Joe Greene (American football)
Greene in 1975
|No. 72, 75|
|Date of birth:||September 24, 1946|
|Place of birth:||Elgin, Texas|
|Height:||6 ft 4 in (1.93 m)|
|Weight:||276 lb (125 kg)|
|High school:||Temple (TX) Dunbar|
|College:||North Texas State|
|NFL Draft:||1969 / Round: 1 / Pick: 4|
|Career highlights and awards|
|Career NFL statistics|
Charles Edward Greene (born September 24, 1946), better known as "Mean" Joe Greene, is a former American football defensive tackle who played for the Pittsburgh Steelers of the National Football League (NFL) from 1969 to 1981. A recipient of two NFL Defensive Player of the Year awards, six first-team All-Pro selections, and ten Pro Bowl appearances, Greene is widely considered one of the greatest defensive linemen to play in the NFL. He was noted for his leadership, fierce competitiveness, and intimidating style of play for which he earned his nickname.
Greene attended North Texas State University (now University of North Texas), where he earned consensus All-America honors as a senior for the North Texas State Mean Green football team. He was drafted by the Steelers fourth overall in the 1969 NFL Draft and made an immediate impact with the team, as he was named the NFL's Defensive Rookie of the Year. Greene is credited with providing the foundation upon which Steelers coach Chuck Noll turned the dismal franchise into a sports dynasty. He was the cornerstone of the "Steel Curtain" defense that led Pittsburgh to four Super Bowl championships in a six-year span.
Throughout his career, Greene was one of the most dominant defensive players in the NFL, overpowering opposing offensive linemen with ease. Former teammate Andy Russell called Greene "unquestionably the NFL's best player in the seventies." He is a member of the Pro Football Hall of Fame and the College Football Hall of Fame, and his number 75 jersey is retired by both the North Texas football team and the Steelers. Greene is also well known for his appearance in the "Hey Kid, Catch!" Coca-Cola commercial in 1979, which aired during Super Bowl XIV and cemented his legacy as a "tough football player who's a nice guy."
Early life and college career
Charles Edward Greene was born September 24, 1946, in Elgin, Texas. He played high school football at Dunbar High School in Temple. Despite Greene's talents, the Dunbar Panthers had a mediocre record, and he was not heavily recruited by colleges. His options were limited further due to segregation of the Southwest Conference. He was eventually offered a scholarship to play college football at North Texas State University (now University of North Texas), where he played on the varsity team from 1966 to 1968. He led the team to a 23–5–1 record during his three seasons. In his 29 games at defensive tackle, North Texas State held the opposition to 2,507 yards gained on 1,276 rushes, a per-carry average of less than two yards. Greene was a three-time All-Missouri Valley Conference selection.
Greene was a consensus pick as a defensive tackle for the 1968 College Football All-America Team, earning first-team honors from the Associated Press (AP), United Press International (UPI), and the Newspaper Enterprise Association, among others. His college coach, Rod Rust, said of Greene, "There are two factors behind Joe's success. First, he has the ability to make the big defensive play and turn the tempo of a game around. Second, he has the speed to be an excellent pursuit player." A pro scout said, "He's tough and mean and comes to hit people. He has good killer instincts. He's mobile and hostile."
While sources agree the name is a reference to North Texas' athletics teams, the Mean Green, there are conflicting accounts as to how, when, and why Greene received his "Mean Greene" nickname. When he first arrived at North Texas, the university's moniker was the Eagles. In 1966, Greene's first year on the varsity team, the team adopted the "Mean Green" moniker. Two possible origins of the nickname are two separate cheers that supposedly developed independently during North Texas' 1966 game against UTEP. One cheer was by Sidney Sue Graham, wife of the North Texas sports information director. In response to a tackle by Greene, she blurted out, "That’s the way, Mean Greene!" Bill Mercer, former North Texas play-by-play announcer, states Graham's thought behind the nickname was the Mean Green defense. Meanwhile, in the student section, North Texas basketball players Willie Davis and Ira Daniels, unsatisfied with the unenthusiastic crowd, began to sing, "Mean Green, you look so good to me". The rest of the crowd soon followed. "After that we did it every game," Davis said. "A lot of people later on started associating it with Joe because his last name was Greene, but it actually started with that simple chant that Saturday night at Fouts Field. And that's the truth."
Although it stuck with him throughout his professional career due to his playing style, Greene himself was not fond of the nickname, insisting it did not reflect his true character. "I just want people to remember me as being a good player and not really mean," he said. "I want to be remembered for playing 13 years and contributing to four championship teams. I would like to be remembered for maybe setting a standard for others to achieve."
Attitude and demeanor
|“||He's tough and mean and comes to hit people. He has good killer instincts. He's mobile and hostile.||”|
Greene's nickname remained popular due to his exploits on the playing field, where he was described as ferocious and intimidating. He instilled fear in opponents with the intensity of his play. In a 1979 game against the Houston Oilers, with only seconds remaining and Houston leading 20–17, the Oilers lined up near the Pittsburgh goal line to run their final play. Greene pointed angrily across the line of scrimmage at Houston quarterback Dan Pastorini, warning, "If you come into the end zone, I'll beat the crap out of you! I'm gonna kill you!" Pastorini responded by taking a knee, ending the game. Afterword, Greene laughed and said, "I knew you weren't going to do it."
In his early years with the Steelers, Greene was at times uncontrollable, and often let his temper get the best of him. On one occasion during a 1975 game against the rival Cleveland Browns at Cleveland Municipal Stadium, Greene repeatedly kicked Browns lineman Bob McKay in the groin while McKay was lying on the ground. He also punched Denver Broncos guard Paul Howard and spat at quarterback Fran Tarkenton, and he frequently clashed with officials.
Greene, along with middle linebacker Jack Lambert, became the emotional leaders of Pittsburgh's defensive squad. Greene was described as a huge presence both on and off the field. Once, in the locker room, a teammate was loudly voicing his discontent over the long and cold practice they had just gone through as he yanked off his equipment. At a nearby locker, Greene lifted his head and silently glared at him. "Believe me, that's all Joe did, he never even said anything," Joe Gordon of the Steelers front office recalled. "I don't think the other players saw Joe glare at him. I think the other player just felt it, and then he sat down and never said another word." A natural leader, Greene was named the captain of the defense in 1977. His leadership was also channeled to the offense; Lynn Swann, a wide receiver, considered Greene a mentor. "If you were giving less than 100 percent, he let you know one way or the other," said Swann.
Pro football career
The Pittsburgh Steelers franchise was one of the most downtrodden in the NFL, having experienced many losing seasons before the hiring of Chuck Noll as head coach in 1969. Noll and the Rooney family agreed that building the defensive line was crucial to rebuilding the team. Thus, they decided on Greene with the fourth pick of the 1969 NFL Draft. The selection proved unpopular with fans and media, who were hoping for a player that would generate excitement; the relatively unknown Greene did not appear to meet their expectations. Meanwhile, Greene, who was highly competitive, was disappointed he was picked by a team that had such a reputation for losing. "I did not, did not want to be a Steeler," he admitted in a 2013 interview. Noll saw immense potential in Greene and insisted on drafting him. In a matter of months he established himself as one of the most dominant players in the league at his position. Despite his team finishing 1969 with a 1–13 win–loss record, the Associated Press named Greene the NFL Defensive Rookie of the Year and a first-team All-Pro, and he was invited to his first Pro Bowl.
Former teammate Andy Russell called Greene "unquestionably the NFL's best player in the seventies," saying "No player had a greater impact or did more for his team." Greene and coach Noll are widely credited with turning the Steelers franchise around. The Steelers finished 1970 with a 5–9 record and went 6–8 in 1971. Greene was invited to the Pro Bowl in both seasons. In 1972, Pittsburgh finished 11–3 and won its first division title and its first playoff game—the "Immaculate Reception" game against the Oakland Raiders. During the season, Greene tallied eleven quarterback sacks and 42 solo tackles, and he was recognized as the AP NFL Defensive Player of the Year. Miami Dolphins head coach Don Shula lauded Greene, saying, "He's just a super super star. It's hard to believe he isn't offside on every play. He makes the other team adjust to him." By this time, Noll had built a formidable defense. "We have maybe 10 guys now capable of making All-Pro," said Greene in 1972. "I'm just like all the other guys, doing my best in a team effort." With the drafting of defensive tackle Ernie Holmes in 1972, the Steelers assembled what became known as the "Steel Curtain" defensive line of Greene, Holmes, L. C. Greenwood, and Dwight White. Greene was invited to the Pro Bowl for 1973, joining White and Greenwood on the American Football Conference (AFC) roster.
Greene won his second AP NFL Defensive Player of the Year Award after the 1974 season, becoming the first player to receive the award multiple times. That year, he developed a new tactic of lining up at a sharp angle between the guard and center to disrupt the opposition's blocking assignments. His coaches were at first skeptical of the tactic and did not allow him to try it during the regular season. He first implemented it against the Buffalo Bills in the division championship game. It proved to be highly effective, as it impeded Buffalo's blocking, and running back O. J. Simpson managed only 48 yards rushing. The following week, the Steelers faced the Oakland Raiders in the AFC championship game, with the defining match-up being Greene against All-Pro center Jim Otto. At one point Greene, consumed by emotions, kicked Otto in the groin. Later, on a third-down play, Greene threw Otto to the ground with one arm before leaping to sack quarterback Ken Stabler. Oakland was held to 29 rushing yards in the Steelers' 24–13 victory. On January 12, 1975, the Steelers won their first of four Super Bowl championships in a six-year span by defeating the Minnesota Vikings 16–6 in Super Bowl IX. In that game, lined up against center Mick Tingelhoff, Greene recorded an interception, forced fumble, and fumble recovery in what is considered one of the greatest individual defensive Super Bowl performances. Pittsburgh limited the Vikings to only 119 total yards of offense, 17 of which were gained on the ground. After the season, Greene was honored by the Pittsburgh Post-Gazette at its 39th Dapper Dan dinner as Pittsburgh's outstanding sports figure of the year.
Greene missed four games in 1975 due to a pinched nerve, snapping a streak of 91 straight games started since he entered the league. He, along with the other members of the Steel Curtain, appeared on the cover of Time magazine in December 1975, a rare tribute. After leading the Steelers to another Super Bowl win after the 1975 season over the Dallas Cowboys in Super Bowl X, Greene missed the first several games of the 1976 season with a back injury. The Steelers started off the season 1–4 and looked like they would not make the playoffs. Quarterback Terry Bradshaw was also injured and was replaced by rookie Mike Kruczek. Greene returned and the Steelers defense carried the team to nine-straight wins and the playoffs. With a defense considered one of the best in NFL history, the 1976 Steelers held opponents to an average of less than 10 points per game (138 points over 14 games). During their nine-game winning streak, the Steelers defense recorded five shutouts, including three straight, and surrendered a total of 28 points (roughly 3 points per game). The defense allowed only two touchdowns over nine games. The Steelers were defeated by Oakland in that year's AFC Championship Game.
By 1977, Greene was the captain of the Steelers defense, although his reduced effectiveness over the previous two seasons due to injuries led to rumors that he was washed up. He was never again able to attain the same success as a pass rusher after his pinched nerve in 1975. Spurred by the rumors, he returned in 1978 to lead all Pittsburgh linemen in tackles, and he had four sacks and a career-high five fumble recoveries. The Steelers defense allowed a league-low 195 points during the season, en route to a 35–31 victory over the Cowboys in Super Bowl XIII. In that contest, Greene had one of Pittsburgh's five sacks of Dallas quarterback Roger Staubach.
Pittsburgh finished the 1979 season with a 12–4 record, and ranked second in total defense and fifth in scoring defense. Greene was named a first-team All-Pro by the Pro Football Writers Association and Pro Football Weekly and was invited to his final Pro Bowl. He was also deemed the NFL's Man of the Year in recognition of his off-field contributions. In the AFC championship game against the Houston Oilers, the Steelers held NFL MVP Earl Campbell to just 15 rushing yards on 17 carries. Pittsburgh then defeated the Los Angeles Rams in Super Bowl XIV for an unprecedented fourth Super Bowl title. With the fourth title came Greene's fourth Super Bowl ring, inspiring his famous phrase "one for the thumb", an allusion to winning a fifth championship. His wish went unfulfilled, however, as the Steelers failed to make the playoffs in each of his final two seasons.
Greene retired as a player following the 1981 season. He finished his career having played in 181 out of a possible 190 games, and recorded 78.5 sacks (unofficially, as sacks were not an official statistic until 1982) and 16 fumble recoveries. His spot in the lineup was technically not replaced; the Steelers switched to a 3–4 defensive alignment for the 1982 season, which has only one nose tackle as opposed to two defensive tackles. The team has used the 3–4 as its base alignment continuously in the years since Greene's retirement, and more recently have used alignments that deploy only two true linemen.
Greene appeared in a famous commercial for Coca-Cola that debuted on October 1, 1979 and was aired during the 1980 Super Bowl. The ad won a Clio Award in 1980 for being one of the best commercials of 1979. It is widely considered to be one of the best television commercials of all time. The commercial helped shift the public's perception of Greene as hostile and unapproachable, to a soft-hearted "nice guy".
Coaching career and later life
After retiring from the NFL, Greene spent one year, 1982, as a color analyst for NFL on CBS before becoming an assistant coach under Steelers' head coach Chuck Noll in 1987. He spent the next 16 years as an assistant coach with the Pittsburgh Steelers (1987–1991), Miami Dolphins (1991–1995), and Arizona Cardinals (1996–2003). In 2004, he retired from coaching and was named the special assistant for player personnel for the Steelers. In this position, he earned his fifth Super Bowl ring after the Steelers won Super Bowl XL. When asked how it felt to finally win "one for the thumb", he replied, "That's all utter nonsense. It's one for the right hand. It's one for this group, for this team." He earned a sixth ring from Super Bowl XLIII. Greene is one of four people outside the Rooney family to have Super Bowl rings from the first six championship teams. He retired from his position in the Steelers front office in 2013.
In 2014, Greene was the subject of an episode of the NFL Network documentary series A Football Life, which chronicled his life and career. As of 2016, he has since returned to his home state and resides in Flower Mound, Texas. His wife of 47 years, Agnes, with whom he had three children, died in 2015. He has since remarried. Greene is known as "Papa Joe" to his seven grandchildren.
Greene is recognized as one of the most dominant players to ever play in the NFL. He is widely considered one of the greatest defensive linemen in league history. His durability allowed him to play in 182 of a possible 190 games, including a streak of 91 straight to begin his career. The Steel Curtain defense is consistently ranked among the top defensive groups of all time. As of the death of L. C. Greenwood in September 2013, Greene is the last surviving member of the Steel Curtain.
- In 1984, Greene was enshrined in the College Football Hall of Fame. He is the only former North Texas player so honored.
- His number 75 jersey is retired by the North Texas football team, and he was inducted into the UNT Hall of Fame in 1981.
- He was inducted into the Pro Football Hall of Fame in 1987, a class which also included Larry Csonka, Len Dawson, Jim Langer, Don Maynard, Gene Upshaw, and John Henry Johnson.
- The Hall of Fame Selection Committee named Greene to the NFL 1970s All-Decade Team, honoring the best players of the decade. In 1994, he was selected by a 15-person panel of NFL and Pro Football Hall of Fame officials, former players, and media representatives to the NFL 75th Anniversary All-Time Team as one of the greatest players of the NFL's first 75 years.
- In 1999, Greene was deemed the 14th greatest player of all time by The Sporting News.
- Greene is regarded among the greatest players in Steelers franchise history. His number 75 jersey was officially retired at halftime during the Steelers' game against the rival Baltimore Ravens on November 2, 2014. Greene also briefly wore number 72 during his rookie season before switching to his more familiar 75 mid-season. He is only the second Steeler to have his jersey formally retired, the first being Ernie Stautner. However, the Steelers had not reissued No. 75 since Greene's retirement.
- Emery, Mark (January 28, 2016). "NFL legend 'Mean Joe' Greene reunited with co-star from classic 1979 Coke commercial". New York Daily News. Retrieved November 11, 2016.
- "Joe Greene - "mean Joe" Greene". jrank.org. Net Industries. Retrieved October 27, 2016.
- "Legends of the Mean Green: Joe Greene No. 75". University of North Texas Libraries. Retrieved November 11, 2016.
- "2014 NCAA Football Records: Consensus All-America Selections" (PDF). National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA). 2014. pp. 3, 7. Retrieved October 29, 2016.
- "Joe Greene College Football Hall of Fame bio". National Football Foundation. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
- Myerberg, Paul (August 15, 2015). "Which nickname came first at North Texas? 'Mean Joe' Greene or Mean Green?". USA Today. Retrieved October 27, 2016.
But we can put one misguided theory to rest right here: The North Texas Mean Green are not, in fact, named in honor of "Mean Joe" Greene.
- "'Mean Joe' Doesn't Like His Nickname". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. Associated Press. January 8, 1975. p. 3-C. Retrieved October 27, 2016.
- Smolko, Janelle R. "Charles "Mean Joe" Greene". Pennsylvania Center for the Book. Retrieved October 27, 2016.
- Pomerantz 2014, p. 66.
- Coleman, Rufus. "How Our Green Got Mean". The North Texan. Retrieved October 27, 2016.
- Ehsan, Azad (September 5, 2013). "Looking back at a century of Mean Green". North Texas Daily. Retrieved October 27, 2016.
- "Joe Greene Bio". Pro Football Hall of Fame. Retrieved October 21, 2016.
- Wexell, Mendelson, & Aretha 2014, p. 82.
- "75. DT Joe Greene (Steelers, IX, X, XIII, XIV)". Sun-Sentinel. Associated Press. Retrieved November 3, 2016.
- Pomerantz 2014, p. 239.
- Schudel, Jeff (September 14, 2008). Rivalry makes turn to primetime. The Morning Journal. Retrieved November 3, 2016.
- Anderson, Dave (February 16, 1982). "By Sports of The Times; More Than Just Mean". The New York Times. Retrieved November 3, 2016.
- Russell, Andy; Bleier, Rocky (2012). "Joe Greene". Andy Russell: A Steeler Odyssey. Skyhorse Publishing, Inc. ISBN 1613211597. Retrieved October 18, 2016.
- Freedman & Hoak 2009, p. 83.
- "Steelers' Joe Greene retires after 13 years". The Afro-American. United Press International. February 20, 1982. p. 9. Retrieved November 2, 2016.
- Freedman & Hoak 2009, p. 72.
- Millman & Coyne 2010, p. 45
- Smith, Don (1993). "Chuck Noll" (PDF). The Coffin Corner. 15 (2). Retrieved October 19, 2016.
- Pompeani, Bob (November 25, 2013). "Joe Greene Opens Up About Time With Steelers, Teammates' Passing". CBS Pittsburgh. Retrieved October 18, 2016.
- Harrison, Elliot (April 9, 2015). "Top rookie seasons of the Super Bowl era: Defensive linemen". NFL.com. Retrieved October 19, 2016.
- "Sports Briefs". The Tuscaloosa News. December 23, 1969. p. 6. Retrieved October 19, 2016.
- Pomerantz 2014, p. 58.
- Brown, Scott (June 14, 2014). "Hall of Famer Chuck Noll dies at 82". ESPN. Retrieved October 19, 2016.
- "Joe Greene Stats". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved October 19, 2016.
- Mihoces, Gary (January 5, 1973). "Joe Greene Defensive Player of the Year". The Evening News. Associated Press. p. 6B. Retrieved October 19, 2016.
- "1973 NFL Pro Bowlers". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved October 21, 2016.
- "Defensive Honor Goes To 'Mean' Joe Greene". Sarasota Herald-Tribune. Associated Press. January 8, 1975. p. 1C. Retrieved October 21, 2016.
- Pomerantz, Gary M. (November 1, 2013). "Mean Joe vs. Double O". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved November 13, 2016.
- "Best Defensive Super Bowl Performers". Sports Illustrated. Retrieved October 21, 2016.
- Ruiz, Steven (February 2, 2016). "The best Super Bowl performances at every position". USA Today. Retrieved October 21, 2016.
- Silverman, Steve (2014). Who's Better, Who's Best in Football?: Setting the Record Straight on the Top 65 NFL Players of the Past 65 Years. Skyhorse Publishing. p. 71. ISBN 1613217536. Retrieved October 21, 2016.
- "Super Bowl IX Game Recap". NFL.com. NFL Enterprises LLC. Retrieved October 21, 2016.
- "Mean Joe Star of Dapper Dan Weekend". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. February 8, 1975. p. 10. Retrieved November 8, 2016.
- Ruiz, Steven (February 8, 2016). "Stats show the 2015 Broncos defense is top-10 all time, but just barely". USA Today. Retrieved November 1, 2016.
- Tallent, Aaron (February 15, 2016). "10 Greatest Defenses in NFL History". Athlon Sports. Retrieved November 1, 2016.
- Pomerantz 2014, p. 7.
- Marshall, Joe (January 15, 1979). "Pouncing on a Championship". Sports Illustrated. 50 (2). Retrieved October 29, 2016.
- Wexell, Mendelson, & Aretha 2014, p. 83.
- Fox, Larry (January 22, 1979). "Super Bowl XIII: Steelers first 3-time winner in Super thriller, 35-31". New York Daily News. p. 3. Retrieved October 28, 2016.
- "Super Bowl XIII - Pittsburgh Steelers vs. Dallas Cowboys - January 21st, 1979". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved October 28, 2016.
- Zimmerman, Paul (January 14, 1980). "Hitting a Wall of Steel". Sports Illustrated. 52 (2). Retrieved November 7, 2016.
- Attner, Paul (January 21, 1980). "Super Bowl XIV: Steelers Rally for Fourth Title". The Washington Post. Retrieved November 7, 2016.
- Bouchette, Ed (June 5, 2006). "The one for the thumb: Steelers collect their Super Bowl rings". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved November 8, 2016.
- Bouchette, Ed (October 6, 2016). "On the Steelers: Signature 3-4 defense is a thing of the past". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
- Shontell, Alyson (January 18, 2011) "The 10 Best Award-Winning TV Ads Everyone Must See". Business Insider
- Fowler, Scott (February 23, 1992). "Take it from Mean Joe: Famous ad wasn't easy". Philadelphia Inquirer.
- Best Super Bowl commercials. ESPN. Retrieved November 10, 2016.
- Mooney, Philip; Ryan, Ted; Nash, Helen (November 29, 2000). "Highlights in the History of Coca-Cola Television Advertising". Library of Congress. Archived from the original on March 8, 2010. Retrieved November 10, 2016.
- "Top 10 Super Bowl Commercials of All Time". extratv.com. Warner Brothers. Retrieved June 17, 2011.
- "Pittsburgh Steelers to retire Joe Greene's No. 75 jersey". Sports Illustrated. July 30, 2014. Retrieved November 11, 2016.
- Wexell 2006, p.79.
- Bouchette, Ed (May 7, 2013). "Steelers legend Joe Greene retires from front office job". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved May 6, 2013.
- Waits, Tim (September 28, 2014). "Film returns 'Mean' Joe Greene to spotlight". Temple Daily Telegram. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
- Starkey, Joe (November 11, 2016). "Joe Starkey: Joe Greene reflects on life, loss and the Cowboys". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved December 30, 2016.
- Fittipaldo, Ray (November 2, 2014). "'Completely overwhelming': Steelers raise curtain on Joe Greene's No. 75". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved October 29, 2016.
- Best run stuffer? Finding the best defensive tackle in the NFL. USA Today. July 5, 2008. Retrieved November 10, 2016.
- Augustyn, Adam. "Joe Greene". Encyclopædia Britannica. Retrieved November 15, 2016.
- "Eleven join Hall of Fame". Ellensburg Daily Record. United Press International. February 13, 1984. p. 10. Retrieved November 10, 2016.
- "1987 Pro Football Hall of Fame Ballot". Pro-Football-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Retrieved November 10, 2016.
- "Very Best of the NFL". Detroit Free Press. August 24, 1994. p. 1D. Retrieved November 10, 2016 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Sporting News Top 100 Football Players". Democrat and Chronicle. August 15, 1999. p. 3D. Retrieved November 10, 2016 – via Newspapers.com.
- Brown, Scott (November 3, 2014). "Steelers retire Joe Greene's No. 75". ESPN. Retrieved October 29, 2016.
- Freedman, Lew; Hoak, Dick (2009). Pittsburgh Steelers: The Complete Illustrated History (illustrated ed.). MBI Publishing Company LLC. ISBN 0760336458.
- Millman, Chad; Coyne, Shawn (2010). The Ones Who Hit the Hardest: The Steelers, the Cowboys, the '70s, and the Fight for America's Soul. Penguin. ISBN 110145993X.
- Pomerantz, Gary M. (2014). Their Life's Work: The Brotherhood of the 1970s Pittsburgh Steelers (illustrated, reprint ed.). Simon and Schuster. ISBN 1451691637.
- Wexell, Jim (2006). Pittsburgh Steelers: Men of Steel (illustrated ed.). Sports Publishing LLC. ISBN 1582619964.
- Wexell, Jim; Mendelson, Abby; Aretha, David (2014). The Steelers Experience: A Year-by-Year Chronicle of the Pittsburgh Steelers (illustrated ed.). MVP Books. ISBN 0760345767.