Dieting is the practice of eating food in a regulated and supervised fashion to decrease, maintain, or increase body weight. In other words, it is conscious control or restriction of the diet. A restricted diet is often used by those who are overweight or obese, sometimes in combination with physical exercise, to reduce body weight. Some people follow a diet to gain weight (usually in the form of muscle). Diets can also be used to maintain a stable body weight and improve health. In particular, diets can be designed to prevent or treat diabetes.
Diets to promote weight loss can be categorized as: low-fat, low-carbohydrate, low-calorie, very low calorie and more recently flexible dieting. A meta-analysis of six randomized controlled trials found no difference between low-calorie, low-carbohydrate, and low-fat diets, with a 2–4 kilogram weight loss over 12–18 months in all studies. At two years, all calorie-reduced diet types cause equal weight loss irrespective of the macronutrients emphasized. In general, the most effective diet is any which reduces calorie consumption.
A study published in American Psychologist found that short-term dieting involving "severe restriction of calorie intake" does not lead to "sustained improvements in weight and health for the majority of individuals". Other studies have found that the average individual maintains some weight loss after dieting. Weight loss by dieting, while of benefit to those classified as unhealthy, may slightly increase the mortality rate for individuals who are otherwise healthy.
The first popular diet was "Banting", named after William Banting. In his 1863 pamphlet, Letter on Corpulence, Addressed to the Public, he outlined the details of a particular low-carbohydrate, low-calorie diet that had led to his own dramatic weight loss.
- 1 History
- 2 Types
- 3 Nutrition
- 4 How the body eliminates fat
- 5 Weight loss groups
- 6 Food diary
- 7 Possible weight loss effects of drinking water prior to meals
- 8 Fasting
- 9 Side effects
- 10 Low carbohydrate versus low fat
- 11 Low glycemic index
- 12 See also
- 13 References
- 14 Further reading
- 15 External links
One of the first dietitians was the English doctor George Cheyne. He himself was tremendously overweight and would constantly eat large quantities of rich food and drink. He began a meatless diet, taking only milk and vegetables, and soon regained his health. He began publicly recommending his diet for everyone suffering from obesity. In 1724, he wrote An Essay of Health and Long Life, in which he advises exercise and fresh air and avoiding luxury foods.
The Scottish military surgeon, John Rollo, published Notes of a Diabetic Case in 1797. It described the benefits of a meat diet for those suffering from diabetes, basing this recommendation on Matthew Dobson's discovery of glycosuria in diabetes mellitus. By means of Dobson's testing procedure (for glucose in the urine) Rollo worked out a diet that had success for what is now called type 2 diabetes.
The first popular diet was "Banting", named after the English undertaker William Banting. In 1863, he wrote a booklet called Letter on Corpulence, Addressed to the Public, which contained the particular plan for the diet he had successfully followed. His own diet was four meals per day, consisting of meat, greens, fruits, and dry wine. The emphasis was on avoiding sugar, sweet foods, starch, beer, milk and butter. Banting’s pamphlet was popular for years to come, and would be used as a model for modern diets. The pamphlet's popularity was such that the question "Do you bant?" referred to his method, and eventually to dieting in general. His booklet remains in print as of 2007.
The first weight-loss book to promote calorie counting, and the first weight-loss book to become a bestseller, was the 1918 Diet and Health: With Key to the Calories by American physician and columnist Lulu Hunt Peters.
The Atkins Diet was suggested by the American nutritionist Robert Atkins in 1958, in a research paper titled "Weight Reduction". Atkins used the study to resolve his own overweight condition and went on to popularize the method in a series of books, starting with Dr. Atkins' Diet Revolution in 1972. In his second book, Dr. Atkins' New Diet Revolution (1992), he modified parts of the diet but did not alter the original concepts.
Low-fat diets involve the reduction of the percentage of fat in one's diet. Calorie consumption is reduced because less fat is consumed. Diets of this type include NCEP Step I and II. A meta-analysis of 16 trials of 2–12 months' duration found that low-fat diets (without intentional restriction of caloric intake) resulted in average weight loss of 3.2 kg (7.1 lb) over habitual eating.
Low-carbohydrate diets such as Atkins and Protein Power are relatively high in protein and fats. Low-carbohydrate diets are sometimes ketogenic (i.e., they restrict carbohydrate intake sufficiently to cause ketosis).
Low-calorie diets usually produce an energy deficit of 500–1,000 calories per day, which can result in a 0.5 to 1 kilogram (1.1 to 2.2 pounds) weight loss per week. One of the most commonly used low-calorie diets is Weight Watchers. The National Institutes of Health reviewed 34 randomized controlled trials to determine the effectiveness of low-calorie diets. They found that these diets lowered total body mass by 8% in the short term, over 3–12 months. Women doing low-calorie diets should have at least 1,200 calories per day. Men should have at least 1,800 calories per day.
Very low calorie diets provide 200–800 calories per day, maintaining protein intake but limiting calories from both fat and carbohydrates. They subject the body to starvation and produce an average loss of 1.5–2.5 kg (3.3–5.5 lb) per week. "2-4-6-8", a popular diet of this variety, follows a four-day cycle in which only 200 calories are consumed the first day, 400 the second day, 600 the third day, 800 the fourth day, and then totally fasting, after which the cycle repeats. These diets are not recommended for general use as they are associated with adverse side effects such as loss of lean muscle mass, increased risks of gout, and electrolyte imbalances. People attempting these diets must be monitored closely by a physician to prevent complications.
Religious prescription may be a factor in motivating people to adopt a specific restrictive diet. For example, the Biblical Book of Daniel (1:2-20, and 10:2-3) refers to a 10- or 21-day avoidance of foods (Daniel Fast) declared unclean by God in the laws of Moses. In modern versions of the Daniel Fast, food choices may be limited to whole grains, fruits, vegetables, pulses, nuts, seeds and oil. The Daniel Fast resembles the vegan diet in that it excludes foods of animal origin. The passages strongly suggest that the Daniel Fast will promote good health and mental performance.
Fasting is practiced in various religions. Examples include Lent in Christianity; Yom Kippur, Tisha B'av, Fast of Esther, Tzom Gedalia, the Seventeenth of Tamuz, and the Tenth of Tevet in Judaism. Muslims refrain from eating during the hours of daytime for one entire month, Ramadan, every year.
Details of fasting practices differ. Eastern Orthodox Christians fast during specified fasting seasons of the year, which include not only the better-known Great Lent, but also fasts on every Wednesday and Friday (except on special holidays), together with extended fasting periods before Christmas (the Nativity Fast), after Easter (the Apostles Fast) and in early August (the Dormition Fast). Members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons) generally fast for 24 hours on the first Sunday of each month. Like Muslims, they refrain from all drinking and eating unless they are children or are physically unable to fast. Fasting is also a feature of ascetic traditions in religions such as Hinduism and Buddhism. Mahayana traditions that follow the Brahma's Net Sutra may recommend that the laity fast "during the six days of fasting each month and the three months of fasting each year" [Brahma's Net Sutra, minor precept 30]. Members of the Baha'i Faith observe a Nineteen Day Fast from sunrise to sunset during March each year.
Weight loss diets that manipulate the proportion of macronutrients (low-fat, low-carbohydrate, etc.) have been shown to be more effective than diets that maintain a typical mix of foods with smaller portions and perhaps some substitutions (e.g. low-fat milk, or less salad dressing). Extreme diets may, in some cases, lead to malnutrition.
Nutritionists also agree on the importance of avoiding fats, especially saturated fats, to reduce weight and to be healthier. They also agree on the importance of reducing salt intake because foods including snacks, biscuits, and bread already contain ocean-salt, contributing to an excess of salt daily intake.
MyPyramid Food Guidance System is the result of extensive research performed by the United States Department of Agriculture to revise the original Food Guide Pyramid. It offers a wide array of personalized options to help individuals make healthy food choices. It also provides advice on physical activity.
One of the most important things to take into consideration when either trying to lose or put on weight is output versus input. It is important to know the amount of energy your body is using every day, so that your intake fits the needs of one's personal weight goal. Someone wanting to lose weight would want a smaller energy intake than what they put out. There is increasing research-based evidence that low-fat vegetarian diets consistently lead to healthy weight loss and management, a decrease in diabetic symptoms as well as improved cardiac health.
How the body eliminates fat
When the body is expending more energy than it is consuming (e.g. when exercising), the body's cells rely on internally stored energy sources, such as complex carbohydrates and fats, for energy. The first source to which the body turns is glycogen (by glycogenolysis). Glycogen is a complex carbohydrate, 65% of which is stored in skeletal muscles and the remainder in the liver (totaling about 2,000 kcal in the whole body). It is created from the excess of ingested macronutrients, mainly carbohydrates. When glycogen is nearly depleted, the body begins lipolysis, the mobilization and catabolism of fat stores for energy. In this process, fats, obtained from adipose tissue, or fat cells, are broken down into glycerol and fatty acids, which can be used to generate energy. The primary by-products of metabolism are carbon dioxide and water; carbon dioxide is expelled through the respiratory system.
Weight loss groups
These organizations' customs and practices differ widely. Some groups are modelled on twelve-step programs, while others are quite informal. Some groups advocate certain prepared foods or special menus, while others train dieters to make healthy choices from restaurant menus and while grocery-shopping and cooking.
A 2008 study published in the American Journal of Preventive Medicine showed that dieters who kept a daily food diary (or diet journal), lost twice as much weight as those who did not keep a food log, suggesting that if you record your eating, you wouldn't eat as many calories.
Possible weight loss effects of drinking water prior to meals
A 2009 review found that existing limited evidence suggested that encouraging water consumption and substituting energy-free beverages for energy-containing beverages (i.e., reducing caloric intake) may facilitate weight management. A 2009 article found that drinking 500 ml of water prior to meals for a 12-week period resulted in increased long-term weight reduction. (References given in main article.)
Lengthy fasting can be dangerous due to the risk of malnutrition and should be carried out only under medical supervision. During prolonged fasting or very low calorie diets the reduction of blood glucose, the preferred energy source of the brain, causes the body to deplete its glycogen stores. Once glycogen is depleted the body begins to fuel the brain using ketones, while also metabolizing body protein (including but not limited to skeletal muscle) to be used to synthesize sugars for use as energy by the rest of the body. Most experts believe that a prolonged fast can lead to muscle wasting, although some dispute this. The use of short-term fasting, or various forms of intermittent fasting have been used as a form of dieting to circumvent this issue.
While there are studies that show the health and medical benefits of weight loss, a study in 2005 of around 3000 Finns over an 18-year period showed that weight loss from dieting can result in increased mortality, while those who maintained their weight fared the best. Similar conclusion is drawn by other studies, and although other studies suggest that intentional weight loss has a small benefit for individuals classified as unhealthy, it is associated with slightly increased mortality for healthy individuals and the slightly overweight but not obese. This may reflect the loss of subcutaneous fat and beneficial mass from organs and muscle in addition to visceral fat when there is a sudden and dramatic weight loss.
Low carbohydrate versus low fat
Many studies have focused on diets that reduce calories via a low-carbohydrate (Atkins diet, Scarsdale diet, Zone diet) diet versus a low-fat diet (LEARN diet, Ornish diet). The Nurses' Health Study, an observational cohort study, found that low carbohydrate diets based on vegetable sources of fat and protein are associated with less coronary heart disease. The same study also found no correlation (with multivariate adjustment) between animal fat intake and coronary heart disease (table 4). A long term study that monitored 43,396 Swedish women however suggests that a low carbohydrate-high protein diet, used on a regular basis and without consideration of the nature of carbohydrates or the source of proteins, is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease.
A meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials by the international Cochrane Collaboration in 2002 concluded that fat-restricted diets are no better than calorie-restricted diets in achieving long term weight loss in overweight or obese people. A more recent meta-analysis that included randomized controlled trials published after the Cochrane review found that low-carbohydrate, non-energy-restricted diets appear to be at least as effective as low-fat, energy-restricted diets in inducing weight loss for up to 1 year. These results can be understood because weight loss is mainly governed by daily caloric deficit and not by the particular foods eaten. However, when low-carbohydrate diets to induce weight loss are considered, potential favorable changes in triglyceride and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol values should be weighed against potential unfavorable changes in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol values."
The Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial found that a diet of total fat to 20% of energy and increasing consumption of vegetables and fruit to at least 5 servings daily and grains to at least 6 servings daily resulted in:
- no reduction in cardiovascular disease
- no statistically significant reduction in invasive breast cancer
- no reductions in colorectal cancer
Additional randomized controlled trials found that:
- A comparison of Atkins, Zone diet, Ornish diet, and LEARN diet in premenopausal women found the greatest benefit from the Atkins diet.
- The choice of diet for a specific person may be influenced by measuring the individual's insulin secretion:
- In young adults "Reducing glycemic [carbohydrate] load may be especially important to achieve weight loss among individuals with high insulin secretion." This is consistent with prior studies of diabetic patients in which low carbohydrate diets were more beneficial.
Low glycemic index
"The glycemic index (GI) factor is a ranking of foods based on their overall effect on blood sugar levels. The diet based around this research is called the Low GI diet. Low glycemic index foods, such as lentils, provide a slower, more consistent source of glucose to the bloodstream, thereby stimulating less insulin release than high glycemic index foods, such as white bread."
The glycemic load is "the mathematical product of the glycemic index and the carbohydrate amount".
- Diet 1 and 2 were high carbohydrate (55% of total energy intake)
- Diet 1 was high-glycemic index
- Diet 2 was low-glycemic index
- Diet 3 and 4 were high protein (25% of total energy intake)
- Diet 3 was high-glycemic index
- Diet 4 was low-glycemic index
Diets 2 and 3 lost the most weight and fat mass; however, low density lipoprotein fell in Diet 2 and rose in Diet 3. Thus the authors concluded that the high-carbohydrate, low-glycemic index diet was the most favorable.
A meta-analysis by the Cochrane Collaboration concluded that low glycemic index or low glycemic load diets led to more weight loss and better lipid profiles. However, the Cochrane Collaboration grouped low glycemic index and low glycemic load diets together and did not try to separate the effects of the load versus the index.
- Strychar I (January 2006). "Diet in the management of weight loss". CMAJ. 174 (1): 56–63. PMC . PMID 16389240. doi:10.1503/cmaj.045037.
- Sacks FM, Bray GA, Carey VJ, et al. (February 2009). "Comparison of Weight-Loss Diets with Different Compositions of Fat, Protein, and Carbohydrates". N. Engl. J. Med. 360 (9): 859–73. PMC . PMID 19246357. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa0804748.
- Guth, Eve (3 September 2014). "Healthy Weight Loss". JAMA. 312 (9): 974. PMID 25182116. doi:10.1001/jama.2014.10929. Retrieved 29 November 2014.
- Mann, T; Tomiyama, AJ; Westling, E; Lew, AM; Samuels, B; Chatman, J (April 2007). "Medicare's search for effective obesity treatments: diets are not the answer.". The American Psychologist. 62 (3): 220–33. PMID 17469900. doi:10.1037/0003-066x.62.3.220.
In sum, there is little support for the notion that diets ["severely restricting one’s calorie intake"] lead to lasting weight loss or health benefits.
- Anderson, James; Elizabeth C Konz; Robert C Frederich; Constance L Wood (November 2001). "Long-term weight-loss maintenance: a meta-analysis of US studies". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 74 (5): 579–584. PMID 11684524. Retrieved 22 December 2013.
- Bacon L, Aphramor L.; Aphramor (2011). "Weight science: evaluating the evidence for a paradigm shift". Nutr J. 10: 9. PMC . PMID 21261939. doi:10.1186/1475-2891-10-9.
- Harrington M, Gibson S, Cottrell RC; Gibson; Cottrell (2009). "A review and meta-analysis of the effect of weight loss on all-cause mortality risk". Nutr Res Rev. 22 (1): 93–108. PMID 19555520. doi:10.1017/S0954422409990035.
- Kendall Powell (31 May 2007). "The Two Faces of Fat". Nature. 447 (7144): 525–7. PMID 17538594. doi:10.1038/447525a.
- Jennifer Petrelli; Kathleen Y. Wolin (2009). Obesity (Biographies of Disease). Westport, Conn: Greenwood. p. 11. ISBN 0-313-35275-5.
- "The Ethics of Diet - A Catena". Retrieved 17 December 2012.
- Elliott Proctor Joslin (2005). Joslin's Diabetes Mellitus: Edited by C. Ronald Kahn ... [et Al.]. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 3. ISBN 978-0-7817-2796-9. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
- Laurence D. Chalem (5 September 2009). Essential Diabetes Leadership. Laurence Chalem. p. 39. ISBN 978-1-4392-4566-8. Retrieved 20 June 2013.
- "CORPULENCE". Britannica (11 ed.). 1911. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
- Groves, PhD, Barry (2002). "WILLIAM BANTING: The Father of the Low-Carbohydrate Diet". Second Opinions. Retrieved 26 December 2007.
- Banting, William (2005) . Letter on Corpulence. USA: New York: Cosimo Classics. pp. 64 pages. ISBN 978-1-59605-085-3. Retrieved 28 December 2007.
- See also ISBN 0-9543975-1-7.
- Kawash, Samira (2013). Candy: A Century of Panic and Pleasure. New York: Faber & Faber, Incorporated. pp. 185–189. ISBN 9780865477568.
- White, Ellen G (1938). Counsels on Diet and Foods (PDF). ePub.
- Bloomer, Richard J; Mohammad M Kabir; Robert E Canale; John F Trepanowski; Kate E Marshall; Tyler M Farney; Kelley G Hammond (2010). "Effect of a 21 day Daniel Fast on metabolic and cardiovascular disease risk factors in men and women" (PDF). Lipids in Health and Disease. 9: 94. PMC . PMID 20815907. doi:10.1186/1476-511X-9-94.
- "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 27 December 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2016.
- "Cochrane for Clinicians: Are Low-Fat Diets Better than Other Weight-Reducing Diets in Achieving Long-Term Weight Loss? - American Family Physician".
- "Why is Proper Nutrition Important?". Retrieved 26 July 2010.
- "Dietary Guidelines". Archived from the original on 27 May 2010. Retrieved 26 July 2010.
- Trapp, Caroline B.; Barnard, Neal D. (2010-04-01). "Usefulness of vegetarian and vegan diets for treating type 2 diabetes". Current Diabetes Reports. 10 (2): 152–158. ISSN 1539-0829. PMID 20425575. doi:10.1007/s11892-010-0093-7.
- Ornish, D.; Brown, S. E.; Scherwitz, L. W.; Billings, J. H.; Armstrong, W. T.; Ports, T. A.; McLanahan, S. M.; Kirkeeide, R. L.; Brand, R. J. (1990-07-21). "Can lifestyle changes reverse coronary heart disease? The Lifestyle Heart Trial". Lancet. 336 (8708): 129–133. ISSN 0140-6736. PMID 1973470. doi:10.1016/0140-6736(90)91656-u.
- O’Rourke, Brian; Cortassa, Sonia; Aon, Miguel A. (2005-10-01). "Mitochondrial Ion Channels: Gatekeepers of Life and Death". Physiology. 20 (5): 303–315. ISSN 1548-9213. PMC . PMID 16174870. doi:10.1152/physiol.00020.2005.
- Hellmich, Nanci (8 July 2008). "Using food diaries doubles weight loss, study shows". USA Today. Retrieved 1 May 2010.
- Sørensen TI, Rissanen A, Korkeila M, Kaprio J; Rissanen; Korkeila; Kaprio (2005). "Intention to Lose Weight, Weight Changes, and 18-y Mortality in Overweight Individuals without Co-Morbidities". PLoS Medicine. 2 (6; e171): e171. PMC . PMID 15971946. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.0020171.
- Ingram DD, Mussolino ME.; Mussolino (2010). "Weight loss from maximum body weight and mortality: the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey Linked Mortality File". Int J Obes. 34 (6): 1044–1050. PMID 20212495. doi:10.1038/ijo.2010.41.
- Halton TL, Willett WC, Liu S, et al. (2006). "Low-carbohydrate-diet score and the risk of coronary heart disease in women". N. Engl. J. Med. 355 (19): 1991–2002. PMID 17093250. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa055317.
- Lagiou P, Sandin S, Lof M, Trichopoulos D, Adami HO, Weiderpass E.; Sandin; Lof; Trichopoulos; Adami; Weiderpass (26 June 2012). "Low carbohydrate-high protein diet and incidence of cardiovascular diseases in Swedish women: prospective cohort study". British Medical Journal. 344: e4026. PMC . PMID 22735105. doi:10.1136/bmj.e4026.
- Pirozzo S, Summerbell C, Cameron C, Glasziou P; Summerbell; Cameron; Glasziou (2002). Pirozzo, Sandi, ed. "Advice on low-fat diets for obesity". Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (2): CD003640. PMID 12076496. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD003640.
- Samaha FF, Iqbal N, Seshadri P, et al. (2003). "A low-carbohydrate as compared with a low-fat diet in severe obesity". N. Engl. J. Med. 348 (21): 2074–81. PMID 12761364. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa022637.
- Foster GD, Wyatt HR, Hill JO, et al. (2003). "A randomized trial of a low-carbohydrate diet for obesity". N. Engl. J. Med. 348 (21): 2082–90. PMID 12761365. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa022207.
- Dansinger ML, Gleason JA, Griffith JL, Selker HP, Schaefer EJ (January 2005). "Comparison of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone diets for weight loss and heart disease risk reduction: a randomized trial". JAMA. 293: 43–53. PMID 15632335. doi:10.1001/jama.293.1.43.
- "The Science of Dieting". Retrieved 21 September 2015.
- Nordmann AJ, Nordmann A, Briel M, et al. (2006). "Effects of low-carbohydrate vs low-fat diets on weight loss and cardiovascular risk factors: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials". Arch. Intern. Med. 166 (3): 285–93. PMID 16476868. doi:10.1001/archinte.166.3.285.
- Howard BV, Manson JE, Stefanick ML; et al. (2006). "Low-fat dietary pattern and weight change over 7 years: the Women's Health Initiative Dietary Modification Trial". JAMA. 295 (1): 39–49. PMID 16391215. doi:10.1001/jama.295.1.39.
- Howard BV, Van Horn L, Hsia J, et al. (2006). "Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of cardiovascular disease: the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial". JAMA. 295 (6): 655–66. PMID 16467234. doi:10.1001/jama.295.6.655.
- Prentice RL, Caan B, Chlebowski RT, et al. (2006). "Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of invasive breast cancer: the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial". JAMA. 295 (6): 629–42. PMID 16467232. doi:10.1001/jama.295.6.629.
- Beresford SA, Johnson KC, Ritenbaugh C, et al. (2006). "Low-fat dietary pattern and risk of colorectal cancer: the Women's Health Initiative Randomized Controlled Dietary Modification Trial". JAMA. 295 (6): 643–54. PMID 16467233. doi:10.1001/jama.295.6.643.
- Gardner CD, Kiazand A, Alhassan S, et al. (2007). "Comparison of the Atkins, Zone, Ornish, and LEARN diets for change in weight and related risk factors among overweight premenopausal women: the A TO Z Weight Loss Study: a randomized trial". JAMA. 297 (9): 969–77. PMID 17341711. doi:10.1001/jama.297.9.969.
- Ebbeling CB, Leidig MM, Feldman HA, Lovesky MM, Ludwig DS (2007). "Effects of a low-glycemic load vs low-fat diet in obese young adults: a randomized trial". JAMA. 297 (19): 2092–102. PMID 17507345. doi:10.1001/jama.297.19.2092.
- Stern L, Iqbal N, Seshadri P, et al. (2004). "The effects of low-carbohydrate versus conventional weight loss diets in severely obese adults: one-year follow-up of a randomized trial". Ann. Intern. Med. 140 (10): 778–85. PMID 15148064. doi:10.7326/0003-4819-140-10-200405180-00007.
- Garg A, Bantle JP, Henry RR, et al. (1994). "Effects of varying carbohydrate content of diet in patients with non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus". JAMA. 271 (18): 1421–8. PMID 7848401. doi:10.1001/jama.271.18.1421.
- American Diabetes Association; Bantle, JP; Wylie-Rosett, J; Albright, AL; Apovian, CM; Clark, NG; Franz, MJ; Hoogwerf, BJ; et al. (2008). "Nutrition Recommendations and Interventions for Diabetes". Diabetes Care. 31 (Suppl 1): S61–78. PMID 18165339. doi:10.2337/dc08-S061.
- Thomas, Diana; Elliott, Elizabeth J.; Baur, Louise (31 July 2006). Written at University of Sydney, Children's Hospital at Westmead, CEBPGAN (Centre for Evidence Based Paediatrics Gastroenterology and Nutrition. Thomas, Diana, ed. "Low glycaemic index or low glycaemic load diets for overweight and obesity" (PDF). Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online). USA: John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. (published 18 July 2007). 3 (3): CD005105. PMID 17636786. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005105.pub2.
- Jenkins, D.J.; Wolever, T.M.; Taylor, R.H.; Barker, H.; Fielden, H.; Baldwin, J.M.; Bowling, A.C.; Newman, H.C.; et al. (March 1981). "Glycemic index of foods: a physiological basis for carbohydrate exchange" (PDF). American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. USA: The American Society for Clinical Nutrition, Inc. 34 (3): 362–6. PMID 6259925.
- Brand-Miller, Janette Cecile; Thomas, M.; Swan, V.; Ahmad, Z.I.; Petocz, P.; Colagiuri, S. (2003). Written at Human Nutrition Unit, School of Molecular and Microbial Biosciences, University of Sydney, Sydney, NSW, Australia. "Physiological Validation of the Concept of Glycemic Load in Lean Young Adults" (PDF). The Journal of Nutrition. USA: The American Society for Nutritional Sciences (published September 2003). 133 (9): 2728–32. PMID 12949357.
- McMillan-Price, J.; Petocz, P.; Atkinson, F.; O'neill, K.; Samman, S.; Steinbeck, K.; Caterson, I.; Brand-Miller, Janette Cecile (2006). Written at Human Nutrition Unit, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia. "Comparison of 4 Diets of Varying Glycemic Load on Weight Loss and Cardiovascular Risk Reduction in Overweight and Obese Young Adults: A Randomized Controlled Trial" (PDF). Archives of Internal Medicine. USA: American Medical Association (published 24 July 2006). 166 (14): 1466–75. PMID 16864756. doi:10.1001/archinte.166.14.1466.
- Thomas DE, Elliott E, Baur L (2007). Thomas, Diana, ed. "Low glycaemic index or low glycaemic load diets for overweight and obesity". Cochrane database of systematic reviews (Online) (3): CD005105. PMID 17636786. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005105.pub2.
- American Dietetic Association (2003). "Position Paper on Vegetarian Diets". J Am Diet Assoc. 103: 748–765. PMID 12778049. doi:10.1053/jada.2003.50142.
- Cheraskin Emmanuel (1993). "The Breakfast/Lunch/Dinner Ritual". Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine. 8 (1).
- Dansinger, M.L., Gleason, J. L., Griffith, J.L., et al., "One Year Effectiveness of the Atkins, Ornish, Weight Watchers, and Zone Diets in Decreasing Body Weight and Heart Disease Risk", Presented at the American Heart Association Scientific Sessions, Orlando, Florida, 12 November 2003.
- Schwartz, Hillel. Never Satisfied: A Cultural History of Diets, Fantasies, and Fat. New York: Free Press/Macmillan, 1986.
- Wansink, B. Mindless Eating: Why We Eat More Than We Think, New York: Bantam Dell (2006).
|Wikiquote has quotations related to: Diet|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to Diet.|
- Dieting at DMOZ
- A PBS Frontline interview with Prof. Walter Willett, Chair of Harvard's nutrition department (2004)
- "Not All Calories Are Created Equal, Author Says". Excerpt from Good Calories, Bad Calories and NPR interview with Gary Taubes and Dr. Ronald Krauss (2 November 2007).
- The food pyramid: Video lectures at the Harvard School of public health
- US News and World Report, Health: Eat Like Our Ancestors. An Interview with Harvard Psychology’s Deirdre Barrett 6/29/07