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LeaderNatsuo Yamaguchi
Deputy LeadersKazuo Kitagawa
Noriko Furuya
Tetsuo Saito
Secretary-GeneralKeiichi Ishii
Councilors LeaderMakoto Nishida
FoundedNovember 7, 1998; 25 years ago (1998-11-07)
Merger ofKōmeitō (1962)
New Peace Party
Reform Club [ja]
Headquarters17 Minamimoto-machi, Shinjuku, Tokyo 160-0012
NewspaperKomei Shimbun
Political positionCentre[5] to centre-right[6][B]
ReligionBuddhism (Soka Gakkai)[7] (de facto)
  •   Pink
  •   Blue[a][b]
Slogan大衆と共に (Taishū to tomo ni)[8]
("With the Public")
32 / 465
27 / 248
Prefectural assembly members
206 / 2,644
Municipal assembly members[9]
2,667 / 29,135

^ A: Komeito embraces market liberalism to some extent, but it also emphasizes social welfare,[10] and officially puts forward "Humanitarian socialism" as its main ideology.[11]
^ B: It is also sometimes described as centre-left[12][13] or right-wing.[14][15]

Komeito (公明党, Kōmeitō), formerly New Komeito and abbreviated NKP, is a political party in Japan founded by members of the Buddhist movement Soka Gakkai in 1964.[16][17] It is generally considered as centrist or centre-right. Since 2012, it has served in government as the junior coalition partner of the conservative governments led by the Liberal Democratic Party.[18]

Natsuo Yamaguchi has been the president of the party since 8 September 2009 and currently serves as a member of the House of Councillors (the upper house) in the National Diet.[19]

Komeito currently has 32 elected Deputies in the Japanese House of Representatives.


Opposition before 1993[edit]

Komeito began as the Political Federation for Clean Government in 1961, but held its inaugural convention as Komeito on 17 November 1964.[20][21] The three characters 公明党 have the approximate meanings of "public/government" (公 kō), "light/brightness" (明 mei), and "political party" (党 tō). The combination "kōmei" (公明) is usually taken to mean "justice".[22] Komeito's predecessor party, Kōmeitō, was formed in 1962, but it had begun in 1954 as the Kōmei Political League. It lasted until it merged with the NKP in 1998.[23]

In 1957, a group of Young Men's Division members campaigning for a Soka Gakkai candidate in an Osaka Upper House by-election were arrested for distributing money, cigarettes, and caramels at supporters' residences, in violation of election law, and on July 3 of that year, at the beginning of an event memorialized as the "Osaka Incident," Daisaku Ikeda was arrested in Osaka. He was taken into custody in his capacity as Soka Gakkai's Youth Division Chief of Staff for overseeing activities that constituted violations of election law. He spent two weeks in jail and appeared in court forty-eight times before he was cleared of all charges in January 1962.[24]

In 1968, fourteen of its members were convicted of forging absentee ballots in Shinjuku, and eight were sentenced to prison for electoral fraud. In the 1960s it was widely criticized for violating the separation of church and state, and in February 1970 all three major Japanese newspapers printed editorials demanding that the party reorganize. It eventually broke apart based on promises to segregate from Soka Gakkai.[25][26][27]

In the 1980s Shimbun Akahata discovered that many Soka Gakkai members were rewarding acquaintances with presents in return for Komeito votes and that Okinawa residents had changed their addresses to elect Komeito politicians.[28]

Anti-LDP coalition government: 1993–1994[edit]

Kōmeitō joined the Hosokawa and Hata anti-LDP coalition cabinets in 1993 and 1994. After the collapse of the anti-LDP and anti-JCP governments (非自民・非共産連立政権) and the electoral and campaign finance reforms of 1994, the Kōmeitō split in December 1994: The "New Kōmei Party" (公明新党, Kōmei Shintō) joined the New Frontier Party (NFP) a few days later in an attempt to unify the splintered opposition.[29] The other group, Kōmei (公明), continued to exist as a separate party. After the dissolution of the NFP in December 1997, former Kōmeitō members from the NFP founded two new groups: the "New Peace Party" (新党平和, Shintō Heiwa) and the "Dawn Club" (黎明クラブ, Reimei Club) in the House of Councillors, but some ex-Kōmeitō politicians such as Shōzō Azuma followed Ichirō Ozawa into the Liberal Party. The Reimei Club merged into the New Peace Party a few weeks later in January 1998. Finally, in November 1998, Kōmei and New Peace Party merged to re-establish Kōmeitō (referred to in English now as "New Komeito" – the party's name is just Kōmeitō as before the 1994 split).

The Japan Echo alleged in 1999 that Soka Gakkai distributed fliers to local branches describing how to abuse the jūminhyō residence registration system in order to generate a large number of votes for Komeito candidates in specific districts.[30]

Coalition with the Liberal Democratic Party: 1999–2009, 2012–present[edit]

Komeito activists canvassing in front of Himeji Castle

The current conservative, more moderate, and centrist party was formed in 1998, in a merger of Kōmei and the New Peace Party. Since then it has joined coalition with the ruling Liberal Democratic Party (LDP), which need Komeito to maintain majority in the Diet (especially in the House of Councillors which the LDP lost majority since 1989), and did well in the 2000 and 2001 parliamentary elections.

The LDP-Liberal coalition expanded to include the New Komeito Party in October 1999.[31] New Komeito has been (and continues to be) a coalition partner in the Government of Japan since 1999 (excluding 2009–2011 when the Democratic Party of Japan was in power). As such, New Komeito supported a (temporary) change to Japan's "no-war constitution" in order for Japan to support the 2003 invasion of Iraq.[32]

In the 2003 Japanese general election and 2004 Japanese House of Councillors election, the NKP did well, thanks to an extremely committed and well-organized voter base coming from Soka Gakkai. The party shares its support base with the LDP, made up of white-collar bureaucrats and rural populations, but also gained support from religious leaders. However, on 27 July 2005, NKP's Secretary-General said that his party would consider forming a coalition government with the Democratic Party of Japan (DPJ) if the DPJ gained a majority in the House of Representatives. On 8 August 2005, then-Prime Minister and the president of LDP Junichiro Koizumi dissolved the Lower House and called for a general election, due to the rejection on some of the members of LDP for efforts to privatize Japan Post. The incumbent LDP-New Komeito coalition won a large majority in the 2005 general election.

Natsuo Yamaguchi became the party's leader on 8 September 2009 after the party and their coalition partner LDP suffered a major defeat in the 2009 general election, become part of the opposition for the first time since 1999. New Komeito lost ten seats, including that of party leader Akihiro Ota and general secretary Kazuo Kitagawa. On 8 September 2009, Yamaguchi replaced Ota as president of New Komeito.[33]

In the general election on 16 December 2012, the LDP/Komeito coalition secured a supermajority and came back into government. The former party chief Akihiro Ota (Ohta) is currently Minister of Land, Infrastructure, Transport and Tourism.[34] The party also gained seats in the general election in 2014. In September 2014 the party changed its English name from New Komeito back to Komeito.[35][36]

In July 2015, Komeito backed Prime Minister Shinzō Abe's push to revise the Constitution in order to "give Japan's military limited powers to fight in foreign conflicts for the first time since World War II".[attribution needed] This legislation, supported by the United States, would allow the "Self-Defense Forces to cooperate more closely with the U.S. by providing logistical support and, in certain circumstances, armed backup in international conflicts" and "complements guidelines in a bilateral agreement governing how Japanese and United States forces work together, which was signed by the two nations" earlier in 2015.[37]

On March 11, 2019, a project team of Komeito submitted proposals to Foreign Minister Taro Kono for an international agreement to regulate robotic weapons,[38][39] calling on Japan to build global consensus for a "political declaration or a code of conduct, within the framework of the Convention on Certain Conventional Weapons".[40]

Ideology and policies[edit]

A self-proclaimed party of "humanitarian socialism,"[citation needed] Komeito's declared mission is to pioneer "people-centered politics, a politics based on a humanitarianism, that treats human life with the utmost respect and care".[41] On 24 April 2019, joint task force efforts with its coalition partner[42][43][44] resulted in the passing of a bill mandating reparations and having the coalition government issue a formal apology to sterilization victims of the defunct Eugenics Protection Act, thus to advance human rights awareness in the wake of lawsuits[45][46] related to the history of eugenics in Japan.[47][48][49][50]

Religious scholar and political analyst Masaru Satō explains that in postwar Japan there were two major parties, the Liberal Democratic Party representing financial interests and large corporations and the Japan Socialist Party largely advocating the interests of trade unions and the working class. There was no single party that represented people who belonged to neither, such as shop owners and housewives, among others. Komeito was thus able to capture the support of this constituency.[51]

Relationship with Soka Gakkai[edit]

Komeito regards the Soka Gakkai as a "major electoral constituency",[52] having formally separated from the religious group and revised both its platform and regulations in 1970 to reflect a "secular orientation".[53]: 117  Observers continue to describe Komeito as the Soka Gakkai's "political arm",[54][55][56] however, and critics contend the relationship violates the separation of religion and politics enshrined in Article 20 of the Japanese Constitution.[57] The leadership and financing of the two groups are currently said to be independent.[53]: 123–27  Both groups report having occasional liaison meetings, characterizing them as informational and "open to the media".[52][58] Numerous Japanese religious groups have established political parties in Japan, but statistics scholar Petter Lindgren states that "None have, however, been more successful than Soka Gakkai."[59]

Domestic policy[edit]

Domestically, the party proposals include reduction of the central government and bureaucracy, increased transparency in public affairs, and increased local (prefectural) autonomy with the private sector playing an increased role. Komeito also supports reducing the consumption tax rate, reducing school fees and offering child allowances.[60]

In accordance with its public affairs transparency platform, it was reported that since September 2016, the Komeito conducted independent analyses for possible environmental contamination of the proposed Toyosu market site.[61] The Komeito officially raised its environmental concerns later regarding Toyosu market during the 5 October 2016 Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly Session. In response, the newly appointed Tokyo Governor, Yuriko Koike, cited possible disciplinary action towards those responsible for the Toyosu project.[62]

Security policy[edit]

In contrast with the LDP, Komeito has generally been more cautious about efforts to expand the Japan Self-Defense Forces (JSDF).[63] At its founding, the party adhered to absolute pacifism, rejecting both the constitutionality of the JSDF and the military alliance with the US.[60] Later softening its views, Komeito later backed LDP proposals such as a 2004 vote to dispatch the JSDF to support allied operations in Afghanistan and Iraq, and prime minister's Shinzo Abe's revision of the security laws to expand military powers in July 2015,[37] although it did manage to moderate the policy on the latter.[60][64]

Foreign policy[edit]

With regard to foreign policy, the Komeito wishes to eliminate nuclear arms and Japanese involvement in armed conflict in general. Komeito supports maintaining the Japan's military alliance with the United States.[63]

The party promotes closer relations between China and Japan. According to a Foreign Policy article in 2021, "Of all parties in the Diet, Komeito enjoys the strongest and most stable relationship with China."[60] Komeito's then leader Yoshikatsu Takeiri's held negotiations Chinese Premier Zhou Enlai in the 1970s played a critical role in the eventual normalization of relations between the People's Republic of China and Japan in 1972.[60] The party has advocated for friendlier policies towards China, and has maintained communications with the country even during moments when the relationships between the two countries have been strained.[60]

Party organ[edit]

The party organ of Komeito is the Komei Shinbun. It is published by the Komei Organ Paper Committee,[65][66] and has also published a regional Hokkaido edition in the past.[67]


No. Name
Constituency / title Term of office Image Prime Minister (term) Government/
Took office Left office
New Komei Party (1994–1998)
1 Kōshirō Ishida
Rep for
Aichi 6th
5 December 1994 9 December 1994 Murayama 1994–96 Opposition
Komei (1994–1998)
1 Tomio Fujii
Tokyo Metropolitan Assembly
for Shinjuku district
5 December 1994 18 January 1998 Murayama 1994–96 Opposition
Hashimoto 1996–98
2 Toshiko Hamayotsu
Cou for
Tokyo at-large
18 January 1998 7 November 1998
Obuchi 1998–2000
New Peace Party (1998)
1 Takenori Kanzaki
(b. 1943)
Rep for
Fukuoka 1st
4 January 1998 7 November 1998 Hashimoto 1996–98 Opposition
Obuchi 1998–2000
Reimei Club (1998)
1 Kazuyoshi Shirahama
(b. 1947)
Cou for
Osaka at-large
4 January 1998 18 January 1998 Hashimoto 1996–98 Opposition
New Komeito (1998–2014)
1 Takenori Kanzaki
(b. 1943)
Rep for
Fukuoka 1st
Kyushu PR block
7 November 1998 30 September 2006 Obuchi 1998–2000 Opposition
5 October
(Obuchi First reshuffled cabinet)
Governing coalition
5 October
(Obuchi Second reshuffled cabinet)
Mori 2000–01
Koizumi 2001–06
Abe S. 2006–07
2 Akihiro Ota
(b. 1945)
Rep for
Tokyo 12th
30 September 2006 8 September 2009
Fukuda Y. 2007–08
Asō 2008–09
3 Natsuo Yamaguchi
(b. 1952)
Cou for
Tokyo at-large
8 September 2009 25 September 2014 Hatoyama Y. 2009–10 Opposition
Kan 2010–11
Noda 2011–12
Abe S. 2012–20 Governing coalition
Komeito (2014–present)
1 Natsuo Yamaguchi
(b. 1952)
Cou for
Tokyo at-large
25 September 2014 Incumbent Abe S. 2012–20 Governing coalition
Suga 2020–2021
Kishida 2021–present

Election results[edit]

House of Representatives[edit]

House of Representatives
Election Leader No. of
Seats Position Constituency votes PR Block votes Status
No. ± Share No. Share No. Share
Komei era
1996 Komei faction 51
42 / 511
Decrease 9 8.2% see New Frontier Party Opposition
(until 1998)
Governing coalition
(since 1998)
New Komeito era
2000 Takenori Kanzaki 74
31 / 480
Decrease 11 6.4% Increase 3rd 1,231,753 2.02% 7,762,032 12.97% Governing coalition
2003 55
34 / 480
Increase 3 7.0% Steady 3rd 886,507 1.49% 8,733,444 14.78% Governing coalition
2005 52
31 / 480
Decrease 3 6.4% Steady 3rd 981,105 1.4% 8,987,620 13.3% Governing coalition
2009 Akihiro Ota 51
21 / 480
Decrease 10 4.3% Steady 3rd 782,984 1.11% 8,054,007 11.45% Opposition
2012 Natsuo Yamaguchi 54
31 / 480
Increase 10 6.4% Decrease 4th 885,881 1.49% 7,116,474 11.90% Governing coalition
Komeito era
2014 Natsuo Yamaguchi 51
35 / 475
Increase 4 7.3% Steady 4th 765,390 1.45% 7,314,236 13.71% Governing coalition
2017 53
29 / 465
Decrease 6 6.2% Steady 4th 832,453 1.50% 6,977,712 12.51% Governing coalition
2021 53
32 / 465
Increase 3 6.8% Steady 4th 872,931 1.52% 7,114,282 12.38% Governing coalition

House of Councillors[edit]

House of Councillors
Election Leader Seats Nationwide
(PR votes since 1983)
Prefecture Status
Total[c] Contested Number % Number %
Komei era
1995 Tomio Fujii
11 / 252
0 / 126
Did not participate in election Minority
1998 Toshiko Hamayotsu
22 / 252
9 / 126
7,748,301 13.80% 1,843,479 3.30% Minority (until 1999)
Governing majority (since 1999)
New Komeito era
2001 Takenori Kanzaki
23 / 247
13 / 121
8,187,804 14.96% 3,468,664 6.38% Governing majority
24 / 242
11 / 121
8,621,265 15.41% 2,161,764 3.85% Governing majority
2007 Akihiro Ota
20 / 242
9 / 121
7,765,329 13.18% 3,534,672 5.96% Governing minority (until 2009)
Minority (since 2009)
2010 Natsuo Yamaguchi
19 / 242
9 / 121
7,639,432 13.07% 2,265,818 3.88% Minority (until 2012)
Governing minority(since 2012)
20 / 242
11 / 121
7,568,082 14.22% 2,724,447 5.13% Governing majority
Komeito era
2016 Natsuo Yamaguchi
25 / 242
14 / 121
7,572,960 13.52% 4,263,422 7.54% Governing majority
28 / 245
14 / 124
6,536,336 13.05% 3,913,359 7.77% Governing majority
27 / 248
13 / 125
6,181,432 11.66% 3,600,490 6.77% Governing majority

See also[edit]


  • Ehrhardt, George, Axel Klein, Levi McLaughlin and Steven R. Reed (2014) (Eds.): Kōmeitō – Politics and Religion in Japan. Institute of East Asian Studies, University of California, Berkeley
  • Fisker-Nielsen, Anne Mette (2012), Religion and Politics in Contemporary Japan: Soka Gakkai Youth and Komeito, Routledge


  1. ^ as New Komeito
  2. ^ still used on English website
  3. ^ The Upper house is split in two classes, one elected every three years.


  1. ^ Far Eastern Affairs. East View Publications. 1978. p. 112.
  2. ^ Ronald J Hrebenar, ed. (2000). Japan's New Party System. Avalon Publishing. p. 167. The Komeito Returns: The Party of "Buddhist Democracy"
  3. ^ George Ehrhardt; Axel Klein; Levi McLaughlin, eds. (2014). Kōmeitō: Politics and Religion in Japan. Institute of East Asian Studies. p. 67.
  4. ^ Lucien Ellington, ed. (2009). Japan. ABC-CLIO. p. 168. ISBN 9781598841626. ... Because of this political strength, the Liberal Democratic Party has in recent years included the moderate to socially conservative Komeito Party in coalition governments.
  5. ^
  6. ^ Fisker-Nielsen, Anne Mette (2012), Religion and Politics in Contemporary Japan: Soka Gakkai Youth and Komeito, Routledge, p. 86
  7. ^ Metraux, Daniel A. (1996), "The Soka Gakkai: Buddhism and the Creation of a Harmonious and Peaceful Society", Engaged Buddhism: Buddhist Liberation Movements in Asia, State University of New York Press, p. 386
  8. ^ "公明党" [Komeito]. komei.or.jp (in Japanese). Retrieved 28 July 2019. ... 結党以来のスローガン『大衆とともに』の精神こそ、 ...
  9. ^ Ministry of Internal Affairs and Communications, party membership statistics for chief executives and assembly members in prefectures and municipalities: Prefectural and local assembly members and governors/mayors by political party as of 31 December 2023
  10. ^ "The hidden power of Komeito on Japanese politics". East Asia Forum. 3 December 2021. Retrieved 26 January 2022. Observers can expect Kishida to avoid difficult debates over security policy, expand social welfare spending, and consider only limited social reforms to satisfy Komeito.
  11. ^ 三訂版,世界大百科事典内言及, デジタル大辞泉,精選版 日本国語大辞典,日本大百科全書(ニッポニカ),改訂新版 世界大百科事典,百科事典マイペディア,ブリタニカ国際大百科事典 小項目事典,知恵蔵,山川 日本史小辞典 改訂新版,旺文社日本史事典. "公明党(コウメイトウ)とは? 意味や使い方". コトバンク (in Japanese). Retrieved 30 May 2024. 創価学会を支持母体とした中道政党。人間性社会主義の実現を掲げている。 [藤井 正・五十嵐仁]{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  12. ^ "公明党は安保法制の「歯止め」か「触媒」か" [Which is the Komeito party "stop" or "catalyst" in security legislation?]. 16 April 2015. Retrieved 23 January 2021.
  13. ^ Paul, Nadeau (26 April 2023). "Cracks in the Machine: The Future of the LDP-Komeito Coalition". Tokyo Review. Retrieved 16 June 2024. Komeito has often pushed the LDP towards the center-left, particularly on economic issues like issuing stimulus payments to low-income households during the COVID-19 pandemic or measures to offset the impact of the consumption tax hike.
  14. ^ "Japan: Return of the Right". Frontline. 11 January 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2020. The LDP will be ruling in coalition with another right-wing party—the Komeito.
  15. ^ Jeffrey Haynes (2020). Politics of Religion: A Survey. "the NKP is a right-wing, conservative party with religious goals."
  16. ^ Klein, Axel; McLaughlin, Levi (2 September 2020). Pekkanen, Robert J; Pekkanen, Saadia M (eds.). "Kōmeitō: The Party and Its Place in Japanese Politics". The Oxford Handbook of Japanese Politics. doi:10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190050993.001.0001. ISBN 9780190050993. Retrieved 11 February 2021.
  17. ^ Matsutani, Minoru (2 December 2008). "Soka Gakkai keeps religious, political machine humming". The Japan Times, Ltd. Retrieved 11 May 2019.
  18. ^ Yoshida, Reiji (18 December 2012). "LDP charges back, vows to regain voter confidence". The Japan Times, Ltd. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  19. ^ "Members: Mr. YAMAGUCHI Natsuo". House of Councillors, The National Diet of Japan. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  20. ^ Harano, Jōji (25 November 2014). "Kōmeitō Turns Fifty: A History of Political Twists and Compromises". Nippon.com. The Nippon Communications Foundation. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  21. ^ "About Us: History". Komeito. Retrieved 12 May 2019.
  22. ^ "justice - Jisho.org". jisho.org. Retrieved 10 July 2022.
  23. ^ "History | About Us | KOMEITO". www.komei.or.jp. Retrieved 10 July 2022.
  24. ^ "Commitment to Privacy". Archived from the original on 12 May 2014. Retrieved 19 February 2015.
  25. ^ Kabashima, Ikuo; Steel, Gill (17 August 2012). Changing Politics in Japan. Cornell University Press. p. 38. ISBN 978-0801457630. Other smaller parties include Komeito (the party officially became known as New Komeito in 1998), a party that Soka Gakkai formed in 1964 from its precursor, the Komei Political League.
  26. ^ McCormick, John (2012). Comparative Politics in Transition. Cengage Learning. p. 179. ISBN 978-1111832575.
  27. ^ Jeffrey Haynes Routledge Handbook of Religion and Politics Page 17 "Talking to young Japanese people one normally gets very little sense of enthusiasm about Buddhism, and few people seem to take seriously the notion that the New Komeito Party is a Buddhist political party. The Komeito or 'Clean Government Party' ..."
  28. ^ Kira, Yōichi (1986). Jitsuroku: Sōka Gakkai = Nanatsu no daizai (Shohan. ed.). Tōkyō: Shin Nihon Shuppansha. ISBN 4406013881.
  29. ^ Tun-Jen Cheng, Deborah A. Brown Religious Organizations And Democratization: Case Studies 2006 Page 279 "The demise of the Shinshinto into a variety of new splinter parties, including a revived Komeito (now called "New Komeito"), and increasing public dissatisfaction with the LDP-created political chaos. This situation was compounded by the ..."
  30. ^ Endou, Kôichi (August 1999). "The Kômeitô: A Virus Infecting the Body Politic". Japan Echo. Archived from the original on 26 May 2000. Retrieved 28 April 2014.
  31. ^ Politics of Japan#Political Developments since 2000
  32. ^ Kliman, Daniel M. (2006). Japan's Security Strategy in the Post-9/11 World: Embracing a New Realpolitik (Volume 183 of Praeger Security International Series Volume 183 of Washington papers, ISSN 0278-937X ed.). Greenwood Publishing Group. ISBN 0275990591.
  33. ^ Ito, Masami (8 September 2009). "Ailing New Komeito taps policy chief as new boss". The Japan Times, Ltd. Retrieved 8 August 2012.
  34. ^ "Akihiro OHTA (The Cabinet) – Prime Minister of Japan and His Cabinet". www.kantei.go.jp. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  35. ^ "New Komeito drops 'New' from its name". Japan Today. 28 September 2014. Retrieved 28 April 2017.
  36. ^ "Komeito removes 'New' from party name". The Japan Times, Ltd. Jiji. 25 September 2014. Archived from the original on 30 August 2016. Retrieved 2 February 2017.
  37. ^ a b Soble, Jonathan (16 July 2015). "Japan Moves to Allow Military Combat for First Time in 70 Years". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 March 2018.
  38. ^ "Japan's Komeito political party seeks international regulations on robotic weapons". The Japan Times, Ltd. Jiji Press. 11 March 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  39. ^ Kiyomiya, Ryo (14 March 2019). "Japan to seek global rules on autonomous 'killer robots'". The Asahi Shimbun. Archived from the original on 4 July 2020. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  40. ^ "Japan's Komeito political party seeks international regulations on robotic weapons". The Japan Times, Ltd. Jiji. 11 March 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  41. ^ (New Komeito, 2002)
  42. ^ "LDP, Komeito mull bill to compensate disabled for forced sterilization under old law". The Mainichi Newspapers. The Mainichi. 21 February 2018. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  43. ^ "Victims sterilized under Japan's eugenics law to get ¥3.2 million each under state redress plan". The Japan Times, Ltd. Kyodo News. 14 March 2019. Archived from the original on 26 November 2020. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  44. ^ "Remorse, Apology to Be Clarified in Relief Bill for Sterilization Victims". Nippon Communications Foundation. Jiji Press. 31 October 2018. Archived from the original on 21 July 2019. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  45. ^ "Lawsuits over Japan's past forced sterilizations prompt ruling bloc to consider compensation ahead of court rulings". The Japan Times, Ltd. Kyodo News. 29 June 2018. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
  46. ^ Siripala, Thisanka. "Japan's Forced Sterilization Victims Hit Back With a Wave of Lawsuits". The Diplomat. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  47. ^ "Diet passes relief bill for the many victims of forced sterilization". The Asahi Shimbun. 24 April 2019. Archived from the original on 20 July 2019. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
  48. ^ "Diet passes bill to pay ¥3.2 million each to victims forcibly sterilized under Japan's eugenics law". The Japan Times, Ltd. Kyodo News. 24 April 2019. Archived from the original on 8 November 2020. Retrieved 21 July 2019.
  49. ^ Rich, Motoko; Inoue, Makiko (25 April 2019). "Japan to Compensate Forcibly Sterilized Patients, Decades After the Fact". The New York Times. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
  50. ^ Katz, Brigit. "Japan Offers Apology and Compensation to Victims of Forced Sterilization". Smithsonian.com. The Smithsonian. Retrieved 20 July 2019.
  51. ^ Sato, Masaru (2017). A Transforming Force. Japan: Daisanbunmei-sha, Inc. p. 30.
  52. ^ a b "About Us: On Politics and Religion". Komeito. Retrieved 16 November 2016.
  53. ^ a b Aruga, Hiroshi (2000). "Chapter 4: Soka Gakkai and Japanese Politics". In Machacek, David; Wilson, Bryan (eds.). Global Citizens. Oxford University Press. ISBN 0-19-924039-6.
  54. ^ Métraux, Daniel A. (1994). The Soka Gakkai Revolution. Lanham: University Press of America. pp. 42, 55.
  55. ^ Corduan, Winfried (22 October 2012). Neighboring Faiths: A Christian Introduction to World Religions. InterVarsity Press. p. 479. ISBN 978-0-8308-3970-4. The Komeito severed its organizational ties to SG in 1970, but has nonetheless remaind the political arm of Sokka Gakkai in Japan
  56. ^ Palmer, A. (6 December 2012). Buddhist Politics: Japan's Clean Government Party. Springer Science & Business Media. p. 13. ISBN 978-94-010-2996-4. even today, the Clean Government Party can hardly be called more than the "political arm" of Soka Gakkai
  57. ^ Okuyama, Michiaki (Spring 2010). "Soka Gakkai As a Challenge to Japanese Society and Politics" (PDF). Politics and Religion. IV (1): 84. Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 February 2015. After its religious orientation was criticized by journalists and questioned in the Diet around 1970, Komeito declared that it would follow the constitutional principle of the separation between religion and state, officially separating Soka Gakkai and Komeito. But this issue continues even today as one of the targets of criticism against Soka Gakkai and Komeito.
  58. ^ Soka Gakkai Annual Report 2015 (Report). Soka Gakkai Public Relations Office. 1 February 2015. p. 72. 協議会では、公明党から、党の方針、態度、決定等について説明があり、それに対して学会が意見、要望を述べる。[At the council, Komeito explains the party's policies, attitudes, decisions, etc., and the Gakkai gives opinions and requests.]
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