A Tajik woman and her son

The Demographics of Tajikistan is about the demographic features of the population of Tajikistan, including population growth, population density, ethnicity, education level, health, economic status, religious affiliations, and other aspects of the population.

Demographic trends[edit]

Tajikistan's main ethnic group are the Tajiks, with minorities such as the Uzbeks and Kyrgyz, and a small Russian minority. Because not everyone in Tajikistan is an ethnic Tajik, the non-Tajik citizens of the country are referred to as Tajikistani. The official nationality of any person from Tajikistan is a Tajikistani, while the ethnic Tajik majority simply call themselves Tajik.

Contemporary Tajiks are an Iranian people. In particular, they are descended from ancient Eastern Iranian peoples of Central Asia, such as the Soghdians and the Bactrians, with an admixture of Western Iranian Persians as well as non-Iranian peoples.[1]

Until the 20th century, people in the region used two types of distinction to identify themselves: way of life - either nomadic or sedentary - and place of residence. By the late nineteenth century, the Tajik and Uzbek peoples, who had lived in proximity for centuries and often used each other's languages, did not perceive themselves as two distinct nationalities. The modern labels were imposed artificially when Central Asia was divided into five Soviet republics in the 1920s.[1] With the formation of five Central Asian republics under the USSR, many Tajiks were forced to sign themselves as Uzbek to avoid persecution in current Uzbekistan[citation needed].

Historically, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan were also home to Bukharan Jews, who trace their ancestry to the Lost Tribes of Israel taken captive by the Babylonians in the 7th century BC, but almost no Bukharian Jews are left in Tajikistan.[2]

Vital statistics[edit]

UN estimates[3][edit]

Period Live births per year Deaths per year Natural change per year CBR1 CDR1 NC1 TFR1 IMR1
1950-1955 74 000 20 000 54 000 44.7 12.2 32.5 6.00 160.0
1955-1960 89 000 26 000 63 000 46.1 13.4 32.7 6.20 151.1
1960-1965 111 000 30 000 81 000 48.5 13.1 35.3 6.30 142.3
1965-1970 110 000 30 000 80 000 40.5 11.1 29.4 6.72 133.4
1970-1975 127 000 30 000 97 000 39.7 9.4 30.3 6.83 124.6
1975-1980 138 000 33 000 105 000 37.2 8.9 28.4 5.90 115.7
1980-1985 164 000 34 000 130 000 38.6 8.0 30.6 5.54 106.9
1985-1990 198 000 34 000 164 000 40.2 7.0 33.2 5.41 98.0
1990-1995 206 000 52 000 154 000 37.2 9.4 27.7 4.88 88.2
1995-2000 195 000 49 000 146 000 32.7 8.2 24.5 4.29 79.6
2000-2005 185 000 45 000 140 000 29.4 7.1 22.2 3.81 63.0
2005-2010 187 000 43 000 144 000 28.1 6.4 21.6 3.45 56.0
1 CBR = crude birth rate (per 1000); CDR = crude death rate (per 1000); NC = natural change (per 1000); TFR = total fertility rate (number of children per woman); IMR = infant mortality rate per 1000 births

Official statistics[edit]

Births and deaths[4][5][edit]

Average population (x 1000) Live births in thousands Deaths in thousands Natural change Crude birth rate (per 1000) Crude death rate (per 1000) Natural change (per 1000)
1950 1531,7 46,571 12,543 34,028 30.4 8.2 22.2
1951 1586,8 48,407 12,384 36,023 30.5 7.8 22.7
1952 1642,5 54,931 12,562 42,369 33.4 7.6 25.8
1953 1685,8 54,697 14,530 40,167 32.4 8.6 23.8
1954 1731,7 56,946 13,045 43,901 32.9 7.5 25.4
1955 1782,8 60,335 15,812 44,523 33.8 8.9 25.0
1956 1838,4 62,960 10,894 52,066 34.2 5.9 28.3
1957 1900,4 62,966 10,838 52,128 33.1 5.7 27.4
1958 1955,0 56,826 11,548 45,278 29.1 5.9 23.2
1959 2011,4 60,978 11,024 49,954 30.3 5.5 24.8
1960 2082,5 69,715 10,670 59,045 33.5 5.1 28.4
1961 2165,9 73,653 11,035 62,618 34.0 5.1 28.9
1962 2255,9 75,909 13,001 62,908 33.6 5.8 27.8
1963 2341,8 80,733 13,042 67,691 34.5 5.6 28.9
1964 2426,1 84,300 13,132 71,168 34.7 5.4 29.3
1965 2512,4 92,448 16,474 75,974 36.8 6.6 30.2
1966 2594,2 91,825 15,491 76,334 35.4 6.0 29.4
1967 2673,8 93,988 17,546 76,442 35.2 6.6 28.6
1968 2761,0 101,462 16,577 84,885 36.7 6.0 30.7
1969 2851,5 98,831 17,390 81,441 34.7 6.1 28.6
1970 2942,1 102,201 18,686 83,515 34.8 6.4 28.4
1971 3044,4 111,839 17,173 94,666 36.8 5.7 31.1
1972 3148,2 111,069 19,895 91,174 35.3 6.3 29.0
1973 3244,4 115,157 23,343 91,814 35.5 7.2 28.3
1974 3344,8 123,338 24,923 98,415 36.9 7.5 29.4
1975 3446,6 127,464 27,965 99,499 37.0 8.1 28.9
1976 3549,3 135,243 30,101 105,142 38.2 8.5 29.7
1977 3652,9 132,875 32,110 100,765 36.4 8.8 27.6
1978 3752,7 140,622 31,048 109,574 37.5 8.3 29.2
1979 3852,2 145,431 29,822 115,609 37.8 7.7 30.1
1980 3954,5 146,422 31,830 114,592 37.0 8.0 29.0
1981 4060,4 155,508 31,637 123,871 38.3 7.8 30.5
1982 4173,2 159,571 32,053 127,518 38.2 7.7 30.5
1983 4293,1 164,710 32,553 132,157 38.3 7.6 30.7
1984 4419,9 176,197 32,872 143,325 39.8 7.4 32.4
1985 4558,1 182,716 32,014 150,702 40.0 7.0 33.0
1986 4707,9 198,647 31,993 166,654 42.1 6.8 35.3
1987 4861,6 204,450 33,543 170,907 41.9 6.9 35.0
1988 5013,0 201,864 35,334 166,530 40.2 7.0 33.2
1989 5165,9 200,430 33,395 167,035 38.7 6.5 32.3
1990 5302,4 205,813 33,020 172,793 38.8 6.2 32.6
1991 5433,3 212,598 33,067 179,531 39.1 6.1 33.0
1992 5536,4 179,534 36,718 142,816 32.4 6.6 25.8
1993 5573,4 186,504 49,326 137,178 33.5 8.9 24.6
1994 5606,8 191,596 39,943 151,653 34.2 7.1 27.0
1995 5667,7 193,182 34,274 158,908 34.1 6.0 28.0
1996 5735,3 172,341 31,792 140,549 30.0 5.5 24.5
1997 5822,5 178,127 28,710 149,417 30.6 4.9 25.7
1998 5938,6 185,733 27,397 158,336 31.3 4.6 26.7
1999 6064,1 180,888 25,495 155,393 29.8 4.2 25.6
2000 6196,5 167,246 29,387 137,859 27.0 4.7 22.3
2001 6317,9 171,623 32,015 139,608 27.2 5.1 22.1
2002 6429,2 175,599 31,142 144,457 27.3 4.8 22.4
2003 6543,0 177,938 33,185 144,753 27.1 5.1 22.0
2004 6658,9 179,563 29,741 149,822 26.8 4.4 22.3
2005 6780,6 180,790 31,520 149,270 26.4 4.6 21.8
2006 6903,9 186,463 31,990 154,473 26.7 4.6 22.1
2007 7031,2 200,010 33,686 166,324 28.1 4.7 23.3
2008 7173,8 203,332 31,996 171,336 27.9 4.4 23.5
2009 7334,1 199,826 32,332 167,504 26.8 4.3 22.5
2010 7519,3 239,805 33,343 206,462 31.7 4.4 27.3
2011 7714,2 224,178 33,855 190,323 29.1 4.4 24.7
2012 7897,3 219,281 33,972 185,309 27.8 4.3 23.5
2013 8074,3 209,417 31,706 177,711 25.9 3.9 22.0
2014 8246.0 210,556 52,859 157,697 25.5 6.4 19.1

Fertility Rate (The Demographic Health Survey) [6][edit]

Fertility Rate (TFR) (Wanted Fertility Rate) and CBR (Crude Birth Rate):

Year CBR (Total) TFR (Total) CBR (Urban) TFR (Urban) CBR (Rural) TFR (Rural)
2012 33,9 3,8 (3,3) 28,9 3,3 (2,9) 35,6 3,9 (3,4)

Ethnic groups[edit]

Young Tajik women

Tajik 79.9%, Uzbek 16.5%, Russian 1.1% (declining because of emigration), Kyrgyz 1.1%, other (including Pashtuns, Bukharian Jews and Volga Germans) 2.6% (2000 population census).

Ethnic makeup according to the population censuses from 1926 to 2000 (in thousands)[7][8][9]
Note: The category Tajiks also includes approximately 135,000 ethnic Pamiris, of which 65% are Shughni speakers, 13% are Rushani speakers, 12% speak Wakhi, 5% are Bartangi speakers, 3% are Yazgulyami speakers, 1.5% speak Khufi, and 0.8% are Ishkashimi speakers. In addition there are 5,000 speakers of Yagnobi. According to the 2000 census, excluding the people whose native languages are Pamiri or Yagnobi, Tajiks account for 77.6% of the population.

Population of Tajikistan according to ethnic group 1926–2000
Ethnic
group
census 19261 census 19392 census 19593 census 19704 census 19795 census 19896 census 2000 census 20108
Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  % Number  %
Tajiks 617,125 74.6 883,966 59.5 1,051,164 53.1 1,629,920 56.2 2,237,048 58.8 3,172,420 62.3 4,898,400 79.9 6,373,834 84.3
Yagnobi 1,829 0.2
Uzbeks 175,627 21.2 353,478 23.8 454,433 23.0 665,662 23.0 873,199 22.9 1,197,841 23.5 1,012,5007 16.5 1,046,6479 13.8
Kyrgyz 11,410 1.4 27,968 1.9 25,635 1.3 35,485 1.2 48,376 1.3 63,832 1.3 65,500 1.1 60,715 0.8
Russians 5,638 0.7 134,916 9.1 262,610 13.3 344,109 11.9 395,089 10.4 388,481 7.6 68,200 1.1 34,838 0.5
Turkmen 4,148 0.5 4,040 0.3 7,115 0.4 11,043 0.4 13,991 0.4 20,487 0.4 20,300 0.3 15,171 0.2
Tatars 950 0.1 18,296 1.2 56,893 2.9 70,803 2.4 79,529 2.1 79,442 1.6 19,000 0.3 6,495 0.1
Arabs 3,260 0.4 2,290 0.2 1,297 0.1 248 0.0 176 0.0 276 0.0 14,500 0.2 4,184 0.1
Others 7,180 0.9 60,137 4.0 120,750 6.1 142,332 4.9 158,812 4.2 169,824 3.3 29,100 0.5 22,618 0.3
Total 827,167 1,485,091 1,979,897 2,899,602 3,806,220 5,092,603 6,127,500 7,564,502
1 Source: [1]. 2 Source: [2]. 3 Source: [3]. 4 Source: [4]. 5 Source: [5]. 6 Source: [6] 7 including 51,000 Lakai, 15,100 Kongrat, 4,900 Katagan, 3,700 Barlos and 1,100 Yuz. 8 Source: [7], p. 7. 9 including 65,555 Lakai, 38,078 Kongrat, 7,601 Katagan, 5,271 Barlos and 3,798 Yuz .

Languages[edit]

Several dialects of Tajik (a variety of the Persian) are spoken, and it is the official language.[10] Russian is widely used in both government and business. The different ethnic minorities speak different languages, for instance Uzbek, Kyrgyz and Khowar.[11] In the Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Province, Shughni as well as other Pamir languages are spoken. In the northern Yaghnob valley, the Yaghnobi language is still spoken.

Religions[edit]

A religious scholar from Tajikistan (2005)

According to a 2009 U.S. State Department release, the population of Tajikistan is 90% Muslim, (approximately 85% Sunni and 5% Shia).[12] The remaining 10% of the population are followers of Russian Orthodoxy, or followers of other Christian churches (Roman Catholics, Seventh-day Adventists and Baptists). There also was a small Armenian minority, and a number of Zoroastrians. There are a small number of adherents to Bahá'í Faith and Judaism.

CIA World Factbook demographic statistics[edit]

For the latest statistics, see this country's entry in the CIA World Factbook

The following demographic statistics are from the CIA World Factbook as of September 2009, unless otherwise indicated.

Population[edit]

7,349,145 (2009 est.)

8,610,000 (2015) [13]

Age structure[edit]

0–14 years: 34.3% (male 1,282,681/female 1,238,607)
15–64 years: 62.1% (male 2,260,552/female 2,303,034)
65 years and over: 3.6% (male 112,334/female 151,937) (2009 est.)

Population growth rate[edit]

1.88% (2009 est.)

Net migration rate[edit]

-1.28 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2009 est.)

Sex ratio[edit]

at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
under 15 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15–64 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.74 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2009 est.)

Life expectancy at birth[edit]

total population: 65.33 years
male: 62.29 years
female: 68.52 years (2009 est.)

Education[edit]

Education is required through high school (12 years of schooling) but completion rate is under 90%;

Literacy[edit]

definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.5%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.2% (2000 census)

See also[edit]

References[edit]

External links[edit]