List of GM engines
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This is a list of engines either produced by General Motors or used in its products.
- 1 Divisions
- 2 Automotive gasoline engines
- 3 Automotive diesel engines
- 4 Truck engines
- 5 Locomotive engines
- 6 Marine Engines
- 7 Aircraft engines
- 8 Industrial engines
- 9 See also
- 10 References
Until the mid-1970s, most General Motors brands designed and manufactured their own engines with few interchangeable parts between brands. In the mid-1960s, there were 8 separate families of GM V8 engines on sale in the USA.
By the 1970s, GM began to see problems with this approach. For instance, four different North American divisions (Chevrolet, Pontiac, Oldsmobile and Buick) offered four completely different versions of a 350 cu in V8 engine - very few parts would interchange between the four designs despite their visual similarities, resulting in confusion for owners who (quite naturally) assumed that replacement parts would be usable across the board. In addition to these issues and the obvious overlap in production costs, the cost of certifying so many different engines for tightening worldwide emissions regulations threatened to become very costly.
Thus, by the early 1980s, GM had consolidated its powertrain engineering efforts into a few distinct lines. Generally, North American and European (Opel) engineering units remained separate, with Australia's Holden and other global divisions borrowing designs from one or the other as needed. GM also worked out sharing agreements with other manufacturers like Isuzu and Nissan to fill certain gaps in engineering. Similarly, the company also purchased other automotive firms (like Saab and Daewoo), eventually folding their engine designs into the corporate portfolio as well.
GM´s German subsidiary, Adam Opel AG, relies on a range of 3, 4 and 6 cylinder petrol and diesel engines. A survey of their range shows a reliance on petrol and diesel 4´s, though as of 2014 there is only one 3-cylinder engine and one 6 cylinder engine in service in Opel´s passenger car range.
In addition to automobile and truck engines, GM produced industrial engines, which were sold by brands such as Detroit Diesel, Allison, and Electro-Motive. Most of these engine designs were unrelated to GM's automotive engines.
Automotive gasoline engines
- 1998-2011 Daewoo M-TEC/S-TEC straight-3 (acquired with purchase of Daewoo Motors)
- 1984–present Suzuki G engine straight-3 (designed and built by Suzuki, used in several GM vehicles)
- 1996–present GM Family 0 straight-3 (marketed as "ECOtec")
- 2013–present Small Gasoline engine straight-3 (marketed as "ECOTec")
- 1905-1914 Cadillac Model D side-valve straight-4 (acquired as part of the founding of GM)
- 1906-1923 Oldsmobile Model S straight-4 (acquired as part of the founding of GM)
- 1906-1918 Buick Model D straight-4 (T-head, the only non-OHV Buick engine ever made)
- 1922-1924 Buick Series 30 OHV 170 cu in (2.8 L) straight-4
- 1909 Oakland Model 40 straight-4 (acquired as part of the founding of GM)
- 1913-1928 Chevrolet inline-4 (acquired as part of Chevrolet's merger into GM)
- 1923 Chevrolet Series M Copper-Cooled |
- 1937-1965 Opel Olympia OHV straight-4
- 1960-1963 Pontiac Indy 4 straight-4 (derived from the Pontiac V8)
- 1961-1970 Chevrolet 153 straight-4 (derived from the Chevrolet six)
- 1962-1993 Opel OHV (also known as "Kadett engine") straight-4
- 1963-1983 Vauxhall Viva OHV straight-4
- 1965-1994 Opel CIH (Cam In Head, but not OHC) Engine straight-4
- 1966-1988 Vauxhall Slant-4 engine
- 1970-1977 GM 2300 aluminium block straight-4 (built by Chevrolet)
- 1976-1993 Iron Duke straight-4 (built by Pontiac)
- 1979-1986 Starfire straight-4 (built by Holden)
- 1976-1986 Isuzu G161 SOHC straight-4 (used in the Chevrolet Chevette)
- 1980–present Family II SOHC/DOHC straight-4 (designed by Opel)
- 1981-2003 GM 122 (marketed as Vortec 2200 in truck models) straight-4
- 1981-2009 Saab H straight-4 (acquired as part of Saab's merger into GM)
- 1982–present Family 1 SOHC/DOHC straight-4 (designed by Opel)
- 1987-2001 Quad 4 DOHC straight-4 (produced by Oldsmobile)
- 1989-1997 Toyota A engine Inline 4 (4A-GE/4A-FE, Found in the Geo Prizm)
- 1989–2011 Subaru EJ flat-4 (used in the Saab 9-2X)
- 1990-2002 Saturn I4 SOHC/DOHC straight-4
- 1996–present Family 0 (marketed as "ECOTec") DOHC straight-4 (designed by Opel)
- 2000–present L850 engine (marketed as "ECOTec") DOHC straight-4 (designed jointly by Opel, SAAB, and GM Powertrain)
- 2003-2008 Toyota ZZ engine DOHC Inline 4 (Found in the 1st Gen Pontiac Vibe)
- 2009-2010 Toyota ZR engine DOHC Inline 4 (Found in the 2nd Gen Pontiac Vibe)
- 2009-2010 Toyota AZ engine DOHC Inline 4 (Found in the 2nd Gen Pontiac Vibe)
- 2002–present Daewoo S-TEC SOHC/DOHC straight-4 (acquired as part of Daewoo's merger into GM)
- 2003–2012 Atlas (marketed as "Vortec") DOHC straight-4 (used in GM trucks)
- 2012–present Medium Gasoline (marketed as "ECOTec") DOHC straight-4 (designed by Opel)
- 2013–present Small Gasoline (marketed as "ECOTec") DOHC straight-4 (designed by Opel)
- Suzuki G engine - Chevrolet Tracker
- Suzuki J engine - Chevrolet Tracker
- Isuzu X engine - Geo Storm
- 1908-1912 Oldsmobile Limited straight-6 (acquired as part of the founding of GM)
- 1913-1923 Oakland Series 60 straight-6
- 1913-1915 Oldsmobile Series 50 straight-6
- 1914-1916 Buick Series 50 straight-6
- 1916-1923 Buick Series 40 straight-6
- 1916-1927 Oldsmobile Series 30 straight-6
- 1923-1930 Buick Removable-Head straight-6
- 1923-1928 Oakland straight-6
- 1926-1927 Pontiac Split-Head straight-6 (also modified for GMC Truck models)
- 1928–1936 Chevrolet Stovebolt straight-6
- 1928-1950 Oldsmobile F-Series straight-6 (also used in Buick Marquette)
- 1928–1954 Pontiac GMR straight-6 (also modified for GMC Truck models)
- 1930-1966 Opel straight-6 (as used in the Opel Kapitän)
- 1936–1962 Chevrolet Blue Flame straight-6 (also used in some GMC Truck models)
- 1939–1962 GMC Truck straight-6
- 1948-1962 Holden Grey straight-6
- 1960-1969 Chevrolet Corvair turbocharged flat-6 (marketed as "Turbo-Air"). It was the second production engine ever to be equipped from the factory with a turbocharger. Non-turbo versions with 2 or 4 carburetors (standard and Hi-perf).
- 1962–2001 Chevrolet Generation 3 straight-6
- 1963–1969 Pontiac Tempest straight-6 (derived from the Chevrolet Generation 3 straight-6)
- 1963-1980 Holden Red straight-6
- 1966-1993 Opel CIH straight-6
- 1977–2013 Chevrolet 90-Degree V6 engine (derived from the Chevrolet Small-Block" V8; now marketed as GM Vortec V6)
- 1979–2010 GM 60-Degree V6
- 1980-1984 Holden Blue straight-6
- 1984-1986 Holden Black fuel injected straight-6
- 1986-1988 Nissan RB30 straight-6 (used in Holden VL Commodore
- 1994-2005 GM 54-Degree L-81 V6 (used in the Saturn Vue, Cadillac Catera and Saturn L series)
- 1995–present Suzuki H V6 (used in several models built for GM by Suzuki)
- 2004–2008 Honda J V6 (used in the Saturn Vue)
- 1998-2002 Northstar LX5 V6
- 1999-2011 Daewoo XK straight-6 (marketed as "E-TEC", used in Daewoo Magnus, via GM's purchase of Daewoo Motor)
- 2001–2009 Atlas straight-6 (marketed as "Vortec")
- 2003–2011 GM High Value V6
- 2004–present GM High Feature V6
- 2014–present GM EcoTec3 V6 (derived from 2014 LT1 V8 engine; referred as Generation V)
From the 1950s through the 1970s, each GM division had its own V8 engine family. Today, there are only two families of V8 engines in production for road vehicles: the Generation IV small-block and its Generation V small-block derivative.
- 1914-1935 Cadillac Type 51 V8 (also used in LaSalle models)
- 1915-1917 Oakland Model 50 V8
- 1915-1923 Oldsmobile Model 40 V8
- 1917-1918 Chevrolet Series D V8 (acquired as part of Chevrolet's merger into GM)
- 1929-1931 Viking V8
- 1930-1932 Oakland V8 (used in Pontiac models during the final year)
- 1930-1936 Buick straight-8
- 1932-1948 Oldsmobile straight-8
- 1932-1954 Pontiac Silver Streak straight-8
- 1934-1936 LaSalle straight-8
- 1935-1948 Cadillac Series 60 V8 (also used in LaSalle models)
- 1936-1953 Buick Fireball straight-8
- 1948-1967 Cadillac OHV V8
- 1948-1990 Oldsmobile Rocket V8
- 1952-1980 Buick Fireball V8
- 1954-2003 Chevrolet "Small-Block" V8 (originally "Turbo-Fire", now referred to as "GM Generation I")
- 1954-1980 Pontiac V8 (also modified for GMC Truck models)
- 1958-1965 Chevrolet W V8 (also referred to as "Turbo-Thrust")
- 1961-1963 GM Aluminum V8 (now better known as the Rover V8 and also the Repco V8 Formula One engine)
- 1965-2009 Chevrolet Big-Block V8 (originally "Turbo-Jet")
- 1966-1970s GMC Truck V8 (derived from the GMC V6)
- 1967-1984 Cadillac New V8
- 1969-1984 Holden 253 V8
- 1969-2000 Holden 308 V8 (known as "Holden 304" from 1985)
- 1981-1995 Cadillac HT V8
- 1990-1995 Chevrolet LT5 (exclusive to the ZR-1 model of the Chevrolet Corvette)
- 1991–2010 Northstar V8; also includes Oldsmobile Aurora V8)
- 1992-1997 GM LT V8 (also referred to as Generation II)
- 1997–present GM small-block V8 (referred to as Generation III, IV, V depending on type)
- 1930-1937 Cadillac Twelve (derived from the Cadillac Sixteen)
- 1960s-1966 GMC Twin Six (derived from the GMC V6)
Automotive diesel engines
- 1970-1977 2.1 liter Opel engine
- 1975-1981 2.0 liter Opel engine
- 1982-1988 Family II 1.6 liter (16DA/16D) Opel engine
- 1982-1993 2.3 liter (23YD/23YDT/23DTR) Opel engine 
- 1982-2000 Isuzu E engine 1.5 and 1.7 liter engine marketed as D or TD for Opel/Isuzu cars
- 1990–2014 Isuzu Circle L (marketed as Ecotec DTI, DI or CDTI; acquired via GMs 2003 takeover of DMAX)
- 1996–2005 2.0 and 2.2 liter SOHC 16V (X20DTL/X20DTH/Y20DTL/Y20DTH/X22DTL/X22DTH/Y22DTL/Y22DTH/Y22DTR) Opel engine marketed as Ecotec DTI, Ecotec DI
- 2003–present 1.3 Multijet engine (marketed as Ecotec CDTI or Ecotec depending on brand; used via a sharing agreement between Fiat and Opel)
- 2003-2010 VM Motori RA 420 (marketed as Ecotec 2.0 CDTI or 2.0 VCDi depending on brand)
- 2004–2009 1.9 JTD engine (marketed as Ecotec 1.9 CDTI or 1.9 TiD/TTiD depending on brand; used via a sharing agreement between Fiat and Opel)
- 2008–present GM Family B marketed as 2.0 CDTI
- 2011–present Family Z marketed as 2.0, 2.2 VCDi and 2.2 CDTI
- 2012–present 2.5 and 2.8 liter inline 4 Duramax Diesels
- 2013–present GM Medium Diesel engine marketed as 1.6 CDTI Ecotec
- 2014–present GM Large Diesel engine marketed as 2.0 CDTI Ecotec
- 1980s-present Detroit Diesel 60 inline-6
- 1982-1985 Oldsmobile V6 Diesel 4.3L in FWD and RWD versions (This is the lesser known counterpart to the infamous Oldsmobile 350 diesel.)
- 1994-2003 2.5 liter (Opel marked X25DT, U25DT, Y25DT) inline-6 BMW diesel engine (BMW marked as M51 engine)
- 2002–present DMAX V6 (acquired via GMs 2003 takeover of DMAX)
- 1977-1985 Oldsmobile Diesel engine
- 1982–present Detroit Diesel V8 6.2L and 6.5L (6.5L engines are still in production by AM General for use in Humvee's and various marine applications)
- 2001–present DMAX Duramax V8 (acquired via GMs 2003 takeover of DMAX)
- Cleveland Diesel Engine Division used in many USN submarines made in the late 1930s thru the early 1950s.
- GM 16-184 X-16 pancake diesel
- GM 16-388 X-16 pancake diesel
- GM 16-248 V-16 2 stroke diesel
- GM 16-278 V-16 2 stroke diesel
- Allison 578-DX
- 1953-1955 Allison T40
- 1954–present Allison T56 (also known as "501-D" and a Rolls-Royce product)
- 1960s-present Allison 250 (also known as a Rolls-Royce product)
- 1944-1959 Allison J33 (originally developed by General Electric and transferred to GM for production)
- 1946-1955 Allison J35 (originally developed by General Electric and transferred to GM for production)
- 1948-1958 Allison J71
GM diesels stem from the acquisition of Winton Engine Corporation in 1930. Winton was based in Cleveland, and initial production continued in that city. These were mid-sized engines. The main customer of Winton was the Electro Motive Corporation, the pioneering producer of diesel-electric locomotives. GM acquired Electro Motive at roughly the same time as Winton. These two companies were merged to become the Electro Motive Division (EMD) of GM in 1941, which was responsible for locomotive production and engine design. A further division, the Cleveland Diesel Engine Division, was responsible for submarine, marine and stationary versions of the EMD engines. Finally, in 1937 GM set up a third diesel division in Detroit, the Detroit Diesel Engine Division. The Electro Motive Division was responsible for mid- and large-displacement engines (over 150 cubic inches per cylinder) while the Detroit Diesel Division was responsible for small-displacement engines (50 through 149 cubic inches displacement). The Canadian market was served by a single company, General Motors Diesel, which produced versions of the EMD and Detroit engines.
- 1920-1939 Winton 201-A (industrial engine; acquired via GMs 1930 purchase of Winton Engine and Electro-Motive)
- 1938-1966 EMD 567 (industrial engine)
- 1965-1980s EMD 645 (industrial engine)
- 1938-1995 GM Diesel Series 71 (now better known as a Detroit Diesel product)
- 1945-1965 GM Diesel Series 110
- 1950-1955 GM Diesel Series 51
- 1957-1990s GM Diesel Series 53
- 1960s-1970s GMC Toro-Flow (derived from the GMC V6)
- 1960s-1980s GM Diesel Series 149 (now better known as a Detroit Diesel product)
- 1974–present Detroit Diesel Series 92
- 1984–present EMD 710 (industrial engine)
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- GM Global Propulsion Systems
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- "New Diesels Power Chevy's Global Midsize Trucks". media.opel.de. 2011-10-15. Retrieved 2014-02-05.
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