List of Olympic Games host cities

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This is a list of host cities of the Olympic Games, both summer and winter, since the modern Olympics began in 1896. Since then, summer games have usually – but not always – celebrated a four-year period known as an Olympiad. There have been 29 Summer Olympic Games held in 23 different cities, and 22 Winter Olympic Games held in 19 different cities. In addition, three summer and two winter editions of the Games were scheduled to take place but later cancelled due to war: Berlin (summer) in 1916; Helsinki (summer) and Garmisch-Partenkirchen (winter) in 1940; and London (summer) and Cortina d'Ampezzo, Italy (winter) in 1944. The 1906 Summer Olympics were officially sanctioned and held in Athens. In 1949, the International Olympic Committee (IOC), decided to unrecognize the 1906 Games.[1] Three cities have been chosen by the IOC to host upcoming Olympic Games: Pyeongchang for the 2018 Winter Olympics, Tokyo for the 2020 Summer Olympics, and Beijing for the 2022 Winter Olympics.

In 2022, Beijing will become the only city that has held both the summer and winter Olympic Games. Seven cities have hosted the Olympic Games more than once: Athens (1896 and 2004 Summer Olympics), Paris (1900 and 1924 Summer Olympics), London (1908, 1948 and 2012 Summer Olympics), St. Moritz (1928 and 1948 Winter Olympics), Lake Placid (1932 and 1980 Winter Olympics), Los Angeles (1932 and 1984 Summer Olympics), and Innsbruck (1964 and 1976 Winter Olympics). Tokyo will join this list upon hosting the 2020 Summer Olympics, having previously hosted the summer games of 1964. In addition, Stockholm hosted the 1912 Summer Olympics and the equestrian portion of the 1956 Summer Olympics.[d] London became the first city to have hosted three Games with the 2012 Summer Olympics. The United States has hosted a total of eight Olympic Games, more than any other country, followed by France with five editions. Canada, Germany, Italy, Japan, and the United Kingdom have each hosted three Games.

The Games have primarily been hosted in the continents of Europe (36 editions) and Americas (12 editions); eight Games have been hosted in Asia and two have been hosted in Oceania. In 2016, Rio de Janeiro became South America's first Olympic host city, while the African continent is yet to host the Olympic Games. Other major geographic regions which have not hosted the Olympics include the Middle East, the Indian subcontinent, the Caribbean, and Southeast Asia.

Host cities are selected by the IOC membership, usually seven years in advance.[2] The selection process lasts approximately two years. In the first stage, any city in the world may submit an application to become a host city. After 10 months, the Executive Board of the IOC decides which applicant city will become official candidates as based on the recommendation of a working groups that reviews the applications. In a second stage, the candidate cities are investigated thoroughly by an Evaluation Commission, which then submits a final short list of cities to be considered for selection. The host city is then chosen by vote of the IOC session, a general meeting of IOC members.[3]

Olympic host cities[edit]

For individual summer and winter lists, see List of modern Summer Olympic Games and List of Winter Olympic Games.
City Country Continent Summer (Olympiad) Winter Year Opening Ceremony Closing Ceremony
Athens  Greece Europe S005I 1896 April 6 April 15
Paris  France Europe S005II 1900 May 14 October 28
St. Louis[a]  United States Americas S005III 1904 July 1 November 23
Athens[b]  Greece Europe S005Summer 1906 April 22 May 2
London[c]  United Kingdom Europe S005IV 1908 April 27 October 31
Stockholm  Sweden Europe S005V 1912 May 5 July 22
Berlin  Germany Europe S006VI 1916 Cancelled due to WWI[4]
Antwerp[h]  Belgium Europe S007VII 1920 April 20 September 12[5]
Chamonix  France Europe W001I 1924 January 25 February 4[6]
Paris  France Europe S008VIII May 4 July 27[7]
St. Moritz   Switzerland Europe W002II 1928 February 11 February 19[8]
Amsterdam  Netherlands Europe S009IX May 17 August 12[9]
Lake Placid  United States Americas W003III 1932 February 4 February 15[10]
Los Angeles  United States Americas S010X July 30 August 14[11]
Garmisch-Partenkirchen  Nazi Germany Europe W004IV 1936 February 6 February 16[12]
Berlin  Nazi Germany Europe S011XI August 1 August 16[13]
Garmisch-Partenkirchen  Nazi Germany Europe W005aV 1940 Cancelled due to WWII[4]
Helsinki  Finland Europe S012XII
Cortina d'Ampezzo  Italy Europe W005bV 1944
London  United Kingdom Europe S013XIII
St. Moritz   Switzerland Europe W005cV 1948 January 30 February 8
London  United Kingdom Europe S014XIV July 29 August 14
Oslo  Norway Europe W006VI 1952 February 14 February 25
Helsinki  Finland Europe S015XV July 19 August 3
Cortina d'Ampezzo  Italy Europe W007VII 1956 January 26 February 5
Melbourne
Stockholm[d]
 Australia
 Sweden
Oceania
Europe
S016XVI November 22
June 10
December 8
June 17
Squaw Valley  United States Americas W008VIII 1960 February 18 February 28
Rome  Italy Europe S017XVII August 25 September 11
Innsbruck  Austria Europe W009IX 1964 January 29 February 9
Tokyo  Japan Asia S018XVIII October 10 October 24
Grenoble  France Europe W010X 1968 February 6 February 18
Mexico City  Mexico Americas S019XIX October 12 October 27
Sapporo  Japan Asia W011XI 1972 February 3 February 13
Munich  West Germany Europe S020XX August 26 September 11
Innsbruck  Austria Europe W012XII 1976 February 4 February 15
Montreal  Canada Americas S021XXI July 17 August 1
Lake Placid  United States Americas W013XIII 1980 February 12 February 24
Moscow  Soviet Union Europe[e] S022XXII July 19 August 3
Sarajevo  Yugoslavia Europe W014XIV 1984 February 7 February 19
Los Angeles  United States Americas S023XXIII July 28 August 12
Calgary  Canada Americas W015XV 1988 February 13 February 28
Seoul  South Korea Asia S024XXIV September 17 October 2
Albertville  France Europe W016XVI 1992 February 8 February 23
Barcelona  Spain Europe S025XXV July 25 August 9
Lillehammer  Norway Europe W017XVII 1994 February 12 February 27
Atlanta  United States Americas S026XXVI 1996 July 19 August 4
Nagano  Japan Asia W018XVIII 1998 February 7 February 22
Sydney  Australia Oceania S027XXVII 2000 September 15 October 1
Salt Lake City  United States Americas W019XIX 2002 February 8 February 24
Athens  Greece Europe S028XXVIII 2004 August 13 August 29
Turin  Italy Europe W020XX 2006 February 10 February 26
Beijing[f]  China Asia S029XXIX 2008 August 8 August 24
Vancouver  Canada Americas W021XXI 2010 February 12 February 28
London  United Kingdom Europe S030XXX 2012 July 27 August 12
Sochi  Russia Europe[e] W022XXII 2014 February 7 February 23
Rio de Janeiro  Brazil Americas S031XXXI 2016 August 5 August 21
Pyeongchang  South Korea Asia W023XXIII 2018 February 9 February 25
Tokyo  Japan Asia S032XXXII 2020 July 24 August 9
Beijing  China Asia W023XXIV 2022 February 4 February 20

Statistics[edit]

Host cities for multiple Summer and Winter Olympic Games[edit]

List of cities that hosted multiple editions of the Olympic Games
City Country Continent Summer Olympics Winter Olympics Total
London  United Kingdom Europe 3 (1908, 1948, 2012) 0 3
Athens  Greece Europe 3 (1896, 1906*, 2004) 0
Beijing  China Asia 1 (2008) 1 (2022) 2
Tokyo  Japan Asia 2 (1964, 2020) 0
Los Angeles  United States Americas 2 (1932, 1984) 0
Lake Placid  United States Americas 0 2 (1932, 1980)
Innsbruck  Austria Europe 0 2 (1964, 1976)
St. Moritz   Switzerland Europe 0 2 (1928, 1948)
Paris  France Europe 2 (1900, 1924) 0

Number of Olympic Games by country[edit]

Nations that have hosted the Summer Olympics
  4 times or more
  3 times
  2 times
  1 time
  Never held games
Nations that have hosted the Winter Olympics
  4 times or more
  3 times
  2 times
  1 time
  Never held games
List of countries ranked by the number of times they hosted the Olympic Games
Rank Country Continent Summer Olympics Winter Olympics Total
1  United States Americas 4 (1904, 1932, 1984, 1996) 4 (1932, 1960, 1980, 2002) 8
2  France Europe 2 (1900, 1924) 3 (1924, 1968, 1992) 5
3  Japan Asia 2 (1940, 1964, 2020) 2 (1940, 1972, 1998) 4
4  Canada Americas 1 (1976) 2 (1988, 2010) 3
 Greece Europe 3 (1896, 1906, 2004) 0
 Italy Europe 1 (1960) 2 (1944, 1956, 2006)
 Nazi Germany/ West Germany Europe 2 (1916, 1936, 1972) 1 (1936, 1940)
 United Kingdom Europe 3 (1908, 1944, 1948, 2012) 0
9  China Asia 1 (2008) 1 (2022) 2
 South Korea Asia 1 (1988) 1 (2018)
 Soviet Union/ Russia Europe 1 (1980) 1 (2014)
 Australia Oceania 2 (1956, 2000) 0
 Norway Europe 0 2 (1952, 1994)
 Austria Europe 0 2 (1964, 1976)
  Switzerland Europe 0 2 (1928, 1940, 1948)
16  Brazil Americas 1 (2016) 0 1
 Spain Europe 1 (1992) 0
 SFR Yugoslavia/ Bosnia and Herzegovina Europe 0 1 (1984)
 Mexico Americas 1 (1968) 0
 Finland Europe 1 (1940, 1952) 0
 Netherlands Europe 1 (1928) 0
 Belgium Europe 1 (1920) 0
 Sweden Europe 1 (1912) 0

Notes[edit]

  • a Originally awarded to Chicago, but moved to St. Louis to coincide with the World's Fair.[14][15]
  • b The 1906 Games were sanctioned and recognized by the IOC until 1949[16]
  • c The 1908 Games were originally given to Rome, but were moved to London when Mount Vesuvius erupted.[17]
  • d Equestrian events were held in Stockholm, Sweden. Stockholm had to bid for the equestrian competition separately; it received its own Olympic flame and had its own formal invitations and opening and closing ceremonies, just like the regular Summer Olympics.[18]
  • e Russia/Soviet Union spans the continents of Europe and Asia. However, the Russian National Olympic Committee is part of the European Olympic Committees. Also, Moscow is on the European side of the most commonly recognized boundary between Europe and Asia. (Sochi is in Asia per the usual geographic boundary, being just south of the Greater Caucasus' western end; but political approximations of the continental boundary place it in Europe.)
  • f Equestrian events were held in China's Hong Kong SAR.[19] Although Hong Kong's separate NOC conducted the equestrian competition, it was an integral part of the Beijing Games (unlike the 1956 Stockholm equestrian competition it was not conducted under a separate Hong Kong bid, separate flame, etc.).[20]
  • g the 1906 Games were considered to be official at the time, and the records were listed in the record books as late as the year 2000.
  • h The Sailing events were held in Ostend, Belgium and in Amsterdam, Netherlands.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Findling, John E.; Pelle, Kimberly D. (2004). Encyclopedia of the Modern Olympic Movement. Greenwood Publishing Group. p. 41. ISBN 978-0-313-32278-5. 
  2. ^ Group, Taylor Francis (2003). The Europa World Yearbook. Taylor and Francis Group. p. 247. ISBN 978-1-85743-227-5. 
  3. ^ "Choice of the Host City". olympic.org. International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2009-06-04. 
  4. ^ a b Durántez, Conrado (April–May 1997). "The Olympic Movement, a twentieth-century phenomenon" (PDF). Olympic Review. XXVI (14): 56–57. 
  5. ^ "Antwerp 1920". olympic.org. Retrieved 23 January 2011. 
  6. ^ "Chamonix 1924". olympic.org. Retrieved 23 January 2011. 
  7. ^ "Paris 1924". olympic.org. Retrieved 23 January 2011. 
  8. ^ "St. Moritz 1928". olympic.org. Retrieved 23 January 2011. 
  9. ^ "Amsterdam 1928". olympic.org. Retrieved 23 January 2011. 
  10. ^ "Lake Placid 1932". olympic.org. Retrieved 23 January 2011. 
  11. ^ "Los Angeles 1932". olympic.org. Retrieved 23 January 2011. 
  12. ^ "Garmisch-Partenkirchen 1936". olympic.org. Retrieved 23 January 2011. 
  13. ^ "Berlin 1936". olympic.org. Retrieved 23 January 2011. 
  14. ^ "St Louis 1904". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2008-07-29. 
  15. ^ "St. Louis gets Olympic Games; International Committee Sanctions the Change for the World's Fair in 1904" (PDF). The New York Times. 1903-02-12. Retrieved 2008-07-29. 
  16. ^ The 2nd International Olympic Games In Athens 1906, Karl Lennartz, Journal of Olympic History, Dec. 2001/Jan. 2002
  17. ^ "Rome Games moved to London". realclearsports.com. Retrieved 23 January 2011. 
  18. ^ "Stockholm/Melbourne 1956". Swedish Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2008-08-01. 
  19. ^ Tim Pile (June 25, 2008). "Hong Kong saddles up for the Olympics". London: The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 2008-07-29. 
  20. ^ "2008 Beijing Olympic home page". International Olympic Committee. Retrieved 2008-05-04. 

External links[edit]