Impacts of tourism

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search

Impacts of tourism

Tourism brings both positive and negative impacts on tourist destinations. The traditionally-described domains of tourism impacts are economic, socio-cultural, and environmental dimensions.[1][2] The economic effects of tourism include improved tax revenue and personal income, increased standards of living, and more employment opportunities.[3][4] Sociocultural impacts are associated with interactions between people with differing cultural backgrounds, attitudes and behaviors, and relationships to material goods.[5] Environmental impacts affect the carrying capacity of the area, vegetation, air quality, bodies of water, the water table, wildlife, and natural phenomena.

At the same time, tourism also brings positive and negative health outcomes for local people.[6] The short-term negative impacts of tourism on residents' health are related to the density of tourist's arrivals, risk of disease transmission, road accidents, higher crime levels, as well as traffic congestion, crowding, and other stressful factors.[7] In addition, residents can experience anxiety and depression related to their risk perceptions about mortality rates, food insecurity, contact with infected tourists, etc., which can result in negative mental health outcomes.[8] At the same time, there are positive long-term impacts of tourism on residents’ health and well-being outcomes through improving healthcare access positive emotions, novelty, and social interactions.[6]

Economic impacts of tourism[edit]

Global tourism in 2014 contributed 3.3 percent (US$1.7 trillion) to the world's GDP, with its total contribution rising to almost 10 percent of world GDP.[9] The GDP increase comes from the over 1.4 billion international tourists worldwide.[9] Visits and boosts to GDP are expected to continue to rise in the near future as falling oil prices contribute to reduced living costs and increased available income for households, as well as reduced costs for air travel.

Tourism can be divided into subcategories into which impacts fall: spending from visitors on tourism experiences like beach holidays and theme parks (domestic and international), spending on leisure items like bicycles, business spending, and capital investment.[10][11]

The economic contribution of tourism is felt in both direct and indirect ways, where direct economic impacts are created when commodities like the following are sold: accommodation and entertainment, food and beverages services, and retail opportunities. Residents, visitors, businesses, and various levels of governments (municipal to federal) all influence direct tourism impacts through their spending in or near a given tourism area.[10][12][13] The key component of direct economic impacts of tourism is that they occur within a country's borders and are implemented by "residents and non-residents for business and leisure purposes".[10]

In contrast, indirect economic impacts of tourism can be found in investment spending surrounding a tourism offering from private and governmental interests. This investment may not explicitly be related to tourism, but benefits the tourist and local stakeholders all the same.[10] Indirect impacts of tourism are exemplified by the purchase and sale of intermediary items like additional supplies for restaurants during the high tourism season, or widened sidewalks in busy downtown centres.[12] Indirect economic impacts (the supply chain, investment, and government collective) account for 50.7 percent of the total GDP contribution from travel and tourism in 2014.[10]

Induced spending, the re-circulation of a tourist dollar within a community, is another way that tourism indirectly has an impact on a community.[14] For example, a foreign tourist injects money into the local economy when he spends a dollar on a souvenir made by a local at the tourism destination. That individual goes on to spend that dollar on lunch from a local vendor, and that vendor goes on to spend it locally.[5][15]

Positive and negative economic impacts of tourism[edit]

Crowded beach in Mar del Plata during summer

There are both positive and negative effects on communities related to the economic impacts of tourism in their communities.[14][15] A positive impact can refer to the increase in jobs, a higher quality of life for locals, and an increase in wealth of an area. Tourism also has the advantage of rebuilding and restoring historic sites and encouraging the revitalization of cultures.[16] A positive impact is to increase or to make better either for the tourist, the host community and residence and/or the tourist destination. Positive impacts are related more to the materialistic well-being, rather than to the happiness of a host community or tourist.[17]

The tourist destination enjoys positive impacts, if there have been improvements to the natural environment such as protection, national parks, or man-made infrastructure, waste-treatment plants. Tourism provides the economic stimulus to allow for diversification of employment and income potential, and develop resources within the community. Improvements in infrastructure and services can benefit both the locals and the tourists.[18][19][5] Whereas, heritage tourism focuses on local history or historical events that occurred in the area, and tends to promote education.[20] Positive impacts begin when there is an increase in job opportunities for locals as the tourism industry becomes more developed. There is also an increase in average income that spreads throughout the community when tourism is capitalized on.[14] In addition, the local economy is stimulated and diversified, goods are manufactured more locally, and new markets open for local business owners to expand to.[14] Unfortunately, these benefits are not universal nor invulnerable. While more employment may be available, tourism-related jobs are often seasonal and low-paying.[14] Prices are known to fluctuate throughout the year. They rise in the high tourist season to take advantage of more tourist dollars, but have the side effect of pricing goods above the economic reach of local residents, effectively starving them out of a place that was once their home.[12][14]

Negative impacts are the effects, that are caused in most cases, at the tourist destination site with detrimental impacts to the social and cultural area, as well as the natural environment. As the population increases so do the impacts, resources become unsustainable and exhausted, the carrying capacity for tourists in a destination site may become depleted.[21] Often, when negative impacts occur, it is too late to impose restrictions and regulations. Tourist destinations seem to discover that many of the negative impacts are found in the development stage of the tourism area life cycle (TALC).[21]

Additionally, the economics of tourism have been shown to push out local tourism business owners in favour of strangers to the region.[14][5][15] Foreign ownership creates leakage (revenues leaving the host community for another nation or multinational business) which strips away the opportunity for locals to make meaningful profits.[14][22] Foreign companies are also known to hire non-resident seasonal workers because they can pay those individuals lower wages, which further contributes to economic leakage. Tourism can raise property values near the tourism area, effectively pushing out locals and encouraging businesses to migrate inwards to encourage and take advantage of more tourist spending.[14]


Employment, and both its availability and exclusivity, are subsets of economic impacts of tourism.[22] Travel and tourism create 10.7 percent of the total available jobs worldwide, in both the direct and indirect tourism sectors.[10][22] Direct tourism jobs, those that provide the visitor with their tourism experience include, but are not limited to: accommodation (building, cleaning, managing), food and drink services, entertainment, manufacturing, and shopping[14][15][22] Indirect tourism employment opportunities include the manufacturing of aircraft, boats, and other transportation, as well as the construction of additional superstructure and infrastructure necessary to accommodate these travel products (airports, harbours, etc.)[22]

Tourism satellite account[edit]

The World Travel and Tourism Council (WTTC) tourism satellite account (TSA) is a system of measurement recognized by the United Nations to define the extent of an economic sector that is not so easily defined as industries like forestry or oil and gas[22] Tourism does not fit neatly into a statistical model; because it is not so much dependent on the physical movement of products and services, as it is on the position of the consumer.[22][23] Therefore, TSAs were designed to standardize these many offerings for an international scale to facilitate better understanding of current tourism circumstances locally and abroad.[22] The standardization includes concepts, classifications, and definitions, and is meant to enable researchers, industry professionals, and the average tourism business owner to view international comparisons.[22]

Before TSAs were widely implemented, a gap existed in the available knowledge about tourism as an economic driver for GDP, employment, investment, and industry consumption; indicators were primarily approximations and therefore lacking in scientific and analytical viewpoints.[13][22][23] This gap meant missed opportunities for development, as tourism stakeholders were unable to understand where they might be able to better establish themselves in the tourism economy. For example, a TSA can measure tax revenues related to tourism, which is a key contributor to the level of enthusiasm any level of government might have towards potential tourism investment.[22] In addition, Tyrrell and Johnston[22] suggest that stakeholders in tourism benefit from the TSA because it:

  • provides credible data on the impact of tourism and the associated employment
  • is a framework for organizing statistical data on tourism
  • is an international standard endorsed by the UN Statistical Commission
  • is an instrument for designing economic policies related to tourism development
  • provides data on tourism's impact on a nation's balance of payments
  • provides information on tourism human resource characteristics

Through collection of more qualitative data and translating it into a more concise and effective form for tourism providers, TSAs are able to fill the previous knowledge gap.[23] Information delivered and measured by a TSA includes tax revenues, economic impact on national balances, human resources, employment, and "tourism's contribution to gross domestic product".[22]

Projections for 2020[edit]

Predictions for the extent to which impacts of tourism will impact the world's economic system appear to agree that the number of international tourist arrivals will reach approximately 1.6 billion by the year 2020.[12][22] Of those tourists, 1.18 billion are expected to be intra-regional, and 377 million to be long-haul.[22] Of these travelers, arrivals in developing countries are expected to continue growing from the recorded 47% of total arrivals recorded in 2011 as access to these more remote locations becomes easier[12][24][11] Direct contributions of travel and tourism to the world economy and GDP are expected to rise from 3.09 percent in 2015 to 3.3 percent in 2025, with most impacts found in the investment and supply chain sectors.[10] Employment is anticipated to rise parallel to GDP contributions; reaching 3.9 percent of world employment in 2025 (up from 3.6 percent in 2015).[10] Direct tourism employment in 2025 will be an estimated 3.9 percent of total world employment (up from approximately 3.6 percent in 2015), while indirect tourism employment will be at approximately 4.5 percent (up from 3.6 percent in 2015).[10]

Sociocultural impacts of tourism[edit]

An inherent aspect of tourism is the seeking of authenticity, the desire to experience a different cultural setting in its natural environment.[18][19] Although cultural tourism provides opportunities for understanding and education, there are serious impacts that arise as a result. It is not only the volume of tourism at work, but the types of social interactions that occur between tourist and host. There are three broad effects at the local level: the commodification of culture, the demonstration effect, and the acculturation of another culture.

Commodification of culture[edit]

Commodification of culture refers to the use of a cultural traditions and artifacts in order to sell and profit for the local economy. With the rise of tourism, authors argue that commodification is inevitable.[25] There are both positive and negative sociocultural impacts of commodification on a culture. One positive is the creation of business and jobs for local craftsmen, who are able to sell their goods to tourists. Rural tourism is seen as a "cure" for poverty and leads to the improvement of transportation and development of telecommunications in an area.[26] For the tourist, commodification creates an interest for traditional arts and social practices.[25] However, critics of commodification believe that tourists are not interested in cultural beliefs and traditions of the locals, but are rather obsessed with owning a part of it. The argument that by monetizing cultural artifacts locals lose the value to their culture also exists. It then leads to the belief that tours are no longer authentic experiences. However, development economists will argue that culture can be utilized just as any other natural resource.

Researchers look at the impact of tourists on a culture and in short, many argue that the contact with the secular West leads to the destruction of pre-tourist cultures.[25] In addition, the "development cure", the idea that increasing tourism will spur economic change while strengthening local culture, is claimed to lead to new diseases, such as "drug addiction, crime, pollution, prostitution, and a decline in social stability" as well as growth of capitalist values and a Consumer Culture.[25]

Demonstration effect[edit]

The demonstration effect was introduced to tourism when the researchers were looking into the effects of social influences from tourism on local communities. The demonstration effect argues that local inhabitants copy the behavioral patterns of tourists.[27] There are a number of social, economic and behavioral reasons as to why the demonstration effect comes into play. One economic and social reason is that locals copy the consumption patterns of those higher up the social scale in order to improve their social status.[27] Tourism has also been accused of affecting social behavior of the younger members of a host community, who may imitate what tourists do, impacting traditional value systems.

Criticisms of the demonstration effect[edit]

There are many criticisms of the demonstration effect in tourism. Firstly, tourism is seen as only one aspect of change in society. Local people also see examples of foreign lifestyles and consumption in advertisements, magazines, television, and films, and therefore tourism is not the only influence on local culture.[27] In addition, the demonstration effect implies that a culture is "weak" and needs to be protected by outside influences. In many cases, the demonstrative effect is seen as a negative consequence, but it is argued that "all cultures are in a continual process of change", therefore tourism should not be considered destructive.[27]

Community participation[edit]

Community participation refers to the collaboration between community members for the purposes of achieving common goals, improving their local community and pursuing individual benefits.[28] Local community members are actively involved in tourism, rather than passively benefiting from it. Community participation strengthens communities and help to create a sense of belonging, trust and credibility among members.[28] By involving local community members, tourism can become more authentic. The community and the tourists both benefit from community participation, as it boosts their respect for the traditional lifestyle and values of the destination community. Most destination community members are also the ones most impacted by tourism, therefore there is an importance in their involvement in tourism planning. Some researchers will argue that some of the negative impacts of tourism might be avoided and the positive impacts maximized through community participation in the planning process.[28]


Acculturation is the process of modifying an existing culture through borrowing from the more dominant of cultures. Typically in tourism, the community being acculturated is the destination community, which then experiences dramatic shifts in social structure and world view. Societies adapt to acculturation in one of two ways. Innovation diffusion is when the community adopts practices that are developed by another group; whereas cultural adaptation is less adoption of a new culture and more the process of changing when the existing culture is changed.[29] Acculturation is often seen as a method of modernizing a community and there are many opposing views to the concept of modernization. One argument against modernization is that it contributes to the "homogenization of cultural differences and the decline of traditional societies".[29] This means that communities will advertise their modernity to attract tourists, and will disregard their traditional customs and values. On the other hand, others argue that acculturation and modernization will help traditional communities adjust in a modern world. The idea being that teaching people to adapt will save the community from future extinction.[30]

Positive socio-cultural impacts[edit]

There are number of benefits for the host community as a result of tourism. This includes economic benefits such as opportunities for local businesses which allows for increased trade among the increased number of visitors and then develops a variety of local businesses. In addition, tourism also brings employment opportunities, enhances the economy of the region, and creates revenue for the local government. Tourists also use public services, creating funding for public services, such as health, the police and the fire department, as well as increasing the demand for public transport. Other public facilities, such as parks and benches are also well kept by the community for the tourists, improving the overall aesthetics of the host community. On a more social level, tourism leads to intercultural interaction. Tourists often engage and learn from the locals. Tourism can also increase pride in locals. They want to show off their community that tourists have chosen to visit. The increase in people also leads to creating more social venues and experiences where locals and tourists can interact in. Entertainment and recreational facilities will allow for more opportunity to socialize and engage with each other.[31] Tourism can be beneficial for the host community as it provides the financial means and the incentive to preserve cultural histories, local heritage sites, and customs. It stimulates interest in local crafts, traditional activities, songs, dance, and oral histories. It also opens up the community to the wider world, new ideas, new experiences, and new ways of thinking.[32]

Negative socio-cultural impacts[edit]

Cultural interactions can have negative effects.[33] In terms of economic disadvantages, local communities need to be able to fund the tourist demands, which leads to an increase of taxes. The overall price of living increases in tourist destinations in terms of rent and rates, as well as property values going up. This can be problematic for locals looking to buy property or others on a fixed income.[31] In addition, to balance out tourist destinations, the number of locals to tourists must be relatively equal.[34] This can be more problematic for tourists as their access could be denied.

Other negative sociocultural impacts are differences in social and moral values among the local host community and the visiting tourist. Outside of affecting the relationship between tourist and local, it can also cause friction between groups of the local population. In addition, it can cause drifts in the dynamics between the old and new generations. Tourism has also correlated to the rise of delinquent behaviors in local host communities. Crime rates have been seen to rise with the increase of tourists. Crimes are typically those of rowdy behavior, alcohol and illegal drug use, and loud noise. In addition, gambling and prostitution may increase due to tourists looking for a "good time".[31] Tourism has also caused more disruption in host communities. Crowding of locals and tourists may create a vibrant ambiance, it also causes frustration and leads to the withdrawal of local residents in many places. Increased tourists also results in increased traffic which can hinder daily life of the local residents.[31] Culture shock may impact both tourists and their hosts.[35]

Tourism and protection of cultural property[edit]

An action by Blue Shield International for the protection of tourist cultural property in Libya during the war in 2011.

Tourism and the protection of cultural property are two subject areas that often complement each other, but sometimes also face one another. In the case of cultural tourism, gentle tourism and adventure tourism, there are numerous points of contact between the marketing, mediation and preservation of cultural assets. Sensible use is usually the most effective protection of valuable goods. If cultural assets bring the population an economic advantage, they are also interested in their preservation.

The increase in tourism can be a blessing and a curse at the same time, because social media and other new advertising channels often attract so many tourists to one place that it can lead to "overkill". World Heritage Sites are therefore increasingly resorting to visitor restrictions in order to be able to contain the flood of tourists. Conversely, tourism also has the effect that certain cultural assets become known and, in the event of war, parties to the conflict want to prevent their destruction with regard to international opinion.

With regard to the protection of cultural assets in the event of armed conflict, there are numerous initiatives on this topic from the UN, UNESCO and Blue Shield International. This also applies to World Heritage Sites. But only through cooperation with the locals can the protection of tourist cultural sites, world heritage sites, archaeological finds, exhibits and archaeological sites from destruction, looting and robbery be implemented in a sustainable manner. Simply agreeing international contracts and contacting state authorities is not enough. In the event of war, it is particularly important to monitor and implement protection directly on site, because this is the only way to ensure the future use of tourist goods for the population. The founding president of Blue Shield International, Karl von Habsburg, aptly summed it up with the words: "Without the local community and without the local participants, this would be completely impossible."[36][37][38][39][40]

Environmental impacts of tourism[edit]

Ecotourism, nature tourism, wildlife tourism, and adventure tourism take place in environments such as rain forests, high alpine, wilderness, lakes and rivers, coastlines and marine environments, as well as rural villages and coastline resorts. Peoples' desire for more authentic and challenging experiences results in their destinations becoming more remote, to the few remaining pristine and natural environments left on the planet. The positive impact of this can be an increased awareness of environmental stewardship.[41] The negative impact can be a destruction of the very experience that people are seeking. There are direct and indirect impacts, immediate and long-term impacts, and there are impacts that are both proximal and distal to the tourist destination. These impacts can be separated into three categories: facility impacts, tourist activities, and the transit effect.

Facility impacts[edit]

Facility impacts occur when a regional area evolves from "exploration" to "involvement" and then into the "development" stage of the tourist area life cycle.[42] During latter phase, there can be both direct and indirect environmental impacts through the construction of superstructure such as hotels, restaurants, and shops, and infrastructures such as roads and power supply. As the destination develops, more tourists seek out the experience. Their impacts increase accordingly. The requirement for water for washing, waste disposal, and drinking increases. Rivers can be altered, excessively extracted, and polluted by the demands of tourists. Noise pollution has the capacity to disturb wildlife and alter behavior, and light pollution can disrupt the feeding and reproductive behavior of many creatures. When power is supplied by diesel or gasoline generators there is additional noise and pollution. General waste and garbage are also a result of the facilities. As more tourists arrive there is an increase in food and beverages consumed, which in turn creates waste plastic and non-biodegradable products.

Tourist activities[edit]

Turtle riding was a popular tourist activity in the 1920s and 1930s.[43]

Practically all tourist activities have an ecological impact on the host destination. In rural destinations activities such as hiking can impact the local ecology.

There are a range of impacts from hiking, trekking, and camping that directly affect the activity area. The most obvious is the erosion and compaction of trails through daily use. With the presence of obstacles such as fallen trees or puddles, trails becomes widened or informal trails are created to bypass the obstacle.[44] Other direct impacts include damage or removal of vegetation, loss of vegetation height, reduction in foliage cover, exposure of tree root systems, migration of trampled vegetation, and introduction of non-native species.[45] Indirect impacts on trails include changes in soil porosity, changes to microflora composition, problems with seed dispersion and germination, and degradation of soil nutrient composition.[46]

As many hikers and trekkers take multi-day trips, a large number will camp overnight either in formal or random campsites. There are similar impacts on campsites, such as soil compaction, erosion and composition, loss of vegetation and foliage, and the additional issues regarding campfires. Informal trails are created around the campsite in order to collect firewood and water, and trees and saplings can be trampled, damaged, or cut-down for fuel. The heat of campfires may damage tree-root systems.[47] In formal campgrounds, tent pad areas are normally devoid of vegetation, while random camping can damage sensitive plants and grasses during a single overnight stay.

As with most recreational activities, hiking and camping generate waste, including food scraps and human waste. Habituation of wildlife to human contact and to unusual food sources can have a detrimental effect on the wildlife and pose dangers for humans. Provision for deposit, collection, and removal of waste will also have a direct impact on the local environment.

Tourism can act as a vector in the spread of non-native species. With tourism comes an increase and concentration of human activity in specific localized regions of the landscape especially protected wildernesses and parks. Because of the increase in human visitation from many different geographical regions, non-native species are observed at a higher propagation rate in these areas. Typical recreation activities such as hiking, biking, and off-road driving can act as habitat disturbances which may increase the spread of aggressive invasive species, harming the natural ecosystem. Nature-based tourism (i.e., wildlife viewing and outdoor recreation) are thought to be increasing and often happen in more pristine habitats. With the disturbance from human activities, open niches may become an available giving opportunity for aggressive non-native species to become established and take advantage of new resource availability. This can have dire consequences on local flora and fauna as invasives tend to be particularly successful in colonizing disturbed areas where the local biotic communities have been affected and potentially harmed.

Examples of invasive species spread by tourism:

  • Bigheaded ant (Pheidole megacephala): Is one of the worst invasives and classified under the “world's 100 worst” invasive species. Originally found in the Galapagos Islands in 2007 within ship cargo for tourist supplies. Ants can be spread with the movement of people from one island to another.
  • Cheatgrass (Bromus tectorum): Spread fast, don’t allow native species to grow, can cause forest fires to spread rapidly. Can be carried by people through shoes and gear; pets and other animals can spread the seeds through their travel as well.
  • Zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha): These are believed to have come from the Caspian Sea in Europe in a ship's ballast water. They are spread by uncleansed boats from one body of water to another as tourists move to different locations.

There are ways to decrease the spread of non-native species such as taking care in removing seeds from shoes and pants after hiking or biking. Thoroughly cleaning boats when moving from one body of water to another and creating designated pathway management plans are other ways in which one can decrease the impacts of invasive species on local habitats.[48][49][50]

Another activity that can have severe direct and indirect impacts on the environment is wildlife viewing. This happens in a range of formats, on land and in the ocean. Wildlife safaris in African countries such as Kenya, Botswana, and Tanzania have been popular for many years. Their focus are the big five game megafauna: the African lion, African elephant, African leopard, cape buffalo, and rhinoceros. As with every human-wildlife interaction, there is a change in the natural interaction of the species. The mere presence of humans can increase the heart rate and stress hormones of even the largest animal.[51] Other changes in behavior have been recognized. For example, baboons and hyenas have learnt to track tourist safari vehicles to lead them to cheetah kills, which they then steal.[52] This direct impact of can severely damage the delicate balance of the food webs and keystone species.

There is a small but significant number of tourists who pay considerable sums of money in order to trophy hunt lions, rhino, leopards, and even giraffes. It has been argued that there is a positive and negative, direct and indirect, environmental impact caused by trophy hunting. There is a continued discussion at federal and international government level as to the ethics of funding conservation efforts through hunting activities.[53]

Another tourism destination activity is scuba diving. There are many negative direct environmental impacts caused by recreational diving. The most apparent is the damage caused by poorly skilled divers standing on the reef itself or by accidentally hitting the fragile coral with their fins. Studies have shown that "naïve" divers who engage in underwater photography are considerably more likely to accidentally damage the reef.[54][55] As the cost of underwater photography equipment has declined and its availability increased, it is inevitable that there will be an increase of direct damage to reefs by divers. Other direct impacts include over-fishing for "marine curios", sedimentation, and in-fill.[56] There is also direct environmental impact due to disturbed and altered species behaviour from fish feeding, as well as import of invasive species and pollution caused by dive-boats. There are also indirect impacts such as shoreline construction of superstructure and infrastructure.

Transit effects[edit]

Since 2009 there has been a steady yearly increase in the number of tourist arrivals worldwide of approximately 4.4 percent. In 2015 there were 1.186 billion tourist arrivals worldwide, of which 54 percent arrived by air (640 million), 39 percent (462 million) by motor vehicle, 5 percent by water (59 million), and 2 percent by rail (23.7 million).[57] A seven-hour flight on a Boeing 747 produces 220 tonnes of CO2, which is the equivalent of driving an average size family saloon car for a year, or the energy requirement of an average family home for nearly 17 years.[58] With the ever-increasing number of tourist arrivals, there is an ever-increasing quantity of global greenhouse gasses (GHG) being produced by the tourism industry. In 2015 it is estimated that 5 percent of global GHG emissions was attributable to air travel alone.[citation needed]

Health impacts of tourism[edit]

Tourism brings both positive and negative effects on the health of local people.[6] The short-term negative effects are related to the density of tourists’ arrivals, traffic congestion, crowding, crime level, and other stressful factors.[7] Inbound tourism also increases the spread of SARS, MERS, COVID-19, and other diseases that transmit from human-to-human, which recently led to closed borders, travel restrictions, canceled flights, etc.[59] Sexually transmitted infections are also often transferred between visitors and residents.[60][61] Road accidents is another negative outcome of tourism development since visitors are not aware of local rules, driving norms, and road conditions.[62] Furthermore, alcohol-related crash rates are significantly higher for tourists.[63][64]

The positive long-term health outcomes of tourism arrivals can be explained by the influence of positive experiences and social interactions with visitors on physical health and longevity.[65][66] The literature suggests that diverse social relationships lead to lower risks for morbidity and premature mortality.[67] Since diverse interactions of local people with tourists provide positive experiences that could affect physical health, tourism development might positively influence the health of the local people in the long run through positive emotions and social interactions.[6]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Sharpley, Richard (1 May 2018). "Tourism, Tourists and Society". doi:10.4324/9781315210407.
  2. ^ Woo, Eunju; Uysal, Muzaffer; Sirgy, M. Joseph (21 June 2016). "Tourism Impact and Stakeholders' Quality of Life". Journal of Hospitality & Tourism Research. 42 (2): 260–286. doi:10.1177/1096348016654971. ISSN 1096-3480.
  3. ^ Johnson, Jerry D.; Snepenger, David J.; Akis, Sevgin (January 1994). "Residents' perceptions of tourism development". Annals of Tourism Research. 21 (3): 629–642. doi:10.1016/0160-7383(94)90124-4. ISSN 0160-7383.
  4. ^ Seetanah, B. (January 2011). "Assessing the dynamic economic impact of tourism for island economies". Annals of Tourism Research. 38 (1): 291–308. doi:10.1016/j.annals.2010.08.009. ISSN 0160-7383.
  5. ^ a b c d Mason, Peter (2003). Tourism Impacts, Planning and Management (PDF). Burlington MA: Butter worth-Mannheim (Elsevier). ISBN 0-7506-5970X. Retrieved 22 August 2017.
  6. ^ a b c d "Health outcomes of tourism development: A longitudinal study of the impact of tourism arrivals on residents' health". Journal of Destination Marketing & Management. 17: 100462. 1 September 2020. doi:10.1016/j.jdmm.2020.100462. ISSN 2212-571X.
  7. ^ a b Gursoy, Dogan; Ouyang, Zhe; Nunkoo, Robin; Wei, Wei (17 September 2018). "Residents' impact perceptions of and attitudes towards tourism development: a meta-analysis". Journal of Hospitality Marketing & Management. 28 (3): 306–333. doi:10.1080/19368623.2018.1516589. ISSN 1936-8623.
  8. ^ Zhang, Yingfei; Ma, Zheng Feei (20 August 2020). "Psychological responses and lifestyle changes among pregnant women with respect to the early stages of COVID-19 pandemic". International Journal of Social Psychiatry: 002076402095211. doi:10.1177/0020764020952116. ISSN 0020-7640.
  9. ^ a b World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), ed. (28 August 2019). International Tourism Highlights, 2019 Edition. World Tourism Organization (UNWTO). doi:10.18111/9789284421152. ISBN 978-92-844-2115-2.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i Turner, R. (2015). Travel and Tourism: Economic Impact 2015 World (pp. 1–20). London: WTO.
  11. ^ a b Zhang, J., Madsen, B., & Jensen-Butler, C. (2007). "Regional economic impacts of tourism: The case of Denmark". Regional Studies, 41(6), 839–854.
  12. ^ a b c d e Muchapondwa, E., & Stage, J. (2013). "The economic impacts of tourism in Botswana, Namibia and South Africa: Is poverty subsiding?", Natural Resources Forum, 37(2), 80–89.
  13. ^ a b Goeldner, C. R., & Ritchie, J. B. (2007). Tourism Principles, Practices, Philosophies. John Wiley & Sons.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Rollins, R., Dearden, P. and Fennell, D. (2016). "Tourism, ecotourism and protected areas". In P. Dearden, R. Rollins and M. Needham (eds.), Parks and protected areas in Canada: Planning and management (4th ed) (pp. 391 – 425). Toronto: Oxford University Press
  15. ^ a b c d Wagner, J. E. (1997). "Estimating the economic impacts of tourism". Annals of Tourism Research, 24(3), 592–608.
  16. ^ Robert W. Wyllie. 2000. Tourism and Society; A guide to problems and issues. Venture Publishing. State College, Pennsylvania. Chapters 01-03
  17. ^ Kyungmi K. (2002) Doctor of Philosophy in Hospitality and Tourism and Management: The Effects of Tourism Impacts upon Quality of Life of Residents in the community, Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University. Retrieved from: 26 September 2020
  18. ^ a b (Fernandes)[dead link]
  19. ^ a b (Fagence,[dead link]
  20. ^ Pigram, J. J. (1993). "Planning for Tourism in Rural Areas: Bridging the Policy Implementation Gap". Tourism Research: Critiques and Challenges. Routledge, London, 156–174.
  21. ^ a b J.G Nelson, R. Butler, G. Wall. (1999). "Tourism and Sustainable Development; A Civic Approach". Heritage Resource Centre Joint Publication, Number 2. University of Waterloo and Department of Geography Publication Series, Number 52. University of Waterloo
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o Tyrrell, T. J., & Johnston, R. J. (2006). "The Economic Impacts of Tourism: A Special Issue". Journal of Travel Research, 45(1), 3–7.
  23. ^ a b c Buhalis, D., & Costa, C. (2006). Tourism Management Dynamics: Trends, Management, and Tools. Routledge.
  24. ^ Norjanah, Mohd B., Jaafar Mastura, and Mohamad Diana. (2014) "Perceptions of Local Communities on the Economic Impacts of Tourism Development in Langkawi, Malaysia". SHS Web of Conferences, vol. 12, 2014, p. 01100
  25. ^ a b c d Shepard, Robert (August 2002). "Commodification, culture and tourism". Tourist Studies. 2 (2): 183–201. doi:10.1177/146879702761936653. S2CID 55744323.
  26. ^ "Tourism seen as cure for poverty in central, west regions". Retrieved 3 March 2018.
  27. ^ a b c d Fisher, David (2004). "The Demonstration Effect Revisited". Annals of Tourism Research. 31 (2): 428–446. doi:10.1016/j.annals.2004.01.001.
  28. ^ a b c Jaafar, Mastura; Rasoolimanesh, S Mostafa; Ismail, Safura (2017). "Perceived sociocultural impacts of tourism and community participation: A case study of Langkawi Island". Tourism and Hospitality Research. 17 (2): 123–134. doi:10.1177/1467358415610373. S2CID 157784805.
  29. ^ a b KASTAMU, MATATIZO PETER. "Tourism as Acculturation Process and a Modern Leisure Activity".
  30. ^ . P. Mohanty and Niharranjan Mishra (2020). Overtourism in Religious Places: Is It a Myth or a Journey towards Faith, a Reflection from Golden Triangle (Bhubneswar-Puri-Konark) of Odisha, India. In Overtourism as Destination Risk: Impacts and Solutions, Bingley, Emerald
  31. ^ a b c d Deery, Margaret; Jago, Leo; Fredline, Liz (2012). "Rethinking social impacts of tourism research: A new research agenda". Tourism Management. 33 (1): 64–73. doi:10.1016/j.tourman.2011.01.026.
  32. ^ Ryan, C. (2003). Recreational tourism: Demand and impacts (Vol. 11). Channel View Publications.
  33. ^ Long, V. H. (1999). "Techniques for socially sustainable tourism development: lessons from Mexico". Department of Geography Publication Series, University of Waterloo, 52, 193–212.
  34. ^ Spencer Andrew & Tarlow Peter. (2020). Tourism Safety and Security for the Caribbean. In Tourism Security-Safety and Post Conflict Destinations. Bingley, Emerald.
  35. ^ Pearce, Philip L. (2013). Argyle, Michael (ed.). The Social Psychology of Tourist Behaviour: International Series in Experimental Social Psychology. International series in experimental social psychology. 3 (revised ed.). Oxford: Elsevier. p. 69. ISBN 9781483146676. Retrieved 26 June 2020. [Culture shock] refers to the process and the experience of disillusionment which attend those who come into contact with new cultures. It is generally conceived from the point of view of the sojourner, but may also be extended to include the host communities' response to the visitor.
  36. ^ Stone, Peter (2 February 2015). "Monuments Men: protecting cultural heritage in war zones". Apollo – The International Art Magazine. Archived from the original on 26 May 2020. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  37. ^ Baig, Mehroz (12 May 2014). "When War Destroys Identity". The Huffington Post. Archived from the original on 26 May 2020. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  38. ^ "UNESCO Director-General calls for stronger cooperation for heritage protection at the Blue Shield International General Assembly". UNESCO. 13 September 2017. Archived from the original on 26 May 2020. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  39. ^ "Action plan to preserve heritage sites during conflict". United Nations peacekeeping. 12 April 2019. Archived from the original on 27 May 2020. Retrieved 25 May 2020.
  40. ^ Matz, Christoph (28 April 2019). "Karl von Habsburg auf Mission im Libanon" [Karl von Habsburg on a mission in Lebanon]. Kronen Zeitung (in German). Archived from the original on 26 May 2020. Retrieved 22 May 2020.
  41. ^ Moghimehfar, F., & Halpenny, E. A. (2016). "How do people negotiate through their constraints to engage in pro-environmental behavior? A study of front-country campers in Alberta, Canada". Tourism Management, 57, 362–372.
  42. ^ Butler, R. W. (1980). "The concept of a tourist area cycle of evolution: implications for management of resources". The Canadian Geographer/Le Géographe canadien, 24(1), 5–12. doi:10.1111/j.1541-0064.1980.tb00970.x
  43. ^ "The sport of turtle riding 'the Greatest Liar on Earth'". Australian National Maritime Museum. 10 August 2013.
  44. ^ Marion, J.L. (1998). "Recreation Ecology Research Findings: Implications for Wilderness and Park Managers". Proceedings of the National Outdoor Ethics Conference, 18–21 April 1996, St. Louis, MO. Gaithersburg, MD: Izaak Walton League of America. pp. 188–196.
  45. ^ Marion, J. L., & Leung, Y. F. (2001). "Trail Resource Impacts and an Examination of Alternative Assessment Techniques". Journal of Park and Recreation Administration, 19(3), 17–37.
  46. ^ Hammitt, W. E., Cole, D. N., & Monz, C. A. (2015). Wildland Recreation: Ecology and Management. John Wiley & Sons.
  47. ^ Marion, J. L., & Cole, D. N. (1996). "Spatial and temporal variation in soil and vegetation impacts on campsites". Ecological Applications. 6 (2): 520–530. doi:10.2307/2269388. hdl:10919/46861. JSTOR 2269388.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  48. ^ Schaeffer, S. M.; Ziegler, S. E.; Belnap, J.; Evans, R. D. (2012). "Effects of Bromus tectorum invasion on microbial carbon and nitrogen cycling in two adjacent undisturbed arid grassland communities". Biogeochemistry. 111 (1–3): 427–441. doi:10.1007/s10533-011-9668-x. S2CID 55887966.
  49. ^ Anderson, Lucy G.; Rocliffe, Steve; Haddaway, Neal R.; Dunn, Alison M. (2015). "The Role of Tourism and Recreation in the Spread of Non-Native Species: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis". PLOS ONE. 10 (10): e0140833. Bibcode:2015PLoSO..1040833A. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0140833. PMC 4618285. PMID 26485300.
  50. ^ "Zebra Mussels (Dreissena polymorpha)". University of Wisconsin Sea Grant Institution. Retrieved 27 November 2018.
  51. ^ Millspaugh, Joshua J.; Burke, Tarryne; Van Dyk, GUS; Slotow, ROB; Washburn, Brian E.; Woods, Rami J. (2007). "Stress Response of Working African Elephants to Transportation and Safari Adventures". Journal of Wildlife Management. 71 (4): 1257–1260. doi:10.2193/2006-015. S2CID 86562019.
  52. ^ Roe, D., Leader-Williams, N., & Dalal-Clayton, D. B. (1997). "Take only photographs, leave only footprints: the environmental impacts of wildlife tourism", (No. 10). Iied.
  53. ^ Ripple, W. J., Newsome, T. M., & Kerley, G. I. (2016). "Does Trophy Hunting Support Biodiversity? A Response to Di Minin, et al.". Trends in Ecology and Evolution.
  54. ^ Sorice, M. G., Oh, C. O., & Ditton, R. B. (2007). "Managing scuba divers to meet ecological goals for coral reef conservation". AMBIO: A Journal of the Human Environment, 36(4), 316–322.
  55. ^ Lloret, Javier; Marín, Arnaldo; Marín-Guirao, Lázaro; Francisca Carreño, M. (2006). "An alternative approach for managing scuba diving in small marine protected areas". Aquatic Conservation: Marine and Freshwater Ecosystems. 16 (6): 579–591. doi:10.1002/aqc.734. ISSN 1052-7613.
  56. ^ Hawkins, J. P., & Roberts, C. M. (1994). "The growth of coastal tourism in the Red Sea: present and future effects on coral reefs". Ambio, 23(8), 503–508.
  57. ^ World Tourism Organization (UNWTO) Tourism Highlights Archived 8 April 2018 at the Wayback Machine, 2016 Edition [internet]. Retrieved 28 November 2016
  58. ^ You Sustain [internet] available from 2016. Retrieved 26 November 2016
  59. ^ Sigala, Marianna (1 September 2020). "Tourism and COVID-19: Impacts and implications for advancing and resetting industry and research". Journal of Business Research. 117: 312–321. doi:10.1016/j.jbusres.2020.06.015. ISSN 0148-2963. PMC 7290228. PMID 32546875.
  60. ^ Bauer, Irmgard (September 2007). "Understanding sexual relationships between tourists and locals in Cuzco/Peru". Travel Medicine and Infectious Disease. 5 (5): 287–294. doi:10.1016/j.tmaid.2007.06.004. ISSN 1477-8939.
  61. ^ Cabada, Miguel M.; Maldonado, Fernando; Bauer, Irmgard; Verdonck, Kristien; Seas, Carlos; Gotuzzo, Eduardo (1 May 2007). "Sexual Behavior, Knowledge of STI Prevention, and Prevalence of Serum Markers for STI Among Tour Guides in Cuzco/Peru". Journal of Travel Medicine. 14 (3): 151–157. doi:10.1111/j.1708-8305.2007.00110.x. ISSN 1195-1982.
  62. ^ Walker, Linda; Page, Stephen J. (June 2004). "The Contribution of Tourists and Visitors to Road Traffic Accidents: A Preliminary Analysis of Trends and Issues for Central Scotland". Current Issues in Tourism. 7 (3): 217–241. doi:10.1080/13683500408667980. ISSN 1368-3500.
  63. ^ Leviäkangs, Pekka (March 1998). "Accident risk of foreign drivers—the case of Russian drivers in South-Eastern Finland". Accident Analysis & Prevention. 30 (2): 245–254. doi:10.1016/s0001-4575(97)00077-8. ISSN 0001-4575.
  64. ^ Bellos, Vasileios; Ziakopoulos, Apostolos; Yannis, George (15 January 2019). "Investigation of the effect of tourism on road crashes". Journal of Transportation Safety & Security. 12 (6): 782–799. doi:10.1080/19439962.2018.1545715. ISSN 1943-9962.
  65. ^ Chida, Yoichi; Steptoe, Andrew (September 2008). "Positive Psychological Well-Being and Mortality: A Quantitative Review of Prospective Observational Studies". Psychosomatic Medicine. 70 (7): 741–756. doi:10.1097/psy.0b013e31818105ba. ISSN 0033-3174.
  66. ^ Yarnal, Careen Mackay; Kerstetter, Deborah (May 2005). "Casting Off". Journal of Travel Research. 43 (4): 368–379. doi:10.1177/0047287505274650. ISSN 0047-2875.
  67. ^ Rogers, Richard G. (1996). "The Effects of Family Composition, Health, and Social Support Linkages on Mortality". Journal of Health and Social Behavior. 37 (4): 326–338. doi:10.2307/2137260. ISSN 0022-1465.

External links[edit]