Shader Model 4.0
|Predecessor||Intel Extreme Graphics|
|Successor||Intel HD and Iris Graphics|
The Intel Graphics Media Accelerator, or GMA, is a series of integrated graphics processors introduced in 2004 by Intel, replacing the earlier Intel Extreme Graphics series and being succeeded by the Intel HD and Iris Graphics series.
This series targets the market of low-cost graphics solutions. The products in this series are integrated onto the motherboard, have limited graphics processing power, and use the computer's main memory for storage instead of a dedicated video memory. They are commonly found on netbooks, low-priced laptops and desktop computers, as well as business computers which do not need high levels of graphics capability. In early 2007, about 90% of all PC motherboards sold had an integrated GPU.
- 1 History
- 2 Graphics cores
- 2.1 Intel GPU based
- 2.2 PowerVR GPU based
- 3 Specifications
- 4 Protected Audio Video Path
- 5 Software support
- 6 Modern gaming
- 7 Microsoft Windows performance reviews
- 8 See also
- 9 References
- 10 External links
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (August 2011) (Learn how and when to remove this template message)|
The GMA line of GPUs replaces the earlier Intel Extreme Graphics, and the Intel740 line, the latter of which was a discrete unit in the form of AGP and PCI cards with technology that evolved from companies Real3D and Lockheed Martin. Later, Intel integrated the i740 core into the Intel 810 chipset.
The original architecture of GMA systems supported only a few functions in hardware, and relied on the host CPU to handle at least some of the graphics pipeline, further decreasing performance. However, with the introduction of Intel's 4th generation of GMA architecture (GMA X3000) in 2006, many of the functions are now built into the hardware, providing an increase in performance. The 4th generation of GMA combines fixed function capabilities with a threaded array of programmable executions units, providing advantages to both graphics and video performance. Many of the advantages of the new GMA architecture come from the ability to flexibly switch as needed between executing graphics-related tasks or video-related tasks. While GMA performance has been widely criticized in the past as being too slow for computer games, sometimes being nicknamed Intel GMD (Graphics Media Decelerator) and being essentially referred to as the world's first "graphics decelerator" since the S3 ViRGE, the latest GMA generation should ease many of those concerns for the casual gamer.
Despite similarities, Intel's main series of GMA Integrated Graphics Processors (IGPs) is not based on the PowerVR technology Intel licensed from Imagination Technologies. Intel used the low-power PowerVR MBX designs in chipsets supporting their XScale platform, and since the sale of XScale in 2006 has licensed the PowerVR SGX and used it in the GMA 500 IGP for use with their Atom platform.
Intel GPU based
Generation three based
The GMA 900 was the first graphics core produced under Intel's Graphics Media Accelerator product name, and was incorporated in the Intel 910G, 915G, and 915Gx chipsets.
The 3D architecture of the GMA 900 was a significant upgrade from the previous Extreme 3D graphics processors. It is a 4 pixel per clock cycle design supporting DirectX 9 pixel shader model 2.0. It operates at a clock rate ranging from 160 to 333 MHz, depending on the particular chipset. At 333 MHz, it has a peak pixel fill-rate of 1332 megapixels per second. However, the architecture still lacks support for hardware transform and lighting and the similar vertex shader technologies.
The processor uses different separate clock generators for display and render cores. The display unit includes a 400 MHz RAMDAC, two 25–200 Mpixel/s serial DVO ports, and two display controllers. In mobile chipsets, up to two 18-bit 25–112 MHz LVDS transmitters are included.
The GMA 950 was the second graphics core produced under Intel's Graphics Media Accelerator product name, and was incorporated in the Intel 945G chipsets.
The processor includes an up to 400 MHz 256-bit core, supporting up to 10.6 GB/s memory bandwidth with DDR2-667 system RAM, up to 224 MB max. video memory through DVMT scheme, 1.6 GPixels/s and 1.6 GTexels/s fill rate, a max. resolution of 2048x1536 for both analog and digital displays, 2 SDVO ports for flat-panels and/or TV-Out via ADD2 cards or media expansion cards.
3D-wise, GMA 950 supports up to four pixels per clock rendering, Microsoft DirectX 9.0 hardware acceleration & Vertex shader 3.0 and OpenGL 1.4 with ARB extensions on Windows.
The 946GZ, Q965, and Q963 chipsets use the GMA 3000 graphics core. The GMA 3000 3D core is very different from the X3000, despite their similar names. It is based more directly on the previous generation GMA 900 and GMA 950 graphics, and belonging to the same "i915" family with them. It has pixel and vertex shaders which only support Shader Model 2.0b features, and the vertex shaders are still software-emulated. In addition, hardware video acceleration such as hardware-based iDCT computation, ProcAmp (video stream independent color correction), and VC-1 decoding are not implemented in hardware. Of the GMA 3000-equipped chipsets, only the Q965 retains dual independent display support. The core speed is rated at 400 MHz with 1.6 Gpixel/s fill rate in datasheets, but was listed as 667 MHz core in the white paper.
The memory controller can now address a maximum of 256 MB of system memory, and the integrated serial DVO ports have increased top speed to 270 Mpixel/s.
Integrated graphics found on G31 and G33 chipsets.It supports Pixel Shader 2.0 with OpenGL 1.4, but Hardware Vertex Shader isn't supported.
Found in Intel Atom N4xx, N5xx (codenamed Pineview) processors. Like GMA 3100 and GMA 3000, this is a very close relative of the GMA900/950, completely different from the GMA X3000 series. Supports up to 384 MB video memory, DirectX 9, Shader Model 3.0, OpenGL 1.5 with Microsoft Windows and OpenGL 2.0 with Linux.
Generation four based
The GMA X3000 for desktop was "substantially redesigned" when compared to previous GMA iterations and it is used in the Intel G965 north bridge controller. The GMA X3000 was launched in July 2006. The GMA X3000's underlying 3D rendering hardware is organized as a unified shader processor consisting of 8 scalar execution units. Each pipeline can process video, vertex, or texture operations. A central scheduler dynamically dispatches threads to pipeline resources, to maximize rendering throughput (and decrease the impact of individual pipeline stalls.) However, due to the scalar nature of the execution units, they can only process data on a single pixel component at a time. The GMA X3000 supports DirectX 9.0 with vertex and pixel Shader Model 3.0 features.
The processor consists of different clock domains, meaning that the entire chip does not operate the same clock speed. This causes some difficulty when measuring peak throughput of its various functions. Further adding to the confusion, it is listed as 667 MHz in Intel G965 white paper, but listed as 400 MHz in Intel G965 datasheet. There are various rules that define the IGP's processing capabilities.
Memory controller can now address maximum 384 MB memory according to white paper, but only 256 MB in datasheet.
The GMA X3100 is the mobile version of the GMA X3000 used in the Intel GL960/GM965 chipsets and also in the GS965 chipset. The X3100 supports hardware transform and lighting, up to eight programmable shader units, and up to 384 MB video memory. Its display cores can run up to 333 MHz on GM965 and 320 MHz on GL960. Its render cores can run up to 500 MHz on GM965 and 400 MHz on GL960. The X3100 display unit includes a 300 MHz RAMDAC, two 25–112 MHz LVDS transmitters, 2 DVO encoders, and a TV encoder. Under Windows, the driver supports DirectX 10.0, Shader Model 3.0 and OpenGL 1.5. Under Linux, OpenGL 2.1 is supported.
GMA X3500 is an upgrade of the GMA X3000 and used in the desktop G35. The shaders support shader model 4.0 features. Architecturally, the GMA X3500 is very similar to the GMA X3000, with both graphics cores running at 667 MHz. The major difference between them is that the GMA X3500 supports Shader Model 4.0 and DirectX 10, whereas the earlier X3000 supports Shader Model 3.0 and DirectX 9. The X3500 also adds hardware-assistance for playback of VC-1 video.
The GMA X4500 and the GMA X4500HD for desktop platforms were launched in June 2008. The GMA X4500 is used in the G43 chipset and the GMA X4500HD is used in the G45 chipset. The GMA X4500 is also used in the G41 chipset, which was released in September 2008.
The GMA 4500MHD for laptops was launched on July 16, 2008. Featurewise, the 4500MHD is identical to its desktop cousin, the X4500HD. The GMA 4500MHD is used in the GL40, GS40, GM45 and GS45 chipsets. It had been previously rumored that a cost-reduced version, the GMA 4500, was to be launched in late 2008 or early 2009 and was to be used in the upcoming Q43 and Q45 chipsets. However, in practice the Q43 and Q45 chipsets also use the GMA X4500.
Like the X3500, X4500 supports DirectX 10 and Shader Model 4.0 features. Intel designed the GMA X4500 to be 200% faster than the GMA 3100 (G33 chipset) in 3DMark06 performance and 70% faster than the GMA X3500 (G35 chipset).
PowerVR GPU based
Intel developed a new set of low power graphics architecture based on PowerVR.
The available Linux drivers do not support much of this.
PowerVR SGX 535 based
The Intel SCH (System Controller Hub; codenamed Poulsbo) for the Atom processor Z5xx series features a GMA 500 graphic system. Rather than being developed in-house, this core is a PowerVR SGX 535 core licensed from Imagination Technologies.
Intel describes this as "a flexible, programmable architecture that supports shader-based technology, 2D, 3D and advanced 3D graphics, high-definition video decode, and image processing. Features include screen tiling, internal true color processing, zero overhead anti-aliasing, programmable shader 3D accelerator, and 32-bit floating-point operations."
A revised version of the previous Intel SCH (System Controller Hub) for the Atom Z6xx series CPU codenamed Lincroft. Essentially, this is the same graphic system as the GMA 500, but clocked at double the speed. (From 200 MHz to 400 MHz).
PowerVR SGX 545 based
This integrated graphics system was released in Intel Atom (Cedar Trail, 32 nm) and based on PowerVR SGX545. Unlike the original PowerVR solution, this model is clocked at 400 MHz instead of 200 MHz. It is specifically found in the Intel Atom N2600 processor and Atom D2500 models. It supports DirectX version 9.0c.
Similar to the GMA 3600, but this version is clocked at 640 MHz. It is found in Atom N2800, Atom D2550, Atom D2500, Atom D2600 and Atom D2700 models. It supports DirectX version 9.0c.
Protected Audio Video Path
Protected Audio Video Path (PAVP) protects the data path within a computer during video playback (e.g., Blu-ray discs). It is supported by newer chipsets (e.g. Intel G45) and operating systems (since Windows Vista).
PAVP can be configured in the BIOS. Different modes are supported:
- PAVP Lite: Reserves buffer memory for encryption of compressed video data.
- Paranoid PAVP: Reserve memory during boot which isn't seen by the Operating System. This disables Windows Aero in Windows Vista.
The default setting in most BIOS is PAVP Lite.
Mac OS X
Mac OS X 10.4 supports the GMA 950, since it was used in previous revisions of the MacBook, MacMini, and 17-inch iMacs. It has been used in all Intel-based Mac minis (until the Mac Mini released on March 3, 2009). Mac OS X 10.5 Leopard contains drivers for the GMA X3100, which were used in a recent revision of the MacBook range.
Late-release versions of Mac OS X 10.4 also support the GMA 900 due to its use in the Apple Developer Transition Kit, which was used in the PowerPC-to-Intel transition. However, special modifications to the kext file must be made to enable Core Image and Quartz Extreme.
Although the new MacBook line no longer uses the X3100, Mac OS X 10.5 (Leopard) ships with drivers supporting it that require no modifications to the kext file. Mac OS X 10.6 (Snow Leopard), which includes a new 64-bit kernel in addition to the 32-bit one, does not include 64-bit X3100 drivers. This means that although the MacBooks with the X3100 have 64-bit capable processors and EFI, Mac OS X must load the 32-bit kernel to support the 32-bit X3100 drivers. November 9's 10.6.2 update ships with 64-bit X3100 drivers.
Apple removed the 64-bit GMA X3100 drivers later, and thus affected Macs were forced back to the 32-bit kernel despite being 64-bit clean in terms of hardware and firmware. No 64-bit drivers were offered in OS X Lion. Subsequently, OS X Mountain Lion dropped 32-bit kernel booting. The combination of these two changes in graphics driver code resulted in many Mac revisions being unable to upgrade to Mountain Lion, as their GPUs cannot be replaced.
For a while MacBook and MacBook Pro notebooks instead shipped with a far more powerful NVIDIA GeForce 9400M, and the 15" and 17" MacBook Pro notebooks shipped with an additional GeForce 9600GT supporting hybrid power to switch between GPUs. The NVIDIA GeForce 9400M chipset implemented in Apple MacBooks did not support composite or S-video output.
FreeBSD 8.0 supports the following Intel graphic chipsets: i810, i810-DC100, i810e, i815, i830M, 845G, 852GM, 855GM, 865G, 915G, 915GM, 945G, 945GM, 965G, 965Q, 946GZ, 965GM,945GME, G33, Q33, Q35, G35, GM45, G45, Q45, G43 and G41 chipsets. In practice, chipsets through 4500MHD are supported with DRM and 3D using FreeBSD 9. Work to integrate GEM and KMS is currently adding support for i-series integrated graphics and improving support for earlier chipsets.
In August 2006, Intel added support to the open-source X.Org/XFree86 drivers for the latest 965 series that include the GMA (X)3000 core. These drivers were developed for Intel by Tungsten Graphics.
In May 2007, version 2.0 of the driver (xorg-video-intel) was released, which added support for the 965GM chipset. In addition, the 2.0 driver added native video mode programming support for all chipsets from i830 forward. This version added support for automatic video mode detection and selection, monitor hot plug, dynamic extended and merged desktops and per-monitor screen rotation. These features are built into the X.Org 7.3 X server release and will eventually be supported across most of the open source X.Org video drivers. Version 2.1, released in July 2007, added support for the G33, Q33 and Q35 chipsets. G35 is also supported by the Linux driver.
The drivers were mainly developed by Intel and Tungsten Graphics (under contract) since the chipsets' documentation were not publicly available for a long time. In January 2008, Intel released the complete developer documentation for their, at the time, latest chipsets (965 and G35 chipset), allowing for further external developers' involvement. In April 2009, Intel released documentation for their newer G45 graphics (including X4500) chipsets. In May 2009, Intel employee Eric Anholt stated Intel was "still working on getting docs for [8xx] chipsets out."
H.264 acceleration via VA-API
PowerVR based chips on Linux
GMA 500, GMA 600, GMA 3600, GMA 3650 are PowerVR based chips incompatible with Intel GenX GPU architecture family. There are no Intel supported FOSS drivers. The current available FOSS drivers (included in Linux 3.3 onwards) only support 2D acceleration (not 3D acceleration).
Ubuntu supports GMA500 (Poulsbo) through the ubuntu-mobile and gma500 repositories on Launchpad. Support is present in an experimental way for 11.10 and 12.04, but the installation procedure is not as simple as other drivers and can lead to many bugs. Ubuntu 12.10 has 2D support included.
Joli OS, a Linux-based OS optimized for netbooks, has a driver for the GMA500 built in.
PixieLive, a GNU/Linux live distribution optimized for GMA500 netbooks, it can boot from USB Pendrive, SD Card or HardDisk.
Intel releases official Linux drivers through the IEGD (Intel Embedded Graphic Driver) supporting some Linux distributions dedicated to the embedded market.
In November 2009, the Linux Foundation released the details of a new, rewritten Linux driver that would support this chipset and Intel's other upcoming chipsets. The Direct Rendering Manager and X.org parts would be free software, but the 3D component (using Gallium3D) will still be proprietary.
Oracle Solaris 11 provides 64-bit video driver support for the following Intel graphic chipsets: i810, i810-dc100, i810e, i815, i830M, 845G, 852GM/855GM, 865G, 915G, E7221 (i915), 915GM, 945G, 945GM, 945GME, Pineview GM, Pineview G, 965G, G35, 965Q, 946GZ, 965GM, 965GME/GLE, G33, Q35, Q33, GM45, 4 Series, G45/G43, Q45/Q43, G41, B43, Clarkdale, Arrandale, Sandybridge Desktop (GT1), Sandybridge Desktop (GT2), Sandybridge Desktop (GT2+), Sandybridge Mobile (GT1), Sandybridge Mobile (GT2), Sandybridge Mobile (GT2+), Ivybridge Mobile (GT1), Ivybridge Mobile (GT2), Ivybridge Desktop (GT1), Ivybridge Desktop (GT2), Ivybridge Server (GT1), and Ivybridge Server (GT2).
The Solaris open-source community developers provide additional driver support for Intel HD Graphics 4000/2500 graphic-based chipsets (aka Ivy Bridge), OpenGL 3.0/GLSL 1.30, and the new libva/va-api library enabling hardware accelerated video decode for the prevailing coding standards today (MPEG-2, MPEG-4 ASP/H.263, MPEG-4 AVC/H.264, and VC-1/WMV3).
GMA 900 on Windows
The GMA 900 is theoretically capable of running Windows Vista's Aero interface and is certified as DirectX 9 compliant. However, no WHQL certified WDDM driver has been made available. Presumably this is due to the lack of a "hardware scheduler" in the GPU.
Many owners of GMA900 hardware believed they would be able to run Aero on their systems as early release candidates of Vista permitted XDDM drivers to run Aero. Intel, however, contends that Microsoft's final specs for Aero/WDDM certification did not permit releasing a WDDM driver for GMA900 (due to issues with the hardware scheduler, as mentioned above), so when the final version of Vista was released, no WDDM driver was released. The last minute pulling of OpenGL capabilities from the GMA drivers for Windows Vista left a large number of GMA based workstations unable to perform basic 3D hardware acceleration with OpenGL and unable to run many Vista Premium applications such as Windows DVD Maker.
In Windows 8, Aero effects are enabled with VGA compatibility driver via software rendering. There are no native GMA900 drivers available for Windows 8 since XDDM support is removed from this operating system. On GMA900 based laptops with Windows 7, users may experience a serious bug related to the chipset's native backlight control method failing to change brightness, resulting in the brightness becoming stuck on a particular value after driver installation. The bug did not occur when Windows 7 was initially released to the public and is commonly observed after running Windows Update. This bug also occurs in GMA3150 based laptops.
GMA 950 on Windows
This IGP is capable of displaying the Aero interface for Windows Vista. Drivers are shipped with Windows Vista since beta versions became available in mid-2006. It can also run Windows 7's Aero interface since Intel released drivers for Windows 7 in mid-June 2009.
Most of the reviews about this IGP were negative, since many games (such as Splinter Cell: Chaos Theory or Oblivion) need Pixel Shader 2.0 or higher, that is supported in hardware, and Vertex Shader 2.0, that is software-emulated. Other games such as Crysis will start, but with frame rates below acceptable.
GMA X3000/X3100 on Windows
T&L and Vertex Shaders 3.0 are supported by Intel's newest 15.6 drivers for Windows Vista as of September 2, 2007. XP support for VS3 and T&L was introduced on August 10, 2007. Intel announced in March 2007 that beta drivers would be available in June 2007. On June 1, 2007 "pre-beta" (or Early Beta) drivers were released for Windows XP (but not for Vista). Beta drivers for Vista and XP were released on June 19. Since hardware T&L and vertex shading has been enabled in drivers individual applications can be forced to fall back to software rendering, which raises performance and compatibility in certain cases. Selection is based on testing by Intel and preselected in the driver .inf file.
Intel has released production version drivers for 32-bit and 64-bit Windows Vista that enable the Aero graphics. Intel introduced Direct X 10 for the X3100 and X3500 GPUs in the Vista 15.9 drivers in 2008, though any release of DX10 drivers for the X3000 is uncertain. WDDM 1.1 is supported by X3100 but DXVA-HD is not.
GMA 500 on Windows
- IEGD Version 5.1 for Windows NT,2000 and XP (OpenGL only)
- Version 3.3.0 for Windows XP. (D3D only)
- Version 4.0.2 for Windows Vista.
- Version 188.8.131.520 for Windows 7.
The performance and functionality of GMA processors are limited, attaining the performance of only low-cost discrete GPUs at best. Some features of games and other 3D applications may be unsupported by GMAs, particularly older ones. The GMA X3x00's unified shader design allows for more complete hardware functionality, but the line still has issues with some games and has significantly limited performance.
Intel has put up a page with 'Known Issues & Solutions' for each version. For Intel Graphics Media Accelerator Software Development concerns, there is the Integrated Graphics Software Development Forum.
Microsoft Windows performance reviews
GMA X3000 review
A review conducted in April 2007 by The Tech Report determined that the GMA X3000 had performance comparable to the Nvidia GeForce 6150. During that review the GMA X3000 was unable to run the PC games Battlefield 2 and Oblivion. However, the ExtremeTech review found that games which aren't as graphically demanding, such as Sims 2 and Civilization 4, "look good" when the GMA X3000 is used to run them.
Reviews performed by The Tech Report, by ExtremeTech and by Anandtech all concluded that the AMD's Radeon X1250 integrated graphics solutions based on the AMD 690G chipset was a better choice than the GMA X3000 based on the G965 chipset, especially when considering 3D gaming performance and price.
GMA X3500 review
In a review performed by Register Hardware in December 2007, author Leo Waldock argued that because the GMA X3500 is not capable of running any PC game that requires DirectX 10, the addition of DirectX 10 support to the GMA X3500 was "irrelevant". During that same review, the GMA X3500 was used to run Crysis and FEAR Extraction Point, where it was able to render only 4 and 14 frames per second respectively for each game. In the end the review concluded that overall the X3500 made "minimal advances" over the GMA X3000.
GMA X4500 review
In a review published in May 2008, the GMA X4500 showed a superior game performance to the lowest-end 1-year-older GeForce 8400M graphics card in some CPU-bound tests, while losing to the still low-end GeForce 8400M GS with a slower CPU.
- Graphics hardware and FOSS
- Intel HD and Iris Graphics
- Comparison of Intel graphics processing units
- Comparison of AMD graphics processing units
- Comparison of Nvidia graphics processing units
- "Supported Graphics APIs and Features". Intel.
- Key, Gary (2007-03-16). "Intel G965: microATX Performance Update". AnandTech. Retrieved 2008-07-17.
- "Product brief: The Intel 946GZ Express Chipset" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-06-28.
- "Intel's Next Generation Integrated Graphics Architecture – Intel Graphics Media Accelerator X3000 and 3000" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-06-08.
- "Intel's Next Generation Integrated Graphics Architecture — Intel Graphics Media Accelerator X3000 and 3000 White Paper". Retrieved 2007-10-19.
- "HD Graphics Quick Reference Guide". Intel. 2012-02-07. Retrieved 2016-03-16.
- "Intel G965 with GMA X3000 Integrated Graphics — Intel GMA X3000 Graphics Subsystem — CPUs, Boards & Components by ExtremeTech". Extremetech.com. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- Waldock, Leo (2007-12-05). "Asus P5E-VM HDMI motherboard|Register Hardware". Reghardware.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- "2006 Intel Desktop Motherboard Roadmap". DailyTech. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- Gasior, Geoff. Intel's G965 Express chipset, Tech Report, April 5, 2007.
- "Intel Graphics — Built for mainstream Desktop and Mobile PC Users" (PDF). Retrieved 2007-06-08.
- Intel, X3100 supports DirectX 9.0c and Shader Model 4.0, retrieved February 10, 2013
- Intel, Intel 82GM965 OpenGL compatibility, retrieved January 16, 2010 Archived March 24, 2010, at the Wayback Machine.
- Waldock, Leo (2007-12-05). "Asus P5E-VM HDMI motherboard|Register Hardware". Reghardware.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- "Intel G45 Express Chipset — Overview". Intel.com. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- Smith, Tony (2008-06-04). "Intel touts G45 chipset's full Blu-ray support|Register Hardware". Reghardware.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- "Intel G43 Express Chipset — Overview". Intel.com. 2009-07-17. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- "Quick Reference Guide to Intel Integrated Graphics". Softwarecommunity.intel.com. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- "Intel G41 aims for Q4 2008". Fudzilla. 2008-07-08. Archived from the original on July 31, 2008. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- Smith, Tony (2008-03-07). "Intel talks up 'Eaglelake' DX10 chipset GPU tech | Register Hardware". Reghardware.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- "Intel Q43 Express Chipset — Overview". Intel.com. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- "Intel Launches Low-Power 65nm 4 Series Chipsets for the Desktop". AnandTech. 2008-06-05. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- "G45 IGP runs 3Dmark06 3X faster". Archived from the original on November 26, 2007. Retrieved 2007-12-10.
- "Intel GMA X4500HD, X4500 & 4500 Info". VR-Zone. 2008-01-16. Retrieved 2013-06-20.
- Poulsbo - ArchWiki
- "Imagination Technologies confirms new Intel Centrino Atom processor technology utilises POWERVR graphics and video technologies". Retrieved 2008-04-03.
- "US15W Product Brief" (PDF). Retrieved 2008-04-03.
- "Intel Graphics Media Accelerator (GMA) 600". Retrieved 2012-03-24.
- "Reviews - Intel DN2800MT (CedarView Atom) power draw test". LinuxTECH.NET. 2012-03-13. Retrieved 2014-01-13.
- "ARK | Intel® Atom™ Processor N2600 (1M Cache, 1.6 GHz)". Ark.intel.com. Retrieved 2014-01-13.
- "ARK | Intel® Atom™ Processor D2500 (1M Cache, 1.86 GHz)". Ark.intel.com. Retrieved 2014-01-13.
- "Blu-ray Disc playback with the Intel Graphics FAQ".
- "iMac (Intel) - Mac Guides". Guides.macrumors.com. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- "Mac mini (Intel) - Mac Guides". Guides.macrumors.com. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- "Apple Updates MacBooks to Santa Rosa, GMA X3100; 2.6GHz MacBook Pro — Mac Rumors". Mac Rumors<!. 2007-11-01. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- "Nvidia's Ion: Lending Atom Some Wings — Tom's Hardware". Tomshardware.com. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- "GeForce 9400M motherboard GPU". Nvidia.com. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- MacBook: Mini-DVI to video adapter compatibility
- Intel Linux graphics web site
- Cook (2007-05-10). "Free software drivers for the Intel 965GM Express Chipset". Lwn.net. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- Eric Anholt. "X.Org mailing list: xf86-video-intel 2.1.0". Retrieved 2007-07-09.
- "Driver Documentation". Retrieved 2008-02-01.
- Linux Graphics Drivers from Intel. "Open Source Graphics Drivers from Intel — Licence". Intellinuxgraphics.org. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- Michael Larabel (January 31, 2008). "Intel Releases Open 965/G35 IGP Programming Documentation". Phoronix Media. Retrieved 2009-11-11.
- "Index of /docs/intel". Retrieved 2008-02-01.
- Michael Larabel (April 15, 2009). "Intel Drops A Load Of G45 Programming Documentation". Phoronix Media. Retrieved 2009-11-11.
- Eric Anholt (May 29, 2009). "I fixed 8xx 3D rendering". Retrieved 2009-11-17.
- "Intel G45 with VA API on Ubuntu 11.10 «". Emmolution.org. 2012-02-16. Retrieved 2014-01-13.
-  Archived June 20, 2012, at the Wayback Machine.
- "Hardware support components Video cards Poulsbo". ubuntu.com. 2009-09-25. Retrieved 2009-10-10.
- Intel® Embedded Graphics Drivers (IEGD)
- Michael Larabel (November 2, 2009). "Intel's Special Driver For Poulsbo Uses Gallium3D". Phoronix Media. Retrieved 2009-11-20.
- Intel excuse for no GMA900 WDDM driver: no "HW Scheduler" no driver, Beyond3D, October 26, 2006.
- "Intel's response to 915G WDDM requests". Softwarecommunity.intel.com. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- GMA950specs on Intel
- Intel G965 drivers Announce Archived April 30, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
- G965 drivers Forum Discussion Archived May 14, 2007, at the Wayback Machine.
- Pre-Beta XP Drivers
- Mobile Intel 965 Express Chipset Family Intel Graphics Media Accelerator Beta Driver for Windows* XP (zip)
- "Vertex Processing Selection Capability White Paper for Intel G965, G35, and GM965 Express Chipsets" (PDF). Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- "Release Notes Vista driver 184.108.40.2066". Downloadmirror.intel.com. 2008-08-22. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- "Release Notes XP driver 220.127.116.1190". Downloadmirror.intel.com. Archived from the original on November 15, 2010. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- Intel GMA X3100 Driver for Windows 8
- Intel Atom drivers
- "Intel Download Center". Downloadcenter.intel.com. Retrieved 2014-01-13.
- "Intel Core i5-2500K Sandy Bridge GPU Performance Review". techPowerUp. 2011-01-02. Retrieved 2014-01-13.
- Waldock, Leo. Asus P5E-VM HDMI motherboard, Register Hardware, December 5, 2007.
- "Intel Graphics home page". Intel.com. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- Intel Software Network Forums
- "Intel's G965 Express chipset — The Tech Report — Page 17". The Tech Report. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- "Intel's G965 Express chipset — The Tech Report — Page 9". The Tech Report. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- "Intel G965 with GMA X3000 Integrated Graphics — Media Encoding and Game Benchmarks — CPUs, Boards & Components by ExtremeTech". Extremetech.com. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- "Intel G965 with GMA X3000 Integrated Graphics — Final Thoughts: What to Buy — CPUs, Boards & Components by ExtremeTech". Extremetech.com. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- "AMD 690G: Performance Review". AnandTech. 2007-03-06. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- Waldock, Leo (2007-12-05). "Asus P5E-VM HDMI motherboard | Register Hardware". Reghardware.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- Waldock, Leo (2007-12-05). "Asus P5E-VM HDMI motherboard | Register Hardware". Reghardware.co.uk. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- "Notebook Test News auf notebookjournal.de — Praxis — Exclusive: Intel Centrino 2 Performance Test". Notebookjournal.de. Retrieved 2009-09-17.
- Intel Graphics: Homepage
- Intel Graphics Media Accelerator X3000 and 3000 White Paper
- Windows Vista* support FAQ, Intel
- Linux Graphics Drivers from Intel
- Intel HD Graphics 3000 and Intel HD Graphics 2000 Review, X-bit labs
- The Register: Intel vs AMD - integrated graphics shoot-out
- Blu-Ray Performance - Intel X4500HD Versus Radeon HD 4830