Sustainable tourism is a concept that covers the complete tourism experience, including concern for economic, social and environmental issues as well as attention to improving tourists' experiences and addressing the needs of host communities. Tourism can be related to travel for leisure, business and visiting friends and relatives and can also include means of transportation related to tourism. This might be transportation to the general location as well as local transportation to and from accommodations, entertainment, recreation, nourishment and shopping. There is now broad consensus that tourism should be sustainable. In fact, all forms of tourism have the potential to be sustainable if planned, developed and managed properly.
Global tourism accounts for about eight percent of global greenhouse gas emissions. This percentage takes into account airline transportation as well as other significant environmental and social impacts that are not always beneficial to local communities and their economies. Tourist development organizations are promoting sustainable tourism practices in order to mitigate negative effects caused by the growing impact of tourism. Challenges related to sustainable tourism include displacement and resettlement, environmental impacts and impacts of the COVID-19 pandemic. The displacement or resettlement of local communities can be a result of making areas more accessible to tourists. Construction projects to build new roads and housing for tourists, even if only campsites, also disrupts the natural world and local environment.
The United Nations World Tourism Organization emphasized these practices by promoting tourism as part of the Sustainable Development Goals, through programs like the International Year for Sustainable Tourism for Development in 2017. There is a direct link between sustainable tourism and all 17 Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Tourism for SDGs focuses on how SDG 8, SDG 12 and SDG 14 implicate tourism in creating a sustainable economy. Improvements are expected to be gained from suitable management aspects and including sustainable tourism as part of a broader sustainable development strategy.
Definitions and concepts
Sustainable tourism covers the complete tourism experience, including concern for economic, social and environmental issues as well as attention to improving tourists' experiences. The concept of sustainable tourism aims to reduce the negative effects of tourism activities. This has become almost universally accepted as a desirable and politically appropriate approach to tourism development.
According to the UNWTO, "Tourism comprises the activities of persons traveling to and staying in places outside their usual environment for not more than one consecutive year for leisure, business and other purposes." Global economists forecast continuing international tourism growth, the amount depending on the location. As one of the world's largest and fastest-growing industries, this continuous growth will place great stress on remaining biologically diverse habitats and Indigenous cultures. Mass tourism is the organized movement of large numbers of tourists to popular destinations such as theme parks, national parks, beaches or cruise ships. Mass tourism uses standardized packaged leisure products and experiences packaged to accommodate large number of tourists at the same time.
Related similar concepts
While "sustainable tourism" is a concept, the term "responsible tourism" refers to the behaviors and practices that can lead to sustainable tourism. All stakeholders are responsible for the kind of tourism they develop or engage in. Both service providers and purchasers or consumers are held accountable.
According to the Center for Responsible Tourism, responsible tourism is "tourism that maximizes the benefits to local communities, minimizes negative social or environmental impacts, and helps local people conserve fragile cultures and habitats or species." Responsible tourism incorporates not only being responsible for interactions with the physical environment, but also of the economic and social interactions. While different groups will see responsibility in different ways, the shared understanding is that responsible tourism should entail improvements in tourism. This would include ethical thinking around what is "good" and "right" for local communities and the natural world, as well as for tourists. Responsible Tourism is an aspiration that can be realized in different ways in different originating markets and in the diverse destinations of the world.
Responsible tourism has also been critiqued. Studies have shown that the degree to which individuals engage in responsible tourism is contingent upon their engagement socially. Meaning, tourist behaviors will fluctuate depending on the range of social engagement that each tourist chooses to take part in. A study regarding responsible tourists behavior concludes that it is not only a personal behavior of tourists that shape outcomes, but also a reflection of mechanisms put in place by governments. Other research has put into question the promise that tourism, even responsible tourism, is inline with UN Sustainable Development Goals given the difficulties in measuring such impact. Some argue that it actually detracts attention from the wider issues surrounding tourism that are in need of regulation, such as the number of visitors and environmental impact.
Responsible tourists are those who are sensitive to the dangers of travel and tourism. These individuals seek to protect tourist destinations and at the same time to protect tourism as an industry. Responsible tourists reduce the negative impacts of tourism by learning in advance about the culture, politics, and economy of their travel destinations. Favoring businesses which conserve cultural heritage and traditional values and purchasing local goods and services promotes responsible tourism.
From the Rio summit or Earth Summit in 1992 until the UN Commission on Sustainable Development in 1999, the main focus of the tourism industry was the earth, the planet, the local environment. Green-tourism and eco-tourism were common terms. Now there is a trend to include the local population and this branch of responsible tourism is called humane tourism or humane travel. The idea is to empower local communities through travel related businesses around the world, first and foremost in developing countries. For example, humane tourism would connect travelers seeking new adventures and authentic experiences more directly to local businesses and local populations. Thus, economic advantages would accrue to existing local businesses and the local community..
The Internet is changing tourism by making it more possible for existing small businesses to promote themselves through on the internet and reach consumers wanting to support local businesses offering housing, transportation and local cuisine. Globalization and the Internet are playing a key role in a new age for human tourism. As early as 1987, however, some scholars called for "rebellious tourists and rebellious locals" to create new forms of tourism.
Historically, the movement toward sustainable tourism through responsible tourism emerged following the environmental awareness that rose out of the 1960s and 70s amidst a growing phenomenon of “mass tourism”. In 1973, the European Travel Commission initiated a multilateral effort to advance environmentally sound tourism and development. The South African national tourism policy (1996) used the term "responsible tourism" and mentioned the well-being of the local community as a main factor. In 2014, the Cape Town Declaration on Responsible Tourism focused on the role of business in promoting responsible tourism. While further research is needed to understand the impacts of responsible tourism, a study conducted in 2017 found that well-managed responsible tourism practices were beneficial to local communities.
Stakeholders of sustainable tourism play a role in continuing this form of tourism. This can include organizations as well as individuals, to be specific, ECOFIN. A stakeholder in the tourism industry is deemed to be anyone who is impacted by development positively or negatively, and as a result, it reduces potential conflict between the tourists and host community by involving the latter in shaping the way in which tourism develops.
The government plays an important role in encouraging sustainable tourism whether it be through marketing, information services, education, and advice through public-private collaborations. To promote ecotourism, many governments have looked towards the preservation of natural attractions such as wildlife sanctuaries, national parks, highlands and islands. On a more global scale, many governments have taken the effort to facilitate global and regional alliances with other governments. Through these partnerships, they have been able to foster relationships with other countries, transport services providers, and tourist destinations that all cater to the needs of ecotourism.
However, the values and ulterior motives of governments often need to be taken into account when assessing the motives for sustainable tourism. One important factor to consider in any ecologically sensitive or remote area or an area new to tourism is that of carrying capacity. This is the capacity of tourists of visitors an area can sustainably tolerate without damaging the environment or culture of the surrounding area. This can be altered and revised in time and with changing perceptions and values.
Non-governmental organizations are one of the stakeholders in advocating sustainable tourism. Their roles can range from spearheading sustainable tourism practices to simply doing research. University research teams and scientists can be tapped to aid in the process of planning. Such solicitation of research can be observed in the planning of Cát Bà National Park in Vietnam.
Dive resort operators in Bunaken National Park, Indonesia, play a crucial role by developing exclusive zones for diving and fishing respectively, such that both tourists and locals can benefit from the venture.
Large conventions, meetings and other major organized events drive the travel, tourism, and hospitality industry. Cities and convention centers compete to attract such commerce, commerce which has heavy impacts on resource use and the environment. Major sporting events, such as the Olympic Games, present special problems regarding environmental burdens and degradation. But burdens imposed by the regular convention industry can be vastly more significant.
Green conventions and events are a new but growing sector and marketing point within the convention and hospitality industry. More environmentally aware organizations, corporations, and government agencies are now seeking more sustainable event practices, greener hotels, restaurants and convention venues, and more energy-efficient or climate-neutral travel and ground transportation. However, the convention trip not taken can be the most sustainable option: "With most international conferences having hundreds if not thousands of participants, and the bulk of these usually traveling by plane, conference travel is an area where significant reductions in air-travel-related GHG emissions could be made. ... This does not mean non-attendance" (Reay, 2004), since modern Internet communications are now ubiquitous and remote audio/visual participation. For example, by 2003 Access Grid technology had already successfully hosted several international conferences. A particular example is the large American Geophysical Union's annual meeting, which has used live streaming for several years. This provides live streams and recordings of keynotes, named lectures, and oral sessions, and provides opportunities to submit questions and interact with authors and peers. Following the live-stream, the recording of each session is posted online within 24 hours.
Some convention centers have begun to take direct action in reducing the impact of the conventions they host. One example is the Moscone Center in San Francisco, which has a very aggressive recycling program, a large solar power system, and other programs aimed at reducing impact and increasing efficiency.
Local communities benefit from sustainable tourism through economic development, job creation, and infrastructure development. Tourism revenues bring economic growth and prosperity to attractive tourist destinations, which can raise the standard of living in destination communities. Sustainable tourism operators commit themselves to creating jobs for local community members. An increase in tourism revenue to an area acts as a driver for the development of increased infrastructure. As tourist demands increase in a destination, a more robust infrastructure is needed to support the needs of both the tourism industry and the local community. A 2009 study of rural operators throughout the province of British Columbia, Canada found "an overall strong 'pro-sustainability' attitude among respondents. Dominant barriers identified were lack of available money to invest, lack of incentive programs, other business priorities, and limited access to suppliers of sustainable products, with the most common recommendation being the need for incentive programs to encourage businesses to become more sustainable."
The Global Sustainable Tourism Council (GSTC) serves as the international body for fostering increased knowledge and understanding of sustainable tourism practices, promoting the adoption of universal sustainable tourism principles, and building demand for sustainable travel. GSTC launched the GSTC Criteria, a global standard for sustainable travel and tourism, which includes criteria and performance indicators for destinations, tour operators and hotels. The GSTC Criteria serve as the international standard for certification agencies (the organizations that would inspect a tourism product, and certify them as a sustainable company).
Sustainable transport and mobility
Without travel there is no tourism, so the concept of sustainable tourism is tightly linked to a concept of sustainable mobility. Two relevant considerations are tourism's reliance on fossil fuels and tourism's effect on climate change. 72 percent of tourism's CO2 emissions come from transportation, 24 percent from accommodations, and 4 percent from local activities. Aviation accounts for 55% of those transportation CO2 emissions (or 40% of tourism's total). However, when considering the impact of all greenhouse gas emissions, of condensation trails and induced cirrus clouds, aviation alone could account for up to 75% of tourism's climate impact.
The International Air Transport Association (IATA) considers an annual increase in aviation fuel efficiency of 2 percent per year through 2050 to be realistic. However, both Airbus and Boeing expect the passenger-kilometers of air transport to increase by about 5 percent yearly through at least 2020, overwhelming any efficiency gains. By 2050, with other economic sectors having greatly reduced their CO2 emissions, tourism is likely to be generating 40 percent of global carbon emissions. The main cause is an increase in the average distance traveled by tourists, which for many years has been increasing at a faster rate than the number of trips taken. "Sustainable transportation is now established as the critical issue confronting a global tourism industry that is palpably unsustainable, and aviation lies at the heart of this issue."
The European Tourism Manifesto has also called for an acceleration in the development of cycling infrastructure to boost local clean energy travel. Deployment of non-motorized infrastructures and the re-use of abandoned transport infrastructure (such as disused railways) for cycling and walking has been proposed. Connectivity between these non-motorized routes (greenways, cycle routes) and main attractions nearby (i.e. Natura2000 sites, UNESCO sites, etc.) has also been requested. It has also called for sufficient and predictable rail infrastructure funding, and a focus on digital multimodal practices, including end-to-end ticketing (such as Interrail), all of which are in-line with the EU’s modal shift goal.
The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) or Global Goals are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed to be a "blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable future for all". The United Nations specialized agency called the United Nations World Tourism Organization (UNWTO), is the custodian agency to monitor SDG 8 targets related to tourism. Given the dramatic increase in tourism, the report strongly promotes responsible tourism. Even though some countries and sectors in the industry are creating initiatives for tourism in addressing the SDGs, knowledge sharing, finance and policy for sustainable tourism are not fully addressing the needs of stakeholders.
The SDGs include targets on tourism and sustainable tourism in several goals:
- Target 8.9 of SDG 8 (Decent work and economic growth) states: "By 2030, devise and implement policies to promote sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products".
- Target 12.b of SDG 12 (responsible consumption and production) is formulated as "Develop and implement tools to monitor sustainable development impacts for sustainable tourism that creates jobs and promotes local culture and products." UNWTO is the custodian agency for this target.
- Target 14.7 of SDG 14 (Life below Water) is to: "By 2030, increase the economic benefits to small island developing States and least developed countries from the sustainable use of marine resources, including through sustainable management of fisheries, aquaculture and tourism".
Displacement and resettlement
In places where there was no tourism prior to tourism companies' arrival, displacement and resettlement of local communities is a common issue. For example, the Maasai tribes in Tanzania have been a victim of this problem. After the second World War, conservationists moved into the areas where the Maasai tribes lived, with the intent to make such areas accessible to tourists and to preserve the areas' natural beauty and ecology. This was often achieved through establishing national parks and conservation areas. It has been claimed that Maasai activities did not threaten the wildlife and the knowledge was blurred by "colonial disdain" and misunderstandings of savannah wildlife. As the Maasai have been displaced, the area within the Ngorongoro Conservation Area (NCA) has been adapted to allow easier access for tourists through the construction of campsites and tracks, as well as the removal of stone objects such as stones for souvenirs.
Many critics view the extractive nature of this type of "sustainable tourism" as an oxymoron, as it is fundamentally unable to continue indefinitely. True and perfect sustainability is likely impossible in all but the most favorable circumstances, as the interests of equity, economy, and ecology often conflict with one another and require tradeoffs. It is a reality that many things are done in the name of sustainability are actually masking the desire to allow extra profits. There is often alienation of local populations from the tourists. Such cases highlight that sustainable tourism covers a wide spectrum from "very weak" to "very strong" when the degree of anthropocentricism and exploitation of human and natural resources is taken into account.
Ecotourism, nature tourism, wildlife tourism, and adventure tourism take place in environments such as rain forests, high alpine, wilderness, lakes and rivers, coastlines and marine environments, as well as rural villages and coastline resorts. Peoples' desire for more authentic and challenging experiences results in their destinations becoming more remote, to the few remaining pristine and natural environments left on the planet. The positive impact of this can be an increased awareness of environmental stewardship. The negative impact can be a destruction of the very experience that people are seeking. There are direct and indirect impacts, immediate and long-term impacts, and there are impacts that are both proximal and distal to the tourist destination. These impacts can be separated into three categories: facility impacts, tourist activities, and the transit effect.Environmental sustainability focuses on the overall viability and health of ecological systems. Natural resource degradation, pollution, and loss of biodiversity are detrimental because they increase vulnerability, undermine system health, and reduce resilience. More research is needed to assess the impacts of tourism on natural capital and ecosystem services. Interdisciplinary and transdisciplinary research is needed to address how the tourism industry impacts waste and wastewater treatment, pollination, food security, raw materials, genetic resources, oil and natural gas regulation and ecosystem functions such as soil retention and nutrient recycling.
Cruises are among the fastest-growing sectors of the global travel industry. Over the past decade, cruise industry revenue grew to 37 billion U.S. dollars, and the demand for cruise travel has increased. Some argue that the profitability of mass tourism overshadows environmental and social concerns. For example, the ocean environment suffers from the dumping of wastewater and sewage, anchors damage the seabed and coral reefs and smokestack emissions pollute the air. Social issues that have been linked to the cruise industry include poor wages and living conditions as well as discrimination and sexual harassment.
Small Island tourism
Small Islands often depend on tourism, as this industry makes up anywhere from 40% to 75% of the GDP (Gross Domestic Product) for various islands including Barbados, Aruba, Isle of Man, and Anguilla.
Mass tourism, including the cruise industry, tends to put a strain on fragile island ecosystems and the natural resources it provides. Studies have shown that early practices of tourism were unsustainable and took a toll on environmental factors, hurting the natural landscapes that originally drew in the tourists. For example, in Barbados, beaches are the main attraction and have been eroded and destroyed over the years. This is due to inefficient political decisions and policies along with irresponsible tourist activity, such as reckless driving and waste disposal, damaging coastal and marine environments. Such practices also altered physical features of the landscape and caused a loss in biodiversity, leading to the disruption of ecosystems. Many other islands faced environmental damage such as Isle of Man and Samoa.
However, visitors are attracted to the less industrial scene of these islands, and according to a survey, over 80% of the people enjoyed the natural landscape when they visited, many commenting that they wanted to protect and save the wildlife in the area. Many tourists have turned to practices of sustainable and eco-tourism in an attempt to save the nature they enjoy in these locations, while some political entities try to enforce this in an attempt to keep tourism in their island afloat.
Impacts of COVID-19 pandemic
Due to COVID-19, an unprecedented decrease of 65% took place in international tourist numbers in first half of 2020 as compared to 2019. Countries around the world closed their borders and introduced travel restrictions in response to the pandemic. The situation is expected to gradually improve in 2021 depending upon lifting of travel restrictions, availability of COVID-19 vaccine and return of traveler confidence.
Furthermore, the current corona pandemic has made many sustainability challenges of tourism clearer. Therefore sustainable tourism scholars call for a transformation of tourism. They state that the corona pandemic has created a window of opportunity, in which we can shift towards more sustainable practices and rethink our systems. The system we have in place now, cannot be sustained in its current form. The constant aim for economic growth goes at the expense of Earth´s ecosystems, wildlife and our own well-being. The gap between rich and poor is growing every year, and the pandemic has spurred this even further. Our current systems are often in place for the few, leaving the many behind. This is no different for the global and local tourism systems. Therefore, tourism scholars argue we should learn from the pandemic. “COVID-19 provides striking lessons to the tourism industry, policy makers and tourism researchers about the effects of global change. The challenge is now to collectively learn from this global tragedy to accelerate the transformation of sustainable tourism”.
Technology is seen as a partial solution to the disruptive impacts of pandemics like COVID-19. Scholars argue that "surrogate tourism" will allow tourists to remain home while employing local guides at the destination to facilitate personalized, interactive, real-time tours (PIRTs). While these options will not take the place of conventional travel experience, there is a market for PIRTS especially for persons with disabilities and the elderly, and for the "sustainable citizen who wishes to minimize their impact on the planet".
There has been the promotion of sustainable tourism practices surrounding the management of tourist locations by locals or the community. This form of tourism is based on the premise that the people living next to a resource are the ones best suited to protecting it. This means that the tourism activities and businesses are developed and operated by local community members, and certainly with their consent and support. Sustainable tourism typically involves the conservation of resources that are capitalized upon for tourism purposes. Locals run the businesses and are responsible for promoting the conservation messages to protect their environment.
Community-based sustainable tourism (CBST) associates the success of the sustainability of the ecotourism location to the management practices of the communities who are directly or indirectly dependent on the location for their livelihoods. A salient feature of CBST is that local knowledge is usually utilized alongside wide general frameworks of ecotourism business models. This allows the participation of locals at the management level and typically allows a more intimate understanding of the environment.
The use of local knowledge also means an easier entry level into a tourism industry for locals whose jobs or livelihoods are affected by the use of their environment as tourism locations. Environmentally sustainable development crucially depends on the presence of local support for a project. It has also been noted that in order for success projects must provide direct benefits for the local community.
However, recent research has found that economic linkages generated by CBST may only be sporadic, and that the linkages with agriculture are negatively affected by seasonality and by the small scale of the cultivated areas. This means that CBST may only have small-scale positive effects for these communities.
It has also been said that partnerships between governments and tourism agencies with smaller communities are not particularly effective because of the disparity in aims between the two groups, i.e. true sustainability versus mass tourism for maximum profit. In Honduras, such a divergence can be demonstrated where consultants from the World Bank and officials from the Institute of tourism wanted to set up a selection of 5-star hotels near various ecotourism destinations. But another operating approach in the region by USAID and APROECOH (an ecotourism association) promotes community-based efforts which have trained many local Hondurans. Grassroot organizations were more successful in Honduras.
As part of a development strategy
Developing countries are especially interested in international tourism, and many believe it brings countries a large selection of economic benefits including employment opportunities, small business development, and increased in payments of foreign exchange. Many assume that more money is gained through developing luxury goods and services in spite of the fact that this increases a countries dependency on imported products, foreign investments and expatriate skills. This classic 'trickle down' financial strategy rarely makes its way down to brings its benefits down to small businesses.
It has been said that the economic benefits of large-scale tourism are not doubted but that the backpacker or budget traveler sector is often neglected as a potential growth sector by developing countries governments. This sector brings significant non-economic benefits which could help to empower and educate the communities involved in this sector. "Aiming 'low' builds upon the skills of the local population, promotes self-reliance, and develops the confidence of community members in dealing with outsiders, all signs of empowerment" and all of which aid in the overall development of a nation.
In the 1990s, international tourism was seen as an import potential growth sector for many countries, particularly in developing countries as many of the world's most beautiful and 'untouched' places are located in developing countries. Prior to the 1960s studies tended to assume that the extension of the tourism industry to LEDCs was a good thing. In the 1970s this changed as academics started to take a much more negative view on tourism's consequences, particularly criticizing the industry as an effective contributor towards development. International tourism is a volatile industry with visitors quick to abandon destinations that were formerly popular because of threats to health or security.
Tourism is seen as a resilient industry and bounces back quickly after severe setbacks, like natural disasters, September 2011 attacks and COVID-19. Many call for more attention to "lessons learned" from these setbacks to improve mitigation measures that could be taken in advance.
The Haliburton Sustainable Forest in central Ontario, Canada is a sustainably managed and privately owned 100,000 forest that supports both tourism and the logging industry. Based on a 100-year plan for sustaining the forest, the Haliburton Sustainable Forest has sources of income with tourism and logging that contribute to the long-term stability of the local economy and to the health of the forest. In just over four decades the forest has been transformed from a run-down forestry holding to a flourishing, multi-use operation with benefits to owners, employees and the public at large as well as the environment. 
- BEST Education Network
- Impacts of tourism
- International Year of Sustainable Tourism for Development
- Journal of Sustainable Tourism
- Hypermobility (travel)
- World Tourism Day
- "Sustainable development | UNWTO". www.unwto.org. Retrieved 2020-09-25.
- Peeters, P.; Dubois, G. (2010). "Tourism travel under climate change mitigation constraints". Journal of Transport Geography. 18 (3): 447–457. doi:10.1016/j.jtrangeo.2009.09.003.
- Peeters P., Gössling S., Ceron J.P., Dubois G., Patterson T., Richardson R.B., Studies E. (2004). The Eco-efficiency of Tourism.
- Bramwell, B., & Lane, B. (1993). Sustainable tourism: An evolving global approach. Journal of sustainable tourism, 1(1), 1-5.
- Fennell, David A.; Cooper, Chris (2020). Sustainable Tourism: Principles, Contexts and Practices. Bristol, Blue Ridge Summit: Multilingual Matters. pp. 198, 234. doi:10.21832/9781845417673. ISBN 978-1-84541-767-3.
- Lenzen, Manfred; Sun, Ya-Yen; Faturay, Futu; Ting, Yuan-Peng; Geschke, Arne; Malik, Arunima (7 May 2018). "The carbon footprint of global tourism". Nature Climate Change. Springer Nature Limited. 8 (6): 522–528. Bibcode:2018NatCC...8..522L. doi:10.1038/s41558-018-0141-x. ISSN 1758-6798. S2CID 90810502.
[...] between 2009 and 2013, tourism's global carbon footprint has increased from 3.9 to 4.5 GtCO2e, four times more than previously estimated, accounting for about 8% of global greenhouse gas emissions. Transport, shopping and food are significant contributors. The majority of this footprint is exerted by and in high-income countries.
- Tourism and the Sustainable Development Goals – Journey to 2030, Highlights. World Tourism Organization. 2017-12-18. doi:10.18111/9789284419340. ISBN 978-92-844-1934-0.
- "Tourism & Sustainable Development Goals – Tourism for SDGs". Retrieved 2021-01-10.
- New directions in rural tourism. Derek Hall, Lesley Roberts, Morag Mitchell. London [England]. 2016. ISBN 1-351-91502-9. OCLC 980828139.CS1 maint: others (link)
- UNWTO Tourism Definitions (August 28, 2021). "UNWTO Tourism Definitions". UNWTO.
- Poon, Auliana (1993). Tourism, technology, and competitive strategies. Wallingford: CAB International. ISBN 0-85198-751-6. OCLC 29467917.
- Responsible tourism : concepts, theories and practices. David Leslie. Cambridge, MA: CAB International. 2012. ISBN 978-1-84593-987-8. OCLC 785808916.CS1 maint: others (link)
- CREST (2016). "The Case for Responsible Travel: Trends & Statistics 2016" (PDF). Cite journal requires
- Apollo, Michal (2018). "Ethics in tourism as a key to development, prosperity and well-being of all stakeholders: 3rd International Congress on Ethics and Tourism, Krakow, 27–28 April 2017". International Journal of Environmental Studies. 75 (2): 361–365. doi:10.1080/00207233.2017.1383076. ISSN 0020-7233.
- Goodwin, Harold (2016). Responsible Tourism : Using Tourism for Sustainable Development (2nd ed.). Oxford: Goodfellow Publishers Ltd. ISBN 978-1-910158-86-9. OCLC 962452286.
- Diallo, Mbaye Fall; Diop-Sall, Fatou; Leroux, Erick; Valette-Florence, Pierre (2015). "Responsible tourist behaviour: The role of social engagement". Recherche et Applications en Marketing (English Edition). 3: 85–104 – via SAGE.
- Ferguson, Lucy; Moreno Alarcón, Daniela (September 2014). "Gender and sustainable tourism: reflections on theory and practice". Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 23: 401–416 – via Taylor & Francis.
- Anita, Pelumarom. "The Politics of Tourism and Poverty Reduction." Responsible Tourism. Ed. David Leslie. CABI, 2012. 90-106.
- Wheeler, Brian (June 1991). "Tourism's troubled times: Responsible Tourism is not the answer". Tourism Management: 91–16.
- "What is (not) Ecotourism? | Global Ecotourism Network (GEN)". www.globalecotourismnetwork.org. Retrieved 2020-08-17.
- Honey, Martha (2008). Ecotourism and Sustainable Development: Who Owns Paradise? (Second ed.). Washington, DC: Island Press. ISBN 978-1-59726-125-8.
- "Ecotourism vs Sustainable Tourism". Integra: developing impact from opportunity. September 1, 2021.
- Society, National Geographic (2019-07-26). "The Global Network". National Geographic Society. Retrieved 2021-08-30.
- Krippendorf, Jost (1987). The holiday makers : understanding the impact of leisure and travel. London: Heinemann. ISBN 0-434-91064-3. OCLC 19521210.
- Brohman, John (1996). "New directions in tourism for third world development". Annals of Tourism Research. 23: 48–70. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.330.6563. doi:10.1016/0160-7383(95)00043-7.
- "Cape Town Declaration on Responsible Tourism". Responsible Tourism Partnership. 20 October 2014. Retrieved 9 September 2020.
- Mathew, Paul V.; Sreejesh, S. (July 2016). "Impact of responsible tourism on destination sustainability and quality of life of community in tourism destinations". Journal of Hospitality and Tourism Management. 31: 83–89 – via Elsevier Science Direct.
- Aas, C.; Ladkin, A.; Fletcher, J. (2005). "Stakeholder collaboration and heritage management" (PDF). Annals of Tourism Research. 32 (1): 28–48. doi:10.1016/j.annals.2004.04.005.
- Iyyer, Chaitanya (December 2009). Land management challenges and strategies. ISBN 9789380228488.
- "north sulawesi information pages".
- Malhado A., de Araujo L., Rothfuss R. (2014). The attitude-behavior gap and the role of information in influencing sustainable mobility in mega-events. Ch. 7 in: Understanding and Governing Sustainable Tourism Mobility: Psychological and Behavioural Approaches.
- Ostrowska-Tryzno, Anna; Muszyńska, Agnieszka (2018). "Sustainable Tourism Services As An Exceptional Product For The Mice Destination . Case Study Reykjavik". Kwartalnik Naukowy Uczelni Vistula (in Polish). 1 (55): 164–174. ISSN 2084-4689.
- Reay DS (2004). New Directions: Flying in the face of the climate change convention. Atmospheric Environment (38:5, p.793-794).
- AGU Fall Meeting FAQs. See the Virtual Options section.
- Anukrati Sharma & Haza A. 2021. Overtourism as Destination Risk: Impacts and Solutions, Bingley, Emerald Group
- McCool, S. F., Moisey, R. N. (2001). Integrating environmental and social concerns over tourism development. [In:] S. F. McCool & R. N. Moisey (eds.), Tourism, recreation, and sustainability: linking culture and the environment (pp. 17-20). CABI Publishing: Oxon
- Thuot, Lea; Vaugeois, Nicole; Maher, Patrick (2010). "Fostering innovation in sustainable tourism". Journal of Rural and Community Development. 5: 76–89. doi:10.25316/ir-138. ISSN 1712-8277.
- Moscardo, Gianna; Konovalov, Elena; Murphy, Laurie; McGehee, Nancy G.; Schurmann, Andrea (2017-12-01). "Linking tourism to social capital in destination communities". Journal of Destination Marketing & Management. 6 (4): 286–295. doi:10.1016/j.jdmm.2017.10.001. ISSN 2212-571X.
- Bushell, Robyn; Bricker, Kelly (2017-01-01). "Tourism in protected areas: Developing meaningful standards". Tourism and Hospitality Research. 17 (1): 106–120. doi:10.1177/1467358416636173. ISSN 1467-3584. S2CID 155767802.
- "Global Sustainable Tourism Council (GSTC) - the international accreditation body for sustainable tourism certification". Global Sustainable Tourism Council (GSTC). Retrieved 2021-06-03.
- "Coping with Success: Managing Overcrowding in Tourism Destinations". McKinsey & Company. December 2017.
- Singh, S (2019). "Recognising Sustainability in Tourism". Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation.
- Høyer, K.G. (2000). "Sustainable tourism or sustainable mobility? The Norwegian case". Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 8 (2): 147–160. doi:10.1080/09669580008667354. S2CID 153821161.
- Gossling, S.; Hall, M.; Peeters, P.; Scott, D. (2010). "The future of tourism: can tourism growth and climate policy be reconciled? A mitigation perspective". Tourism Recreation Research. 35 (2): 119–130. doi:10.1080/02508281.2010.11081628. S2CID 128883926.
- Cohen S., Higham J.E., Peeters P., Gossling S. (2014). Why tourism mobility behaviors must change. Ch. 1 in: Understanding and Governing Sustainable Tourism Mobility: Psychological and Behavioural Approaches.
- Cohen S., Higham J., Cavaliere C. (2011). Binge flying: Behavioural addiction and climate change. Annals of Tourism Research.
- Larsen, G.R.; Guiver, J.W. (2013). "Understanding tourists' perceptions of distance: a key to reducing the environmental impacts of tourism mobility". Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 21 (7): 968–981. doi:10.1080/09669582.2013.819878. S2CID 154395334.
- Gössling S., Ceron J.P., Dubois G., Hall C.M., Gössling I.S., Upham P., Earthscan L. (2009). Hypermobile travellers Archived 2010-06-19 at the Wayback Machine. Chapter 6 in: Climate Change and Aviation: Issues, Challenges and Solutions.
- Call for Action: Accelerate Social and Economic Recovery by investing in sustainable tourism
- Policy priorities
- United Nations (2017) Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 6 July 2017, Work of the Statistical Commission pertaining to the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development (A/RES/71/313 Archived 28 November 2020 at the Wayback Machine)
- "TOURISM 4 SDGs | UNWTO". www.unwto.org. Retrieved 2021-08-30.
- "United Nations (2018) Economic and Social Council, Conference of European Statisticians, Geneva" (PDF). United Nations, Geneva. Retrieved September 19, 2020.
- Tourism and the Sustainable Development Goals – Journey to 2030, Highlights. World Tourism Organization. 2017. doi:10.18111/9789284419340. ISBN 9789284419340. Retrieved 2021-01-10.
- "Goal 14 targets". UNDP. Retrieved 2020-09-24.
- Brohman, J (1996). "New Directions in Tourism for Third World Development". Annals of Tourism Research. 23: 48–70. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.330.6563. doi:10.1016/0160-7383(95)00043-7.
- Mowforth, M. & Munt, I. (1998). Tourism and Sustainability: New Tourism in the Third World. London: Routledge.
- Monbiot, G (1994). No Man's Land. London: Macmillan.
- Olerokonga, T (1992). "What about the Maasai?". In Focus. 4: 6–7.
- Avieli, Nir; Sermoneta, Tsahala (2020-10-07). "Maasai on the phone: materiality, tourism, and the extraordinary in Zanzibar". Humanities and Social Sciences Communications. 7 (1): 1–10. doi:10.1057/s41599-020-00607-7. ISSN 2662-9992.
- Moghimehfar, F., & Halpenny, E. A. (2016). "How do people negotiate through their constraints to engage in pro-environmental behavior? A study of front-country campers in Alberta, Canada". Tourism Management, 57, 362–372.
- Pueyo-Ros, Josep (2018-09-18). "The Role of Tourism in the Ecosystem Services Framework". Land. 7 (3): 111. doi:10.3390/land7030111. ISSN 2073-445X.
- "Statista Research Department". Statista. Retrieved August 24, 2021.
- Breaky, Noreen; Ruhanen, Lisa; Shakeela, Aishath (2004). "The Role of Employment in the Sustainable Development Paradigm—The Local Tourism Labor Market in Small Island Developing States". Journal of Human Resources in Hospitality and Tourism. 10 (4): 331–353. doi:10.1080/15332845.2011.588493. hdl:10072/41063. S2CID 154983575.
- Queiroz, Rose (2014). "Demand of the tourists visiting protected areas in small oceanic islands: the Azores case-study (Portugal)". Environment, Development and Sustainability. 16 (5): 1119–1135. doi:10.1007/s10668-014-9516-y. S2CID 153601158.
- Mycoo, Michelle (2014). "Sustainable tourism, climate change and sea level rise adaptation policies in Barbados". Natural Resources Forum. 38: 47–57. doi:10.1111/1477-8947.12033.
- Twinning-Ward, Luoise; Butler, Richard (2002). "Implementing STD on a Small Island: Development and Use of Sustainable Tourism Development Indicators in Samoa". Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 10 (5): 363–387. doi:10.1080/09669580208667174. S2CID 154442062.
- "International Tourist Numbers Down 65% in the First Half of 2020, UNWTO Reports". www.unwto.org. Retrieved 2020-09-25.
- Ateljevic, Irena (2020-05-26). "Transforming the (tourism) world for good and (re)generating the potential 'new normal'". Tourism Geographies. 22 (3): 467–475. doi:10.1080/14616688.2020.1759134. ISSN 1461-6688. S2CID 219046224.
- Gössling, Stefan; Scott, Daniel; Hall, C. Michael (2021-01-02). "Pandemics, tourism and global change: a rapid assessment of COVID-19". Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 29 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1080/09669582.2020.1758708. ISSN 0966-9582. S2CID 219068765.
- Higgins-Desbiolles, Freya (2021-04-03). "The "war over tourism": challenges to sustainable tourism in the tourism academy after COVID-19". Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 29 (4): 551–569. doi:10.1080/09669582.2020.1803334. ISSN 0966-9582. S2CID 225441193.
- Cláudia Seabra et al, 2020. Pandemics and Travel: COVID-19 Impacts in the Tourism Industry. Bingley, Emerald
- "The political economy of degrowth".
- Gössling, Stefan; Scott, Daniel; Hall, C. Michael (2021-01-02). "Pandemics, tourism and global change: a rapid assessment of COVID-19". Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 29 (1): 1–20. doi:10.1080/09669582.2020.1758708. ISSN 0966-9582. S2CID 219068765.
- Sharma A, & Hassan A. 2020. Overtourism as Destination Risk: Impacts and Solutions. Bingley, Emerald.
- Fennell, David A. (2021). "Technology and the sustainable tourist in the new age of disruption". Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 29 (5): 767–773. doi:10.1080/09669582.2020.1769639. ISSN 0966-9582. S2CID 219751875.
- Drake, S (1991). 'Local Participation in ecotourism project' in Nature Tourism. Washington D.C.: Island Press. p. 132.
- Epler Wood, M (1991). 'Global Solutions: on ecotourism society', in Nature Tourism. Washington D.C.: Island Press. p. 204.
- Trejos, B; Chiang, LHN (2009). "Local economic linkages to community-based tourism in rural Costa Rica". Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography. 30 (3): 373–387. doi:10.1111/j.1467-9493.2009.00375.x.
- Mader, R (1996). Honduras Notes, email communications, cited in Mowforth and Munt 1998, Tourism and Sustainability: New Tourism in the Third World. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0203437292.
- Harrison, D (1992). International Tourism in the less developed countries. Chichester: Wiley. pp. 1–18.
- Baskin, J (1995). Local economic development: Tourism - Good or Bad? In Tourism workshop proceedings: small, medium, micro enterprises. Johannesburg: Land and Agriculture Policy Center. pp. 102–116.
- Scheyvens, R (1999). "Ecotourism and the Empowerment of Local Communities". Tourism Management. 20 (2): 245–249. doi:10.1016/s0261-5177(98)00069-7.
- Scheyvens, R (2002). "Backpacker tourism and third world development". Annals of Tourism Research. 1. 29: 144–164. doi:10.1016/s0160-7383(01)00030-5.
- Brohman, J (1996). "New Directions in Tourism for Third World Development". Annals of Tourism Research. 23: 48–70. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.330.6563. doi:10.1016/0160-7383(95)00043-7.
- Lea, J. P. (1988). Tourism and Development in the Third World. London: Routledge. ISBN 978-0-203-04039-3.
- "The Haliburton Forest & Wildlife Reserve, Ltd". August 24, 2021.
|Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Responsible travel.|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Sustainable tourism.|
- International Centre for Responsible Tourism
- Linking Biodiversity Conservation and Sustainable Tourism at World Heritage Sites
- UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs, Division for Sustainable Development
- African Fair Tourism & Trade Organisation
- Cape Town Declaration on Responsible Tourism
- Global Sustainable Tourism Council