Buick

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This article is about the car brand. For the Scottish name, see Buick (name). For the Sawyer Brown album, see Buick (album).
Buick Motor Division
Division
Industry Automotive
Founded Buick Auto-Vim and Power Company
1899
Buick Motor Company
May 19, 1903; 113 years ago (1903-05-19)
Founder David Dunbar Buick
Headquarters Detroit, Michigan, United States
Area served
United States, Canada, Mexico, China
Products Automobiles
Services
  • Vehicle financing
  • Vehicle service and parts
Owner General Motors
(1908–present)
Website buick.com

Buick (/ˈbjɪk/), formally the Buick Motor Division, is an upscale automobile brand of the American manufacturer General Motors (GM). For much of its existence in the North American market, Buick has been marketed as a premium automobile brand, selling luxury vehicles positioned above GM's mainstream brands, e.g. Chevrolet, while below the flagship luxury Cadillac division.

Buick retains the distinction of being the oldest active American marque of automobile, and the original Buick Motor Company was a cornerstone of the establishment of General Motors in 1908. Before the establishment of General Motors, GM founder William C. Durant served as Buick's general manager, while his friend Louis Chevrolet worked as a racing driver for Buick and later learned automotive design working there.

Buick-branded vehicles are sold in the United States, Canada, Mexico, China and Taiwan. In 2015, Buick sold 1,231,941 vehicles, a record for the brand.[1] Since restructuring in 2009, GM has also started to share technology, vehicles and development between Buick and GM's European Opel division.[2][3] Buick-branded vehicles are also known for reliability, ranking in the top ten for reliability in Consumer Reports' brand reliability rankings.[4]

History[edit]

Early years[edit]

Buick, founded in 1899 in Jackson, Michigan, is one of the oldest automobile brands in the world and the oldest in America. (Autocar, originally an automobile maker but currently strictly a heavy truck maker, and Oldsmobile, a now defunct early auto maker owned by GM, were both founded in 1897. Studebaker was founded in 1852, but didn't begin producing automobiles until 1902; Ford produced his first car in 1896 but did not start the Ford Motor Co. until 1903, and during the period in between was involved with other automobile manufacturers such as Cadillac). It was founded by David Dunbar Buick as the Buick Auto-Vim and Power Company, an internal combustion engine manufacturer.

Valve-In-Head engine, illustration from 1904 patent, Buick Manufacturing Company

The first two Buick automobiles were made in 1899 and 1900 by Buick chief-engineer Walter Marr,[5] but David Buick was reluctant to begin making automobiles, being satisfied with stationary and marine engine production, so Marr left Buick in 1901 to found his own automobile company under his own name. His replacement was Eugene Richard, who applied for a patent in 1902 for the valve-in-head engine, which patent, number 771,095, was awarded to Richard in the name of Buick in 1904.[5] This was the world's first overhead valve internal combustion engine, although it was called "valve-in-head" because the cylinders were horizontal so the valves were not actually "overhead." In 1903, the third Buick automobile was made, this time by Richard, but in 1904 Buick moved to Flint, Michigan, and Richard stayed behind. Marr was rehired in Flint as chief engineer, to begin making automobiles in production. That year, 37 Buick automobiles were made, production increasing to 750 in 1905, 1,400 in 1906, 4,641 in 1907, and 8,800 in 1908, taking the number one spot away from close competitors Oldsmobile, Ford, and Maxwell.[5]

David Dunbar Buick incorporated his company as the Buick Motor Company on May 19, 1903, in Detroit, Michigan. In March, 1904, the company was purchased by Benjamin Briscoe, who quickly sold it to James H. Whiting (1842–1919),[6] owner of Flint Wagon Works, in Flint, Michigan. Whiting moved Buick to Flint that summer, to a location across the street from his factory, with the idea of adding Buick's engines to his wagons.[5] David Buick stayed on as a manager, and re-hired Walter Marr as chief engineer. The engine Buick and Marr developed for this automobile was a 2-cyinder valve-in-head engine of 159 cubic inches, with each cylinder horizontal and opposed to each other by 180 degrees. Whiting built only a few automobiles in 1904, by bringing Buick engines across the street where his workers shoehorned them into his wagons, before running out of capital, causing him to bring in William C. Durant that year as controlling investor. Durant was co-owner, also in Flint, of the Durant-Dort Carriage Company, which was the largest carriage-making company in the country.[5] Durant spent the next 4 years turning Buick into the biggest-selling automobile brand in the US. David Buick sold his stock upon departure in 1906, and died in modest circumstances 25 years later. In 1907, Durant agreed to supply motors to R. S. McLaughlin in Canada, an auto maker, and in 1908 he founded General Motors.[7]

Buick in the early years

Between 1899 and 1902, two prototype vehicles were built[8] in Detroit, Michigan by Walter Lorenzo Marr. Some documentation exists of the 1901 or 1902 prototype with tiller steering[9] similar to the Oldsmobile Curved Dash. In mid-1904, another prototype was constructed for an endurance run, which convinced James H. Whiting to authorize production of the first models offered to the public.[10] The architecture of this prototype was the basis for the Model B.

The first Buick made for sale, the 1904 Model B, was built in Flint, Michigan at a re-purposed factory that was known as the Flint Wagon Works.[11] There were 37 Buicks made that year, none of which survive. There are, however, two replicas in existence: the 1904 endurance car, at the Buick Gallery & Research Center in Flint, and a Model B assembled by an enthusiast in California for the division's 100th anniversary.[12][13] Both of these vehicles use various parts from Buicks of that early era, as well as fabricated parts. These vehicles were each constructed with the two known surviving 1904 engines.

The power train and chassis architecture introduced on the Model B was continued through the 1909 Model F.[14] The early success of Buick is attributed in part to the valve-in-head, or overhead valve (OHV), engine[15] patented by Eugene Richard and developed by David Dunbar Buick. The Model F had a two-cylinder engine, an 87-inch wheelbase and weighed 1,800 lbs.[16] The creation of General Motors is attributed in part to the success of Buick,[17] so it can be said Marr and Richard's designs directly led to GM.[18]

The basic design of the 1904 Buick was optimally engineered even by today's standards. The flat-twin engine is inherently balanced, with torque presented to the chassis in a longitudinal manner, actually cancelling front end lift, rather than producing undesirable lateral motion. The engine was mounted amidships, now considered the optimal location.[19]

Durant was a natural promoter, and Buick soon became the largest car maker in America. Using the profits from this, Durant embarked on a series of corporate acquisitions, calling the new megacorporation General Motors. At first, the manufacturers comprising General Motors competed against each other, but Durant ended that. He wanted each General Motors division to target one class of buyer, and in his new scheme, Buick was near the top — only the Cadillac brand had more prestige, a ranking that Buick occupies currently in the General Motors lineup. To save on resources, Buick vehicles shared a common platform, called the GM A platform, that was shared with Chevrolet, Oakland, Oldsmobile and Cadillac. The ideal Buick customer is comfortably well off, possibly not quite rich enough to afford a Cadillac, nor desiring the ostentation of one, but definitely in the market for a car above the norm.

At first, Buick followed the likes of Napier in automobile racing, winning the first-ever race held at Indianapolis Motor Speedway.[20]

The first full-size Buick to join the smaller Model B was in 1907, when the Model D was introduced with a four-cylinder 255.0 cu in (4,178 cc) engine, installed in the front with rear wheel drive.

In 1911, Buick introduced its first closed-body car,[21] four years ahead of Ford; the car was built at the all-new factory in Flint which later became to be known as Buick City.[22] Buick during the 1920s made various sized vehicles, with series designations for different years, sometimes using numbers, while later years using lettered designations. One of the larger vehicles with straight-six and straight-eight engines was the Buick Master Six.

In 1929, as part of General Motors' companion make program, Buick Motor Division launched the Marquette sister brand, designed to bridge the price gap between Buick and Oldsmobile; however, Marquette was discontinued in 1930. All Buick, Marquette, Viking, and Oldsmobile products shared the newly introduced GM B platform starting in 1926. Buick debuted two major achievements for the 1931 model year, the OHV Buick Straight-8 engine and a synchromesh transmission in all models but the Series 50. The Eight was offered in three displacements, the 220 cubic inch (bore 2 7/8 in. stroke 4.25 in.), was available in the Series 50 with 77 brake HP. The Series 60 engine was a 272 cu. in. unit (bore 3 1/16 in., stroke 5 in.) giving 90 brake HP.

The Series 80 and Series 90 used a 344 cu. in. version (bore 3 5/16 in., stroke 5 in.) for 104 brake HP. Automatic vacuum-operated spark advance was another new feature replacing the steering column mounted spark lever although an emergency lever was now dash mounted. Buick scored another first in 1939 when it became the first company to introduce turn signals, which did not appear on other car brands until almost a decade later.[23] All 1939 models also had a steering column mounted shift lever.

Buick radiator mascot, 1930s

In the 1930s Buicks were popular with the British royal family, particularly Edward VIII.[24][25] He imported and used a Canadian built McLaughlin-Buick that were GMs top brand in Canada, Cadillac not having caught on there.[26] George VI used one for a coast to coast royal tour of Canada in 1939.[26]

Engines[edit]

1904 - 1911. Two cylinders horizontally opposed at 180 degrees, valves in each head, 159 cu. in.

1907 - 1924. Four cylinders, in line, valves in head, 165 to 392.6 cu. in.

1914 - 1930. Six cylinders, in line, valves in head, 191 to 331 cu. in.

1931 - 1953. Eight cylinders, in line, valves in head, 221 to 345 cu. in.[27]

Post World War II years[edit]

1940s–1950s

1940s[edit]

1910 Buick Bug Race Car and 1944 M18 Buick Hellcat Tank Destroyer

1950s[edit]

  • 1953 — Buick's 50th Anniversary. Introduction of Buick V8 engine and Roadmaster Skylark.
  • 1955 — Best model year sales to date with 738,814 Buicks sold
  • 1957 — New 364 cu. in. engine block & Ball joint front suspension debut. Roadmasters now had aluminum finned brake drums.
  • 1959 — Electra, Invicta and LeSabre and 401 cu. in. V-8 (in Electras & Invicta) introduced. Electra was the Official Pace Car of the Indianapolis 500 race.
1960s–1970s

1960s[edit]

  • 1960 — Electra 225 was the Official Pace Car of the Daytona 500 race.
  • 1961 — Skylark nameplate returns as top model of new Special compact car with new 215 cu. in. aluminum V-8
  • 1962 — Wildcat introduced as trim level on Invicta. Special named Motor Trend Car of the Year.
  • 1963 — Riviera introduced as its own model with 425 cu.in. V-8 as an option. Wildcat introduced as its own model. Electra 225 was the Official Pace Car of the Daytona 500 race.
  • 1964 — Special reintroduced as intermediate sized car on GM "A" body platform
  • 1967 — Radial tires available as options on all full size Buicks [28]

1970s[edit]

  • 1970 — Estate introduced as its own model. GSX high performance package first offered on Gran Sport (GS) 455.
  • 1971 — Centurion and "boat-tail" Riviera introduced
  • 1973 — Apollo introduced. Regal introduced as upper trim level on Century.
  • 1975 — Skyhawk introduced. Park Avenue introduced as trim/option package on Electra 225 Limited. Century was the Official Pace Car of the Indianapolis 500 race.
  • 1976 — Century was the Official Pace Car of the Indianapolis 500 race for the second year in a row
  • 1977 — Best model year sales to date with 773,313 Buicks sold
  • 1978 — Buick's 75th Anniversary. Turbocharged V6 introduced in the Regal Sport Coupe.[29] Best model year sales to date with 795,316 Buicks sold.
  • 1979 — Riviera S-Type named Motor Trend Car of the Year
1980s–1990s

1980s[edit]

  • 1980 — Diesel engine became available on select Buick models. Somerset introduced as trim/option package on Regal Limited.
  • 1981 — T-Type performance trim introduced on Riviera. Regal was the Official Pace Car of the Indianapolis 500 race.
  • 1982 — Grand National high performance package first offered on Regal. First Riviera convertible produced.
  • 1983 — Riviera was the Official Pace Car of the Indianapolis 500 race. Best model year sales to date with 810,435 Buicks sold.
  • 1984 — Official Car of the XXIII Olympiad. Best model year sales to date with 906,626 Buicks sold.
  • 1985 — Somerset introduced as its own model. Best model year sales to date with 915,336 Buicks sold.
  • 1987 — Limited production GNX high performance package introduced and offered one year only on Regal
  • 1988 — Official Car of the U.S. Olympic Team. Reatta 2-seater introduced.
  • 1989 — Ultra introduced as trim/option package on Electra Park Avenue

1990s[edit]

  • 1990 — First Reatta convertible produced
  • 1991 — Park Avenue introduced as its own model. Roadmaster returned to lineup after 33-year absence.
  • 1993 — Buick's 90th Anniversary. Special 90th Anniversary Edition LeSabre produced to commemorate the milestone.
  • 1999 — Limited production Riviera Silver Arrow produced to commemorate original 1963 concept

Recent years[edit]

Recent years

2000s[edit]

In the 2000s, Buick's lineup was modified with the compact and performance segments being abandoned in favor of the crossover/SUV market which was growing in popularity.

In 2004, Buick introduced its first SUV, the Ranier. In 2003, the Buick Centieme crossover concept car commemorated Buick Motor Division's 100th anniversary. Some of the Centieme's exterior design and interior features would later appear on the 2008 Enclave crossover. In 2004, Buick added the Rainier mid-size SUV. Buick began consolidating its lineup in 2005 and by 2008 had reduced it to just three models with new nameplates: the 2005 LaCrosse/Allure, the 2006 Lucerne, and the 2008 Enclave. In 2008, the Super name returned after a 50-year absence as a new performance trim level on LaCrosse and Lucerne. While the brand's total overall sales slipped in the United States,[30] the profitability of the model lineup ensured Buick's future within General Motors.[31]

Since 2005, GM had gradually consolidated Buick with GMC and former Pontiac dealerships to create the current Buick-GMC network. During General Motors Chapter 11 reorganization and emergence in 2009, the company designated Buick as a "core brand", citing the division's success in China.[32] Behind the scenes, GM began to move products originally planned for other brands to Buick. The Opel Insignia was originally intended to become the second-generation Saturn Aura, but instead became the new Buick Regal.[33][34] In the 2009 J.D. Power and Associates Vehicle Dependability Study, Buick tied with Jaguar as the most dependable brand in the United States.[35]

2010s[edit]

The 2010s saw the return of a classic Buick nameplate (Regal) as well as the addition of several new ones, plus the brand’s first factory convertible since the early 1990s.

2010–2012 Buick LaCrosse

In January 2009, Buick unveiled the new 2010 LaCrosse sedan, an all new styling direction which included traditional Buick cues. The market responded to the LaCrosse, with reviews favorably comparing to luxury models such as the Lexus ES.[36] In 2010, Buick became the fastest growing automotive brand and attracted a younger customer demographic.[37] An all-new Regal sedan, a smaller model based on the European Opel Insignia, was re-introduced for the 2011 model year after a seven-year absence. For 2012, the all-new Verano a compact sedan based on the Chevrolet Cruze joined the lineup. Additionally, the performance-oriented Regal GS officially went on sale and became the first Buick in almost 20 years to be offered with a manual transmission and a turbocharger. Buick also entered the hybrid market with the introduction of eAssist technology on the 2012 LaCrosse and Regal which helped improve fuel economy ratings by as much as 38% over the regular gas-engine versions. Meanwhile, sales of the Enclave crossover remained strong. In January 2012, the all-new Encore mini crossover was unveiled at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit. Also in 2012, a turbocharged version of the Verano was introduced and the Enclave was redesigned for the 2013 model year. In 2013, GM confirmed plans of a "hybrid global brand" which includes Opel/Vauxhall and Buick using more synergies between the brands.[38][39] LaCrosse and Regal were refreshed for the 2014 model year. In 2015, the all-new Cascada compact convertible debuted at the North American International Auto Show in Detroit. In November, the all-new 2017 LaCrosse was shown at the Los Angeles Auto Show. Buick also confirmed that the Envision mid-size crossover would be sold in North America starting summer 2016.

As of 2016, Buick's North American lineup consists of the Encore compact crossover, the Verano compact sedan, the Cascada compact convertible, the Regal mid-size sedan, the LaCrosse full-size sedan, the Envision mid-size crossover, and the Enclave full-size crossover.

A GM company spokesman said that Buick is positioned as a "premium" marque (entry-level luxury) to compete with Acura, entry level Lexus models, and Volvo, while Cadillac is aimed at the "luxury" performance segment which includes BMW and Mercedes-Benz.[40]

Concept cars[edit]

Concept cars

Buick has a long history of creating intriguing concept cars dating back to the Y-Job, the industry's first concept car, of 1938. Its most recent concepts have included the Avenir, unveiled at the 2015 North American International Auto Show, and the Avista which was unveiled a year later at the 2016 North American International Auto Show.

Distinguishing features[edit]

Trishield[edit]

A trishield, the Buick symbol, hood ornament on a 1990 LeSabre Custom

The Buick Trishield is rooted in the ancestral coat of arms of the automaker’s founder, David Dunbar Buick. That crest was a red shield with a checkered silver and azure diagonal line from the upper left to lower right, a stag above, and a punctured cross below. The division adopted this on its radiator grilles in 1937. In 1960, the logo underwent a major overhaul. Its single shield was replaced by a trio in red, white, and blue—denoting the LeSabre, Invicta, and Electra then in the Buick lineup. Usurped by the Buick Hawk in the 1970s, the trishield reemerged in the 1980s, simplified, but with its same patriotic colors. The Trishield with red, white, and blue features, was retired in 2005, but has returned again representing the current trio of vehicles in the Buick marque for sedans and crossovers, the Trishield enjoys its even more distilled and emboldened tri-color form.

VentiPorts[edit]

1949 Buick Super with VentiPorts (1952)

A traditional Buick styling cue dating to 1949 is a series of three or four vents on the front fender behind the front wheels. The source of this design feature was a custom car of Buick stylist Ned Nickles, which in addition had a flashing light within each hole each synchronized with a specific spark plug simulating the flames from the exhaust stack of a fighter airplane. Combined with the bombsight mascot (introduced in 1946), VentiPorts put the driver at the controls of an imaginary fighter airplane. The flashing light feature was not used by Buick in production, but VentiPorts remained as nonfunctional ornamentation.

They were called VentiPorts because the 1949 sales brochure noted that VentiPorts helped ventilate the engine compartment to minimize the engine overheating. The suggestion was made that they allowed air flow out of the engine bay. Air entered from the grill into the engine bay and was pressurized by the radiator fan, and exited through the VentiPorts. The benefit might have been true in early 1949, but sometime during the model year they became plugged.

The installation of VentiPorts was a reference to Buick having participated in the war effort by supplying over 74,000 Pratt & Whitney radial engines that were installed in B-24 Liberator aircraft. Buick also supplied Pratt & Whitney engines in the Douglas C-47 Skytrain and Douglas C-54 Skymaster.[41][42] GM also had a controlling interest in North American Aviation from 1933 until 1948, the company that built the P-51 Mustang fighter plane.[citation needed] GM also owned the Allison Engine Company, the manufacturer of the Allison V-1710 V-12 engine that was used in the Lockheed P-38, Bell P-39 and Curtiss P-40.

When introduced, the number of VentiPorts (three or four) denoted the size of straight-eight engine installed. Since displacement differences in straight-eight engines resulted in more dramatic differences in engine length than on V8s, the Buick Roadmaster (which was the only model at this time with the larger engine) needed a longer chassis in front of the cowl to accommodate the larger engine. Thus an extra VentiPort also corresponded directly to the necessary extra length in front. After the more compact V8 replaced the straight-eight engine in 1953 this difference in chassis length was no longer needed. Nevertheless, the convention remained. Consequently, when the Buick Century, which shared the Buick Special's smaller body, was reintroduced in 1954, it also received four VentiPorts to denote its engine's greater displacement. However, in 1955, the Buick Super, which shared Roadmaster's larger body, was promoted from three to four VentiPorts despite having the smaller displacement engine. In turn, the Buick Invicta which took the place of the Buick Century in 1959, and consequently had the smaller body with the larger displacement engine, was demoted from four to three VentiPorts on introduction. Thus the number of VentiPorts came to denote body size rather than engine size.

In 1961, Buick introduced the first V6 engine installed in an American passenger car, called the Fireball V6 in the Buick Special, and three VentiPorts appeared on the side, ushering a new designation denoting the number of cylinders instead of displacement and bodysize. As a result, VentiPorts have appeared sporadically from 1960 through 1981. The Buick V6 engine was not related to the GMC V6 engine introduced for commercial use in 1959.

In 2003 VentiPorts were re-introduced on the Buick Park Avenue. After the Park Avenue was discontinued, Buick salvaged the VentiPorts to appear on the new-for-2006 Lucerne. Consistent with the tradition that held from 1961, the Lucerne's VentiPorts refer directly to the number of pistons: V6 models have three on each side, while V8s have four on each side.

Modern and edgy compared to the oval ones that adorned Buicks for years, the new VentiPorts have become a Buick-wide talisman again and are currently featured in one form or another on the Lucerne, the popular Enclave CUV in 2010, along the inner hood ridges of the redesigned LaCrosse. On the new 2012 Buick Regal, only two appear in the hood, referring to the 4-cylinder engine in that car.

The newly designed VentiPorts appear on every Buick model from 2014 onwards, having been re-introduced in the 2nd generation Buick LaCrosse for 2010.[43]

Sweepspear[edit]

Sweepspear on a 1953 Buick Skylark.
Contemporary sweepspear, upon its reintroduction on a 2nd generation Buick LaCrosse.

Another styling cue from the 1940s through the 1970s was the Sweepspear, a curved trim line running almost the length of the car. Introduced as an option on the 1949 Buick Roadmaster Riviera hardtop coupe, the original Sweepspear was a chrome-plated steel rub strip which began level over the front wheel, gently curved down across the front fender and door, dove nearly to the rocker panel just ahead of the rear wheel, then flared up and over the rear wheel before leveling off again into a straight run back to the tail-light. The shape of the feature shows similarities to the Jaguar XK120, with the feature running the length of the car in both examples.

The "Riviera trim", as it was initially called, was made available on the Roadmaster convertible very late in the '49 model year. It proved so popular that by the 1951 model year it was made a standard feature on all Buicks. During the two-tone color craze of the 1950s, it separated two different color areas.

In time, the Sweepspear became stainless steel, then a vinyl rub strip or simple character line in the sheetmetal, as hinted in some versions of the Buick Riviera, distinct on the 1968-1969 Skylark, and appearing on the 2008 Invicta concept car. Often optional trim was available to reinforce a plain character line in the bodywork. The feature was re-introduced with the 2nd generation Buick LaCrosse.

Delta fin[edit]

Delta Fins on a 1959 Buick Electra 225 Riviera

The 1958 Buick was marketed beginning in September 1957, just as the space age began with the launching of Sputnik I on October 4 of that year. This Buick was nicknamed "the king of chrome" and had rear tailfins reminiscent of a rocket ship.[44][45] In 1959, Buick had the aerodynamic Delta Fin. The fin made parking difficult and blocked the driver's line of vision.[46][47] It was snubbed down in 1960 and disappeared in 1961.

Taillight shapes[edit]

During the 1950s, the characteristic form of the Buick taillamps was a tier of small, circular bullet-shapes. In the early 1960s, most models began to evolve a wide, rectangular pattern, until the 1965 Skylark and Electra models appeared with full-width rear lamps. Since then, wide taillamps have been a Buick hallmark, usually consisting of four bulbs on each side. The brake light illumination uses the two outer bulbs, while the two inner bulbs remain as tail lights.

Classic grille styling[edit]

Buick "dollar grin" and "Trishield" in a Buick LeSabre

The Buick styling cue (dating from the 1942–1958 period,) that has most often reappeared, though, is for the grille to be a horizontal oval with many, thin, vertical chromed ribs bulging forward. This has sometimes been called the Buick "dollar grin" particularly on the early 1950s models, which had thick, highly polished ribs that somewhat resembled teeth. The 1950 model took this tooth theme to its extreme as the teeth crossed over the bumper exposing the 1950 "grin". The 1951 model reined in the theme, bringing the teeth back behind the bumper. Current Buick Models have a new take on the classic styling with their Chromed "Waterfall Grilles".

Waterfall grille[edit]

Revised Buick waterfall grille on 2nd generation LaCrosse.

In recent years, Buick has adopted a Waterfall Grille, as seen on the Buick Velite concept car from 2004 and first used in production with the Buick Lucerne introduced for the 2006 model year. This waterfall grille bears some resemblance to grilles of Buicks from the 1980s, such as the Grand National.

Nailhead[edit]

The Buick V8 engine, nicknamed the Nailhead because of its relatively small intake and exhaust valves which resembled nails, became popular with hot-rodders in the 1950s and 1960s, because the vertical attachment of the valve covers, in contrast to the angled attachment of other V8 engines, enabled the engine to fit into smaller spaces while maintaining easy access for maintenance.

Performance[edit]

In addition to premium and luxury vehicles, Buick has also been well known for its offerings of high performance cars. Some of the better known examples included the Gran Sport and GSX models of the 1960s and 1970s, and the Grand National and GNX models of the 1980s.

World distribution[edit]

Mexico[edit]

Buicks were sold in Mexico from 1921 to 1962 when a protectionist policy on behalf of the government restricted the percentage of imported parts that could be used in the manufacture of vehicles and the sale of imported cars. From then onwards, all GM products were sold by Chevrolet dealerships. In 1990, after a heavy modification to the protectionist policy of the sixties, GM started assembling the Buick Century in Mexico, at the plant in Ramos Arizpe, in the state of Coahuila, just south of Texas, and selling it through Mexican Chevrolet dealerships, so it was not uncommon for many people to call it "Chevrolet Century". In 1997, GM stopped production of Buicks in Mexico and the brand was not sold there until 2009.

With the announcement in 2009 of the elimination of the Pontiac brand, it was speculated that Buicks would be sold once again in Mexico, since there was a large network of Pontiac-GMC dealerships already in place. On July 24, 2009, Grace Lieblein, the new president of GM in Mexico, revealed that the Buick brand would be available in Mexico in late September of that year, after an absence of a dozen years, with the LaCrosse and the Enclave models. Buick shared the dealership floor with Pontiac and GMC until the Pontiac brand faded away in the summer of 2010.

New Zealand[edit]

Buicks were once sold in New Zealand. They were also built at the GMNZ plant in Petone, outside Wellington.[48] At the end of World War II, the Buick name was not revived for the New Zealand market.

Middle East[edit]

In Israel, Buicks are imported by Universal Motors, Ltd. (UMI), which also imports other GM vehicles. For model years 2004 and 2005, the Buick LeSabre and Buick Rendezvous were sold. For model years 2006 and 2007, the Buick LaCrosse and Buick Lucerne were sold alongside the Rendezvous. For model year 2008, the Buick LaCrosse and Buick Lucerne were available. Buicks were sold throughout the Middle East until the second-generation Buick Roadmaster was discontinued.

Asia[edit]

Buick G2.5 V6 made by Shanghai GM, China, 2002
V6 engine of Buick 2.5G of Shanghai GM, China, 2002

China is Buick's largest market, selling more there than the United States. In 2014, General Motors sold over 900,000 Buicks in China, more than four times what they sold in the United States.[49] In pre-World War II China, one in five cars was a Buick[50] Buick is a leading vehicle brand in China.[51]

Since 1999, a Chinese version of the Buick Regal has been produced and sold in mainland China by Shanghai GM and has proven to be popular among upscale, professional families, establishing Buick as one of the most popular vehicle brands in China. In addition, Buick of China also sells the compact Excelle, in its first generation based on the Daewoo Lacetti/Nubira), a five-door hatchback version called the HRV, and a modified version of the first generation Pontiac Montana minivan named the GL8. Many Buicks for the local market are equipped with smaller more fuel efficient engines with double overhead camshafts, than those with overhead valves in the same nameplate for the American market. The engines of 2005-09 Chevrolet Equinox and Pontiac Torrent, originally intended for Buick in China, were made in China and imported by General Motors.[52]

In June 2005, Buick announced that it would market the Australian RWD Holden Caprice in China as the Buick Royaum (2005–06). Buick previously marketed the subcompact Sail, sourced from GM's Asian operations and based on the Opel Corsa B, until 2005. Since then, Shanghai GM has replaced it with the Chevrolet Sail (a rebadged Opel Corsa). Buick has stated that it expects China to become its second largest market.

In 2006, Buick debuted the Chinese version of the LaCrosse sedan. The only differences are exterior design, different engine choices, and a facelifted interior. It is positioned above the Regal but below the Royaum.

In April 2007, Shanghai GM announced the Buick Park Avenue, for the Chinese market only. The vehicle is based on the Holden Caprice, with engines manufactured in Australia.

In 2009, Buick sold 447,011 vehicles, an increase of 59.6 percent compared with the previous year.[53]

Buick has sold over two million vehicles in China. The first million took eight years, the second came in at only three years.[54]

GM Taiwan was founded in August 1989. In the early 1990s, Buick, along with other GM brands, was very popular and frequently seen on Taiwanese streets. Park Avenue, 3rd and 4th generation Regal, and 6th generation Skylark used to be sold in Taiwan.

In December 2004, General Motors signed a memorandum of understanding with Yulon, a firm based in Taiwan, for the licensed manufacture of Buick vehicles there. In July 2005, Yulon GM Motor Co. Ltd. (Yulon GM), a joint venture with 51 percent equity stake held by Yulon Motor and 49 percent by GM, was founded.

On April 17, 2006, Yulon GM debuted the first Buick vehicle ever built in Taiwan, the LaCrosse sedan. It is very similar to the Chinese version of the LaCrosse.

On April 2010 Buick debuted the localised version of LaCrosse, named Alpheon, to South Korean market.

Motorsport[edit]

For many years, Buick was a substitute for Chevrolet in automobile racing. No earlier than the 1960s, Buick was a competitor in the Indianapolis 500, and (like almost every other American manufacturer) also participated in the Grand National stock car racing series using its Regal and later the Gran Sport.

The golden age of Buick in motorsport, however, was the late 1980s. General Motors entered the Regal, particularly the Grand National model, in the NASCAR Winston Cup Series alongside the Oldsmobile Cutlass. Buick was also a major powerplant in the IndyCar Series and IMSA GT Series (particularly in the IMSA GTP class) for several years. The 1990s, however, proved to be the end of Buick's reign in motorsports, as GM replaced it for many years with Oldsmobile before phasing out that marque in 2004. Oldsmobile would be replaced by Pontiac until its demise in 2009, being replaced by Chevrolet.

Buicks were also entered in the Trans Am Series in the 1980s and 1990s using aftermarket V8 engines.

Enthusiast organizations[edit]

The Buick Club of America, founded in 1966, is a non-profit organization dedicated to the preservation and restoration of automobiles built by the Buick Motor Division of General Motors Corporation.

Advertisements[edit]

References[edit]

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External links[edit]