Low sodium diet
The human minimum requirement for sodium in the diet is about 500 mg per day, which is typically less than one-sixth as much as many diets "seasoned to taste". For certain people with salt-sensitive blood pressure or diseases such as Ménière's disease, this extra intake may cause a negative effect on health.
A low sodium diet has a useful effect to reduce blood pressure, both in people with hypertension and in people with normal blood pressure. Taken together, a low salt diet (median of approximately 4.4 g/day - approx 1800 mg Sodium) in hypertensive people resulted in a decrease in systolic blood pressure by 4.2 mmHg, and in diastolic blood pressure by 2.1 mmHg.
Advising people to eat a low salt diet, however, is of unclear effect in either hypertensive or normal tensive people. In 2012, the British Journal Heart published an article claiming that a low salt diet appears to increase the risk of death in those with congestive heart failure, but the article was retracted in 2013. The article was retracted by the journal when it was found the two of the studies cited contained duplicate data that could not be verified.
Food and drink contents
Sodium occurs naturally in most foods. The most common form of sodium is sodium chloride, which is table salt. Milk, beets, and celery also naturally contain sodium, as does drinking water, although the amount varies depending on the source. Sodium is also added to various food products. Some of these added forms are monosodium glutamate, sodium nitrite, sodium saccharin, baking soda (sodium bicarbonate), and sodium benzoate.
It has been noted that such large amounts of salts are given out by regenerative water softeners that over 60 cities in Southern California have banned these units because of elevated salt levels in ground water reclamation projects caused by water softeners and other sources. Water labeled as "drinking water" in supermarkets may have sodium since it is usually only filtered with a carbon filter and will contain any and all sodium present in the source water.
High sodium content
Condiments and seasonings such as Worcestershire sauce, soy sauce, onion salt, garlic salt, and bouillon cubes contain sodium. Processed meats, such as bacon, sausage, and ham, and canned soups and vegetables are all examples of foods that contain added sodium. Fast foods are generally very high in sodium. Also, processed foods such as potato chips, frozen dinners and cured meats have high sodium content.
Low sodium content
Unprocessed, fresh foods, such as fresh fruits, most vegetables, beef, poultry, fish and unprocessed grains are low in sodium. The availability of low sodium foods is increasing. Low sodium products and low or no sodium labeled versions can be found in stores. Many low sodium products are available online.
Other foods that are low in sodium include:
- Seasonings: Black, cayenne, or lemon pepper, mustard, some chili or hot sauces
- Herbs: Dried or fresh garlic, garlic/onion powder (no salt), dill, parsley, rosemary, basil, cinnamon, cloves, paprika, oregano, ginger, vinegar, cumin, nutmeg
- Most fresh fruits and vegetables, exceptions include celery, carrots, beets, and spinach
- Dried beans, peas, rice, lentils
- Macaroni, pasta, noodles, rice, barley (cooked in unsalted water)
- Honey, sugar
- Unsalted butter
- Unsalted dry curd cottage cheese
- Fresh beef, pork, lamb, fish, shrimp, egg
- Milk, yogurt
- Hot cereals
- Club soda, coffee, seltzer water, soy milk, tea
- Heart Failure Society of America, How to follow a low sodium diet
- Implementing recommendations for dietary salt reduction: Where are we? DIANE Publishing. ISBN 1428929096.
- He, FJ; Li, J; Macgregor, GA (30 April 2013). "Effect of longer-term modest salt reduction on blood pressure". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (4): CD004937. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD004937.pub2. PMID 23633321.
- Adler, AJ; Taylor, F; Martin, N; Gottlieb, S; Taylor, RS; Ebrahim, S (18 December 2014). "Reduced dietary salt for the prevention of cardiovascular disease". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (12): CD009217. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD009217.pub3. PMID 25519688.
- Dinicolantonio, JJ; Pasquale, PD; Taylor, RS; Hackam, DG (Jan 24, 2013). "Low sodium versus normal sodium diets in systolic heart failure: systematic review and meta-analysis". Heart (British Cardiac Society). doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2012-302337. PMID 22914535.
- no author given (June 2013). "Retraction. Low sodium versus normal sodium diets in systolic heart failure: systematic review and meta-analysis". Heart. 99 (11): 820. doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2011-301156.29ret. PMID 23640983. Retrieved 2013-09-29.
- amarcus41. "Heart pulls sodium meta-analysis over duplicated, and now missing, data". Retraction Watch. Retrieved 2013-09-29.
- Sodium, Your Health, and Your Drinking Water by Gene Shaparenko, Aqua Technology Water Stores
- NIH Medline Plus Medical Encyclopedia
- Sodium: Are you getting too much? Mayo Clinic