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|Born||Jalil Huseyngulu oglu Mammadguluzadeh
22 February 1866
Nakhchivan City, Erivan Governorate, Russian Empire
|Died||4 January 1932 (aged 65)
Baku, Azerbaijan SSR, USSR
|Education||Transcaucasian Teachers Seminary, Gori|
|Occupation||Teacher, journalist, writer|
|Spouse(s)||Nazli Kangarli (died 1903)
Hamida Javanshir (1907-1932; his death)
Jalil Huseyngulu oglu Mammadguluzadeh (Azerbaijani: Cəlil Məmmədquluzadə) (22 February 1866 – 4 January 1932) was an Azerbaijani satirist and writer. He is considered as one of first feminists in Azerbaijan and Middle East and had a big role in foundation of first women's magazine in Azerbaijan.
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Mammadguluzadeh was born in Nakhchivan exclave of Azerbaijan , his father was an Iranian Azerbaijani merchant. In 1887, he graduated from the Gori Pedagogical Seminary and for the next ten years was involved in teaching at rural schools in Bash-Norashen, Ulukhanli, Nehram and other towns and villages of the Erivan Governorate.
Mammadguluzadeh was a strong activist of the language unification movement. He condemned many of his contemporaries for what he considered a corruption of the Azeri language by replacing its genuine vocabulary with newly introduced Russian, Persian and Ottoman Turkish loanwords, often alien and confusing to many readers. Later he became deeply involved in the process of Romanization of the Azeri alphabet. In 1898, he moved to Erivan; in 1903, he moved to Tiflis where he became a columnist for the local Sharqi-Rus newspaper published in the Azeri language. In 1906, he founded a satirical magazine entitled Molla Nasraddin. Frequent military conflicts and overall political instability in the Caucasus forced him to move to Tabriz, Persia, where he continued his career as a chief-editor and columnist for Molla Nasraddin. He eventually settled in Baku in 1921.
The magazine accurately portrayed social and economic realities of the early-20th century society and backward norms and practices common in the Caucasus. In 1921 (after Molla Nasraddin was banned in Russia in 1917), Mammadguluzadeh published eight (8) more issues of the magazine in Tabriz, Persia. After Sovietization, the printing-house was moved to Baku, where Molla Nasraddin was published until 1931. Mammadguluzadeh's satirical style influenced the development of this genre in Middle East. Writers of first saticial journals in Uzbekistan and Turkmenistan were influenced by Jalil Mammadguluzadeh and Molla Nasraddin
Mammadguluzadeh's religious views have been disputed. Some sources [clarification needed] claim he was an atheist while others[which?] claim he supported Muslim democracy while being critical of extremism and ignorance. Due to his harsh criticism of religion he was sometimes threatened with death by extremists.
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Mammadguluzadeh wrote in various genres, including short stories, novels, essays, and dramatics. His first significant short story, "The Disappearance of the Donkey" (part of his Stories from the village of Danabash series), written in 1894 and published in 1934, touched upon social inequality. In his later works (The Postbox, The Iranian Constitution, Gurban Ali bey, The Lamb, etc.), as well as in his famous comedies The Corpses and The Madmen Gathering he ridiculed corruption, snobbery, ignorance, religious fanaticism, etc.
Personal life and death
- (Russian) Джалил Мамедкулизаде, azerigallery.com; accessed 25 October 2016.(Azerbaijani)
- Language and Alphabet Transitions, #8.1. Summer 2000, azer.com; accessed 5 October 2016.
- Famous Personalities of Nakhchivan: Jalil Mammadguluzadeh, shexsiyyetler.nakhchivan.az; accessed 5 October 2016.(Azerbaijani)
- Mammadguluzadeh profile, calilbook.musigi-dunya.az; accessed 5 October 2016.(Azerbaijani)
- Arxadaki Azerbaycan, kulis.az; accessed 25 October 2016.(Azerbaijani)
- Dysfunctionality of Our Mentality - Agalar Mammadov, enyeniedebiyat.com, 6 June 2009; accessed 5 October 2016.
- The Postbox by Jalil Mammadguluzadeh (a short story, written in 1903 and published in the Sharqi-Rus in 1904). Azerbaijan International, Vol. 7.1. (Spring 1999), pp. 24–26.
- Maybe They'll Give It All Back by Jalil Mammadguluzadeh (written in the late 1920s). Azerbaijan International, Vol. 7.1 (Spring 1999), pp. 30–33.
- Selected Works of Jalil Mammadguluzadeh edited by Isa Habibbayli, in Azeri (includes most of the works of Jalil Mammadguluzade), 2008.
- Short Stories of Jalil Mammadguluzadeh in Azeri and English here