Hibakujumoku

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Eucalypt at the site of Hiroshima Castle, 740 m from hypocenter. The tree survived the atomic bombing, while the castle was destroyed.

Hibakujumoku (Japanese: 被爆樹木; also called survivor tree or A-bombed tree in English) is a Japanese term for a tree that survived the atomic bombing of Hiroshima in 1945. The term is from Japanese: 被爆, translit. hibaku, lit. 'bombed, A-bombed, nuked'[1] and Japanese: 樹木, translit. jumoku, lit. 'trees, woods'.[2]

Damage[edit]

The heat emitted by the explosion in Hiroshima within the first three seconds at a distance of three kilometres from the hypocenter was about 40 times greater than that from the Sun.[3] The initial radiation level at the hypocenter was approximately 240 Gy.[3] According to Hiroshima and Nagasaki: The Physical, Medical, and Social Effects of the Atomic Bombings, plants suffered damage only in the portions exposed above ground, while portions underground were not directly damaged.[4]

Regeneration[edit]

The rate of regeneration differed by species. Active regeneration was shown by broad-leaved trees.[4] Approximately 170 trees that grew in Hiroshima in 2011 had actually been there prior to the bombing.[5] The oleander was designated the official flower of Hiroshima for its remarkable vitality.[4]

Types of hibakujumoku[edit]

Hibakujumoku species are listed in the UNITAR database,[6] shown below, combined with data from Hiroshima and Nagasaki: The Physical, Medical, and Social Effects of the Atomic Bombings.

List[edit]

Common name Binomial name
Weeping willow Salix babylonica
Black locust Robinia pseudoacacia
Chinaberry Melia azedarach var. japonica
Fig tree Ficus sp.
Bamboo Bambuseae tribe
Azalea Rhododendron genus
Hemp palm Trachycarpus fortunei
Oleander Nerium indicum
Japanese spindle Euonymus japonicus
Kurogane holly Ilex rotunda
Japanese aralia Fatsia japonica
Nettle tree Celtis sinensis var. japonica
Camphor tree Cinnamomum camphora
Silverthorn Elaeagnus pungens
Japanese persimmon Diospyros kaki
Eucalypt Eucalyptus melliodora
Giant pussy willow Salix chaenomeloides
Southern catalpa Catalpa bignonioides
Sago palm Cycas revoluta
Tree peony Paeonia suffruticosa
Shirodamo Neolitsea sericea
Cherry tree Prunus × yedoensis
Crape myrtle Lagerstroemia indica
Ginkgo Ginkgo biloba
Oriental plane Platanus orientalis
Chinese parasol tree Firmiana simplex
Japanese black pine Pinus thunbergii
Muku tree Aphananthe aspera
Japanese hackberry Celtis sinensis var. japonica
Jujube Ziziphus jujuba
Japanese flowering apricot tree Prunus mume var. purpurea
Amanatsu Citrus natsudaidai
Tabunoki Persea thunbergii
Bohdi tree Tilia miqueliana
Japanese camellia Camellia japonica
Japanese quince Chaenomeles speciosa
Chinese juniper Juniperus chinensis
Crinum lily Crinum sp.

References[edit]

  1. ^ "被爆 - Wiktionary". en.wiktionary.org. Wikimedia Foundation. Retrieved 18 November 2016. 
  2. ^ "樹木 - Wiktionary". en.wiktionary.org. Retrieved 18 November 2016. 
  3. ^ a b Frank Barnaby, Douglas Holdstock, eds. (2014). Hiroshima and Nagasaki: Restrospect and Prospect. Routledge. ISBN 1135209936. 
  4. ^ a b c Peter Del Tredici. "Hibaku Trees of Hiroshima" (PDF). Arnold Arboretum. Retrieved 20 May 2014. 
  5. ^ "Green Legacy Hiroshima: Spreading Seeds Of Peace Across The World". ANT-Hiroshima News. Retrieved 20 May 2014. 
  6. ^ "Database of Hibaku Jumoku ? Atomic-Bombed Trees of Hiroshima" (PDF). UNITAR. Retrieved 20 May 2014.