List of nonreligious Nobel laureates

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Distribution of atheists, agnostics, and freethinkers in Nobel Prizes between 1901-2000.[1]

This list comprises laureates of the Nobel Prize who self-identified as atheist, agnostic, freethinker or otherwise nonreligious at some point in their lives.[2] Many of these laureates were identified with a religion earlier in life. By one estimate, between 1901-2000 about 10.5% of all laureates, and 35% of those in literature, fall in this category.[1] According to the same estimate between 1901-2000 atheists, agnostics, and freethinkers have won 8.9% of the prizes in medicine, 7.1% in chemistry, 5.2% in economics, 4.7% in physics, and 3.6% in peace.[1] Alfred Nobel himself was an atheist later in his life.[3]


Harry Kroto, joint recipient of the 1996 Nobel Prize in Chemistry.



Jean-Paul Sartre, recipient of the 1964 Nobel Prize in Literature.



Physiology or Medicine[edit]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c Shalev, Baruch Aba (2003). "Religion of Nobel prize winners". 100 years of Nobel prizes. New Delhi: Atlantic Publishers & Distributors. pp. 57–59. ISBN 9788126902781.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v Kimball, John (2015). Physics Curiosities, Oddities, and Novelties. CRC Press. p. 323. ISBN 978-1-4665-7636-0.
  3. ^ Evlanoff, Michael; Fluor, Marjorie (1969). Alfred Nobel: The Loneliest Millionaire. W. Ritchie Press. p. 88.
  4. ^ Stein, Gordon, ed. (1985). The Encyclopedia of unbelief. 1 (Nachdr. ed.). Buffalo, N.Y.: Prometheus Books. p. 594. ISBN 978-0-87975-307-8. Svante Arrhenius (I859-I927), recipient of the Nobel Prize in chemistry (I903), was a declared atheist...
  5. ^ Boyer, Paul D. (March 2004), "A Path to Atheism", Freethought Today, Freedom From Religion Foundation, 21 (2), retrieved March 16, 2010.
  6. ^ Kroto, Harold (2015). "Sir John Cornforth ('Kappa'): Some Personal Recollections". Australian Journal of Chemistry. 68 (4): 697–698. doi:10.1071/CH14601.
  7. ^ Perrin, Francis (2008). "Joliot, Frédéric". Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 7. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 151. Raised in a completely nonreligious family, Joliot never attended any church and was a thoroughgoing atheist all his life.
  8. ^ Perrin, Francis (2008). "Joliot-Curie, Irène". Complete Dictionary of Scientific Biography. 7. Detroit: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 157. Retrieved 16 October 2015. It was to her grandfather, a convinced freethinker, that Irène owed her atheism, later politically expressed as anticlericalism.
  9. ^ "Herbert Hauptman". The Telegraph. 27 Oct 2011. Retrieved 15 October 2015. Outside the field of scientific research, he was known for his outspoken atheism: belief in God, he once declared, is not only incompatible with good science, but is "damaging to the wellbeing of the human race."
  10. ^ Cardellini, Liberato (October 2007). "Looking for Connections: An Interview with Roald Hoffmann" (pdf). Journal of Chemical Education. 84 (10): 1631–1635. doi:10.1021/ed084p1631. Retrieved 15 October 2015. atheist who is moved by religion.
  11. ^ Harold W. Kroto (1996). "Harold Kroto – Autobiography"., The Official Web Site of the Nobel Prize. Retrieved March 24, 2012. I am a devout atheist – nothing else makes any sense to me and I must admit to being bewildered by those, who in the face of what appears so obvious, still believe in a mystical creator.
  12. ^ Masood, Ehsan (22 July 2006). "Islam's reformers". Prospect. Retrieved 15 October 2015. It is a scene I won’t forget in a hurry: Jean-Marie Lehn, French winner of the Nobel prize in chemistry, defending his atheism at a packed public conference at the new Alexandria Library in Egypt
  13. ^ "Peter Mitchell – Biographical". The Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1978. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
  14. ^ "Today, I consider myself, in Thomas Huxley's terms, an agnostic. I don’t know whether there is a God or creator, or whatever we may call a higher intelligence or being. I don’t know whether there is an ultimate reason for our being or whether there is anything beyond material phenomena. I may doubt these things as a scientist, as we cannot prove them scientifically, but at the same time we also cannot falsify (disprove) them. For the same reasons, I cannot deny God with certainty, which would make me an atheist. This is a conclusion reached by many scientists." George Olah, A Life of Magic Chemistry
  15. ^ Kocka, edited by Jürgen (2010). Work in a Modern Society the German Experience in European-American Perspective. New York: Berghahn Books, Inc. p. 45. ISBN 978-1-84545-797-6.CS1 maint: Extra text: authors list (link)
  16. ^ a b Pauling, Linus; Ikeda, Daisaku; Gage, Richard L. (1992). In quest of peace and the century of life : a dialogue between Linus Pauling and Daisaku Keda. Boston: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. pp. 21–22. ISBN 978-0-86720-278-6.
  17. ^ "Max Perutz Interview 2". The Vega Science Trust. Retrieved 19 June 2013.
  18. ^ "Perutz rubbishes Popper and Kuhn". TSL EDUCATION LTD. 28 November 1994. Retrieved 19 June 2013. Dr Perutz, said: "It is one thing for scientists to oppose creationism which is demonstrably false but quite another to make pronouncements which offend people's religious faith -- that is a form of tactlessness which merely brings science into disrepute. My view of religion and ethics is simple: even if we do not believe in God, we should try to live as though we did."
  19. ^ Hargittai, István; Hargittai, Magdolna (2002). Candid science II: conversations with famous biomedical scientists (Verschiedene Aufl. ed.). London: Imperial College Press. pp. 73–83. ISBN 1-86094-288-1.
  20. ^ Smith, Michael (1993). "Michael Smith – Biographical". Retrieved 15 October 2015. My only prizes from the Sunday School were "for attendance", so I presume my atheism, which developed when I left home to attend university, although latent, was discernible.
  21. ^ Wysong, Randy L. (1976). The creation-evolution controversy (7th print ed.). Midlanding, Michigan: Inquiry Press. p. 75. ISBN 978-0-918112-02-6.
  22. ^ Ebenstein, Lanny (2007). Milton Friedman a biography (1st ed.). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. p. 9. ISBN 978-0-230-60345-5.
  23. ^ Elzinga, Kenneth G.; Givens, Matthew R. (Spring 2009). "Christianity and Hayek". Faith & Economics (53): 53–68.
  24. ^ Nasar, Sylvia (2012). A Beautiful Mind (Reprint ed.). Faber & Faber. p. 64. ISBN 978-0-571-26607-4.
  25. ^ From Les Prix Nobel. The Nobel Prizes 1994, Editor Tore Frängsmyr, [Nobel Foundation], Stockholm, 1995
  26. ^ Palfrey, Judith S. (2006). Child health in America : making a difference through advocacy (Online-Ausg. ed.). Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University. p. 123. ISBN 978-0-8018-8453-5.
  27. ^ Hunter Crowther-Heyck (2005). Herbert A. Simon: The Bounds of Reason in Modern America. JHU Press. p. 22. ISBN 9780801880254. His secular, scientific values came well before he was old enough to make such calculating career decisions. For example, while still in middle school, Simon wrote a letter to the editor of the Milwaukee Journal defending the civil liberties of atheists, and by high school he was "certain" that he was "religiously an atheist," a conviction that never wavered.
  28. ^ Cronin, Anthony (1999). Samuel Beckett : the last modernist (1st Da Capo Press ed.). New York: Da Capo Press. p. 90. ISBN 978-0-306-80898-2. They were both agnostics, though both set a high associative value on the language in which the traditional religions of their forebears had been expressed, and in conversation and writing were not averse to ironic reference to certain metaphysical concepts.
  29. ^ Paulson, Arthur C. (1930). "Bjørnson and the Norwegian-Americans, 1880–81". Studies and Records. Norwegian-American Historical Association. 5: 84–109. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
  30. ^ a b c d Barker, Dan (2011). The good atheist : living a purpose-filled life without God. Berkeley, CA: Ulysses Press. ISBN 978-1-56975-846-5.
  31. ^ Maze, John Robert (2010). Albert Camus : plague and terror, priest and atheist. Bern: Peter Lang. ISBN 978-3-0343-0006-3.
  32. ^ Behan, Tom (2000). Dario Fo : revolutionary theatre. London: Pluto. p. 103. ISBN 978-0-7453-1362-7.
  33. ^ Bazin, Nancy Topping, ed. (1990). Conversationwith Nadine Gordimer. London: University Press of Mississippi. p. 151. ISBN 978-0-87805-445-9.
  34. ^ Gao Xingjian (2000). "Nobel Lecture – Literature 2000"., The Official Web Site of the Nobel Prize. Retrieved March 24, 2012. … I would like to say that despite my being an atheist I have always shown reverence for the unknowable.
  35. ^ Feinstein, Adam (2008). Pablo neruda. Bloomsbury Publishing USA. pp. 36, 38, 97. ISBN 978-1-59691-781-1.
  36. ^ Diggins, John Patrick (2007). Eugene O'Neill's America desire under democracy. Chicago: University of Chicago Press. p. 130. ISBN 978-0-226-14882-3. O'Neill, an agnostic and an anarchist, maintained little hope in religion or politics and saw institutions not serving to preserve liberty but standing in the way of the birth of true freedom.
  37. ^ Sartre, Jean-Paul (1985). Existentialism and human emotions (1st Carol Pub. Group ed.). New York: Philosophical Library. p. 15. ISBN 978-0-8065-0902-0.
  38. ^ "Wole Soyinka". Academy of Achievement. Washington D.C. Archived from the original on 20 December 2013. Retrieved 20 December 2013.
  39. ^ Wole Soyinka (2007). Climate of Fear: The Quest for Dignity in a Dehumanized World. Random House LLC. p. 119. ISBN 978-0-307-43082-3. I already had certain agnostic tendencies—which would later develop into outright atheistic convictions— so it was not that I believed in any kind of divine protection.
  40. ^ Beegel, Susan F.; Shillinglaw, Susan; Tiffney, Jr., Wesley N. (2007). Steinbeck and the Environment Interdisciplinary Approaches. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press. p. 159. ISBN 978-0-8173-5487-9.
  41. ^ Benson, Jackson J. (1984). The true adventures of John Steinbeck, writer: a biography. Viking Press. p. 248. ISBN 978-0-670-16685-5. Ricketts did not convert his friend to a religious point of view — Steinbeck remained an agnostic and, essentially, a materialist — but Ricketts's religious acceptance did tend to work on his friend, …
  42. ^ Eberstadt, Fernanda (18 June 2010). "José Saramago, Nobel Prize-Winning Portuguese Writer, Dies at 87". The New York Times. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
  43. ^ Ceadel, Martin (2009). Living the great illusion : Sir Norman Angell, 1872–1967. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 22. ISBN 978-0-19-957116-1.
  44. ^ "Gorbachev a closet Christian?". Chicago Tribune. 23 March 2008. Archived from the original on 11 May 2008.
  45. ^ Gorelik, Gennady; Antonina W. Bouis (2005). The World of Andrei Sakharov: A Russian Physicist's Path to Freedom. Oxford University Press. p. 356. ISBN 978-0-19-515620-1. Apparently Sakharov did not need to delve any deeper into it for a long time, remaining a totally nonmilitant atheist with an open heart.
  46. ^ Gorelik, Gennadiĭ Efimovich; Antonina W. Bouis (2005). The World of Andrei Sakharov: A Russian Physicist's Path to Freedom. Oxford University Press. p. 158. ISBN 978-0-19-515620-1. Retrieved 27 May 2012. Sakharov was not invited to this seminar. Like most of the physicists of his generation, he was an atheist.
  47. ^ Todd K. Shackelford; Viviana A. Weekes-Shackelford, eds. (2012). The Oxford Handbook of Evolutionary Perspectives on Violence, Homicide, and War. Oxford University Press. p. 465. ISBN 978-0-19-973840-3. The Soviet dissident most responsible for defeating communism, Andrei Sakharov, was an atheist.
  48. ^ Wiesel, Elie Wiesel (2010). And the sea is never full memoirs 1969- (Unabridged ed.). New York: Alfred Knopf. p. 318. ISBN 978-0-307-76409-6.
  49. ^ "Prominent Russians: Zhores Alferov". Retrieved 21 April 2012. In public life the scientist is a strong supporter of communism, an atheist strongly objecting to advancement of religious education in Russia, and proponent of science and knowledge as the means to see a better future.
  50. ^ "Zhores I. Alferov". Retrieved 21 April 2012.
  51. ^ Anderson, Philip W. (2011). More and different notes from a thoughtful curmudgeon. Singapore: World Scientific. p. 177. ISBN 9789814350143. We atheists can . . . argue that, with the modern revolution in attitudes toward homosexuals, we have become the only group that may not reveal itself in normal social discourse.
  52. ^ Brian, Dennis (2008). The Voice of Genius: Conversations with Nobel Scientists and Other Luminaries. Basic Books. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-465-01139-1.
  53. ^ Nye, Mary Jo (2008). "Blackett, Patrick Maynard Stuart". In Gillispie, Charles Coulston. Complete dictionary of scientific biography. 19. Detroit, Mich.: Charles Scribner's Sons. p. 293. ISBN 978-0-684-31559-1. The grandson of a vicar on his father’s side, Blackett respected religious observances that were established social customs, but described himself as agnostic or atheist.
  54. ^ Simmons, John (2000). "Niels Bohr and the atom 1885–1962". The scientific 100 : a ranking of the most influential scientists, past and present. New York, N.Y.: Kensington Pub. Corp. p. 16. ISBN 978-0-8065-2139-8. His mother was warm and intelligent, and his father, as Bohr himself later recalled, recognized "that something was expected of me." The family was not at all devout, and Bohr became an atheist...
  55. ^ Peterson, Richard (2010). "The Copenhagen spirit of science and birth of the nuclear atom". In Stewart, Melville Y. Science and religion in dialogue. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. p. 416. ISBN 978-1-4443-1736-7. ... after a youth of confirming faith Bohr himself was a non-believer.
  56. ^ Favrholdt, David (1994). "Niels Bohr and realism". In Faye, Jan; Folse, Henry J. Niels Bohr and Contemporary Philosophy. Dordrecht: Springer Netherlands. p. 88. ISBN 9789401581066. Planck was religious and had a firm belief in God; Bohr was not, but his objection to Planck's view had no anti-religious motive.
  57. ^ "Percy Williams Bridgman". Retrieved 24 April 2012. He was raised in the Congregational Church, but faith in God clashed with his well-known analytical nature and he told his family as a young man that he could not in good conscience become a church member.
  58. ^ Maila L. Walter (1990). Science and Cultural Crisis: An Intellectual Biography of Percy Williams Bridgman (1882–1961). Stanford University Press. pp. 14–15. ISBN 978-0-8047-1796-0. Raymond Bridgman was extremely disappointed with his son's rejection of his religious views. Near the end of his life, however, he offered a conciliatory interpretation that allowed him to accept Percy's commitment to honesty and integrity as a moral equivalent to religion.
  59. ^ Ray Monk (2013). Robert Oppenheimer: A Life Inside the Center. Random House LLC. ISBN 978-0-385-50413-3. In many ways they were opposites; Kemble, the theorist, was a devout Christian, while Bridgman, the experimentalist, was a strident atheist.
  60. ^ Brown, Andrew (1997). The neutron and the bomb : a biography of Sir James Chadwick (1st ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 362. ISBN 978-0-19-853992-6. He was a lifelong atheist and felt no need to develop religious faith as he approached the end...
  61. ^ Vishveshwara, C. V. (April 2000). "Leaves from an unwritten diary: S. Chandrasekhar, Reminiscences and Reflections" (PDF). Current Science. 78 (8): 1025–1033. Retrieved 16 October 2015. In his later years, Chandra had openly admitted to being an atheist which also meant that he subscribed to no religion in the customary sense of the word.
  62. ^ Dukas, Helen; Hoffmann, Banesh, eds. (1989). Albert Einstein, the human side : new glimpses from his archives. Princeton, NJ: Princeton Univ. Press. p. 43. ISBN 978-0-691-02368-7. It was, of course, a lie what you read about my religious convictions, a lie which is being systematically repeated. I do not believe in a personal God and I have never denied this but have expressed it clearly. If something is in me which can be called religious then it is the unbounded admiration for the structure of the world so far as our science can reveal it.
  63. ^ a b c Calaprice, Alice, ed. (2000). The expanded quotable Einstein (New ed.). Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. ISBN 978-0-691-07021-6.
  64. ^ Dowbiggin, Ian (2003). A merciful end the Euthanasia movement in modern America. Oxford, England: Oxford University Press. p. 41. ISBN 9780198035152.
  65. ^ Frankenberry, Nancy K. (2008). The faith of scientists in their own words. Princeton: Princeton University Press. p. 153. ISBN 978-0-691-13487-1.
  66. ^ Feynman, Richard P. (2011). Leighton, Ralph, ed. "What Do You Care What Other People Think?": Further Adventures of a Curious Character. W. W. Norton & Company. p. 25. ISBN 978-0-393-07981-4. The elders began getting nervous, because I was an avowed atheist by that time
  67. ^ "Val Fitch". Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  68. ^ Nachmansohn, David (1979). German-Jewish pioneers in science, 1900–1933. Berlin, Heidelberg: Springer. p. 62. ISBN 978-0-387-90402-3. As he said, science was his God and nature his religion. He did not insist that his daughters attend religious instruction classes (Religionsunterricht) in school. But he was very proud of his Jewish heritage..
  69. ^ Wouk, Herman (2010). The language God talks on science and religion (1st ed.). New York, NY: Little, Brown and Co. p. 17. ISBN 978-0-316-09675-1.
  70. ^ Vitaly Ginzburg (2003). "Vitaly L. Ginzburg – Autobiography"., The Official Web Site of the Nobel Prize. Retrieved March 24, 2012. I am an atheist, that is, I think nothing exists except and beyond nature. Within the limits of my, undoubtedly insufficient knowledge of the history of philosophy, I do not see in fact any difference between atheism and the pantheism of Spinoza.
  71. ^ Victor M. Amela (June 20, 2017). "Sheldon Glashow, Nobel Prize in physics for the electroweak theory" (PDF). La Contra - La Vanguardia. Retrieved 8 October 2018. I am a practising atheist.
  72. ^ Sample, Ian (17 November 2007). "The god of small things". London: The Guardian. Retrieved 21 March 2013. The name has stuck, but makes Higgs wince and raises the hackles of other theorists. "I wish he hadn't done it," he says. "I have to explain to people it was a joke. I'm an atheist, but I have an uneasy feeling that playing around with names like that could be unnecessarily offensive to people who are religious."
  73. ^ Schaefer, Henry F. (2008). Science and Christianity : conflict or coherence?. Athens, Ga.: University of Georgia. p. 9. ISBN 0-9742975-0-X. I present here two examples of notable atheists. The first is Lev Landau, the most brilliant Soviet physicist of the twentieth century.
  74. ^ Dan Falk (2005). "What About God?". Universe on a T-Shirt: The Quest for the Theory of Everything. Arcade Publishing. p. 195. ISBN 978-1-55970-733-6. "Physics isn't a religion. If it were, we'd have a much easier time raising money." - Leon Lederman
  75. ^ Babu Gogineni (July 10, 2012). "It's the Atheist Particle, actually". Postnoon News. Archived from the original on 11 July 2012. Retrieved 10 July 2012. Leon Lederman is himself an atheist and he regrets the term, and Peter Higgs who is an atheist too, has expressed his displeasure, but the damage has been done!
  76. ^ Barrow, John D. (2000). The book of nothing : vacuums, voids, and the latest ideas about the origins of the universe (1st Vintage Books ed.). New York: Vintage Books. p. 136. ISBN 978-0-375-72609-5.
  77. ^ Eremoenko, Alexey (9 October 2014). "Q&A: Russian Nobel Laureate on Fun, God and the 'Ideal Physicist'". The Moscow Times. Retrieved 16 February 2016.
  78. ^ Bernard Valeur, Jean-Claude Brochon (2001). New Trends in Fluorescence Spectroscopy: Applications to Chemical and Life Sciences. Springer. p. 17. ISBN 978-3-540-67779-6. Jean and Francis Perrin held similar political and philosophical ideas. Both were socialists and atheists.CS1 maint: Uses authors parameter (link)
  79. ^ Moore, Walter (1994). A life of Erwin Schrödinger. Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press. p. 86. ISBN 978-0-521-46934-0. Schopenhauer often called himself an atheist, as did Schrodinger, and if Buddhism and Vedanta can be truly described as atheistic religions, both the philosopher and his scientific disciple were indeed atheists. They both rejected the idea of a "personal God" …
  80. ^ Diem-Lane, Andrea (2008). Spooky Physics: Einstein vs. Bohr. MSAC Philosophy Group. p. 68. ISBN 978-1-56543-080-8. In terms of religion, Schrodinger fits in the atheist camp. He even lost a marriage proposal to his love, Felicie Krauss, not only due to his social status but his lack of religious affiliation. He was known as a freethinker who did not believe in god.
  81. ^ Ginzburg, V. L. (2005). About Science, Myself and Others. CRC Press. p. 253. ISBN 978-0-7503-0992-9. Nowadays, when we are facing manifestations of religious and. more often, pseudoreligious feelings, it is appropriate to mention that Igor Evgenevich was a convinced and unreserved atheist.
  82. ^ Feinberg, E. L. & Leonidov, A. V. (2011). Physicists: Epoch and Personalities (2 ed.). World Scientific. p. 86. ISBN 9789812834164.
  83. ^ Azpurua, Ana Elena (March 24, 2008). "In Search of the God Particle". Newsweek. p. 3. Retrieved March 25, 2008. I don't believe in God, but I don't make a religion out of not believing in God. I don't organize my life around that.
  84. ^ Carrol, Rory. "Kip Thorne: physicist studying time travel tapped for Hollywood film".
  85. ^ Robert W. Baloh. "Robert Bárány and the controversy surrounding his discovery of the caloric reaction". Retrieved 14 May 2012. Although anti-Semitism was again on the rise in Austria, it is unlikely that anti-Semitism was a factor in the hostility toward Bárány because he was an agnostic who did not believe in Zionism.
  86. ^ George Beadle, An Uncommon Farmer: The Emergence of Genetics in the 20th Century. CSHL Press. 2003. p. 273. ISBN 9780879696887. Beadle's views on this occasion were somewhat more tempered than David's characterization of him as a "vehement atheist," and from his earliest days "intolerant of religion and other forms of superstition.
  87. ^ "J. Michael Bishop". Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  88. ^
  89. ^ Crick, Francis (1988). What mad pursuit : a personal view of scientific discovery. New York: Basic Books. p. 10. ISBN 0-465-09138-5.
  90. ^ Crick, Francis (3–5 February 1990). "How I Got Inclined Towards Atheism". Atheist Centre 1940–1990 Golden Jubilee International Conference Souvenir. Vijayawada, India: Positive Atheism. Archived from the original on 21 May 2012. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
  91. ^ Steyn, Mark (October 2004). "The Twentieth-Century Darwin". The Atlantic Monthly.
  92. ^ Siegel, Ralph M.; Callaway, Edward M. (2004). "Francis Crick's Legacy for Neuroscience: Between the α and the Ω". PLoS Biology. 2 (12): e419. doi:10.1371/journal.pbio.0020419. PMC 535570. PMID 17593891. Francis Crick was an evangelical atheist.
  93. ^ Highfield, Roger (20 Mar 2003). "Do our genes reveal the hand of God?". The Telegraph. Retrieved 15 October 2015. Crick, 86, said: "The god hypothesis is rather discredited."
  94. ^ Ruse, Michael. "Life Evolving: Molecules, Mind, and Meaning by Christian de Duve (Introductory essay)". The International Society for Science and Religion library project. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
  95. ^ Trevor Illtyd Williams (1984). Howard Florey, Penicillin and After. Oxford University Press. p. 363. ISBN 978-0-19-858173-4. As an agnostic, the chapel services meant nothing to Florey but, unlike some contemporary scientists, he was not aggressive in his disbelief.
  96. ^ Paolo Mazzarello; Henry A. Buchtel; Aldo Badiani (1999). The hidden structure: a scientific biography of Camillo Golgi. Oxford University Press. p. 34. ISBN 978-0-19-852444-1. It was probably during this period that Golgi became agnostic (or even frankly atheistic), remaining for the rest of his life completely alien to the religious experience.
  97. ^ "Frederick Hopkins". Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  98. ^ "Obituary: Andrew Huxley". The Economist. June 16, 2012. Retrieved 14 May 2013. He did not even mind the master's duty of officiating in chapel, since he was, he explained, not atheist but agnostic (a word usefully invented by his grandfather), and was “very conscious that there is no scientific explanation for the fact that we are conscious.”
  99. ^ Jacob, The Statue Within, pp 20–57. Quotes from pp 42 and 53.
  100. ^ Dawson, M. Joan. Paul Lauterbur and the Invention of MRI. Cambridge, MA: MIT, 2013. Print. "Paul became an atheist, revering intellectual honesty and the quest for truth."
  101. ^
  102. ^
  103. ^ Medawar, Peter (1996). The strange case of the spotted mice and other classic essays on science (5th ed.). Oxford: Oxford Univ. Press. pp. 207–211. ISBN 978-0-19-286193-1.
  104. ^ Lubbock, Richard. "Peaks, Dust, & Dappled Spots". Books in Canada: The Canadian Review of Books. Retrieved 15 October 2015. In his final chapter de Duve turns to the meaning of life, and considers the ideas of two contrasting Frenchmen: a priest, Teilhard de Chardin, and an existentialist and atheist, Jacques Monod.
  105. ^ Tauber, Alfred I.; Chernyak, Leon (1991). Metchnikoff and the Origins of Immunology : From Metaphor to Theory: From Metaphor to Theory. Oxford University Press. p. 5. ISBN 978-0-19-534510-0. ... his personal religious commitment was to atheism, although he received strict Christian religious training at home. Metchnikoff's atheism smacked of religious fervor in the embrace of rationalism and science.
  106. ^ Costantino Ceoldo (2012-12-31). "Homage to Rita Levi Montalcini". Retrieved 20 July 2013. Born and raised in a Sephardic Jewish family in which culture and love of learning were categorical imperatives, she abandoned religion and embraced atheism.
  107. ^ Nurse, Paul (2001). "Sir Paul Nurse – Biographical". Retrieved 15 October 2015. I gradually slipped away from religion over several years and became an atheist or to be more philosophically correct, a sceptical agnostic.
  108. ^ Windholz, George (September 1986). "Pavlov's Religious Orientation". Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion. 25 (3): 320. doi:10.2307/1386296. JSTOR 1386296. Pavlov's follower E.M. Kreps asked him whether he was religious. Kreps writes that Pavlov smiled and replied: "Listen, good fellow, in regard to [claims of] my religiosity, my belief in God, my church attendance, there is no truth in it; it is sheer fantasy. I was a seminarian, and like the majority of seminarians, I became an unbeliever, an atheist in my school years."
  109. ^ Reville, William (April 20, 2006). "A bright journey to atheism, or a road that ignores all the signs?". The Irish Times. Retrieved 15 October 2015.
  110. ^ "John E. Sulston". NNDB. Soylent Communications. Retrieved 21 April 2014.
  111. ^ "Adofo Pérez Esquivel". Nobel Prize Committee.
  112. ^ "Albert Szent-Györgyi". Retrieved 18 July 2012.
  113. ^ Deirdre Barrett (2010). Supernormal Stimuli: How Primal Urges Overran Their Evolutionary Purpose. W. W. Norton & Company. pp. 21–22. ISBN 978-0-393-06848-1. Tinbergen had never been a religious man. Wartime atrocities, however, had highlighted the absence of a deity for him while both sides invoked one aligned with themselves, and this turned him into a militant atheist.
  114. ^ Highfield, Roger (20 March 2003). "Do our genes reveal the hand of God?". The Telegraph. Retrieved 15 October 2015.

External links[edit]