List of diets
An individual's diet is the sum of food and drink that she or he habitually consumes. Dieting is the practice of attempting to achieve or maintain a certain weight through diet. People's dietary choices are often affected by a variety of factors, including ethical and religious beliefs, clinical need, or a desire to control weight.
Not all diets are considered healthy. Some people follow unhealthy diets through habit, rather than through a conscious choice to eat unhealthily. Terms applied to such eating habits include "junk food diet" and "Western diet". Many diets are considered by clinicians to pose significant health risks and minimal long-term benefit. This is particularly true of "crash" or "fad" diets–short-term, weight-loss plans that involve drastic changes to a person's normal eating habits.
Only diets covered on Wikipedia are listed.
Some people's dietary choices are influenced by their religious, spiritual or philosophical beliefs.
- Buddhist diet: While Buddhism does not have specific dietary rules, some buddhists practice vegetarianism based on a strict interpretation of the first of the Five Precepts.
- Hindu and Jain diets: Followers of Hinduism and Jainism may follow lacto vegetarian diets (though most do not, as some Hindu festivals require meat to be eaten), based on the principle of ahimsa (non-harming).
- Islamic dietary laws: Muslims follow a diet consisting solely of food that is halal – permissible in Islam. The opposite of halal is haraam, food that is Islamically Impermissible. Haraam substances include alcohol, pork, and any meat from an animal which was not killed through the Islamic method of ritual slaughter (Dhabiha).
- I-tal: A set of principles which influences the diet of many members of the Rastafari movement. One principle is that natural foods should be consumed. Some Rastafarians interpret I-tal to advocate vegetarianism or veganism.
- Kosher diet: Food permissible under Kashrut, the set of Jewish dietary laws, is said to be Kosher. Some foods and food combinations are non-Kosher, and failure to prepare food in accordance with Kashrut can make otherwise permissible foods non-Kosher.
- Seventh-day Adventist: Seventh-day Adventists combine the Kosher rules of Judaism with prohibitions against alcohol and caffeinated beverages and an emphasis on whole foods. About half of Adventists are lacto-ovo-vegetarians.
- Word of Wisdom: The name of a section of the Doctrine and Covenants, a book of scripture accepted by members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints. Dietary advice includes (1) wholesome plants "in the season thereof", (2) eating meat sparingly and only "in times of winter, or of cold, or famine", and (3) grain as the "staff of life".
Calorie and weight control diets
A desire to lose weight is a common motivation to change dietary habits, as is a desire to maintain an existing weight. Many weight loss diets are considered by some to entail varying degrees of health risk, and some are not widely considered to be effective. This is especially true of "crash" or "fad" diets.
Many of the diets listed below could fall into more than one subcategory. Where this is the case, it is noted in that diet's entry.
- 5:2 diet: an intermittent fasting diet popularized by Michael Mosley in 2012.
- Intermittent fasting: Cycling between non-fasting and fasting as a method of calorie restriction.
- Body for Life: A calorie-control diet, promoted as part of the 12-week Body for Life program.
- e diet: A calorie control diet in which low-fat cookies are eaten to quell hunger, often in place of a meal.
- The Hacker's Diet: A calorie-control diet from The Hacker's Diet by John Walker. The book suggests that the key to reaching and maintaining the desired weight is understanding and carefully monitoring calories consumed and used.
- Nutrisystem diet: The dietary element of the weight-loss plan from Nutrisystem, Inc. Nutrisystem distributes low-calorie meals, with specific ratios of fats, proteins and carbohydrates.
- Weight Watchers diet: Foods are assigned point values; dieters can eat any food with a point value provided they stay within their daily point limit.
Very low calorie diets
- Inedia (breatharian diet): A diet in which no food is consumed, based on the belief that food is not necessary for human subsistence.
- KE diet: A diet in which an individual feeds through a feeding tube and does not eat anything.
- Atkins diet: A low-carbohydrate diet, popularized by nutritionist Robert Atkins in the late-20th and early-21st centuries. Proponents argue that this approach is a more successful way of losing weight than low-calorie diets; critics argue that a low-carb approach poses increased health risks. The Atkins diet consists of four phases (Induction, Balancing, Fine-Tuning and Maintenance) with a gradual increase in consumption of carbohydrates as the person goes through the phases.
- Dukan Diet: A multi-step diet based on high protein and limited carbohydrate consumption. It starts with two steps intended to facilitate short term weight loss, followed by two steps intended to consolidate these losses and return to a more balanced long-term diet.
- Kimkins: A heavily promoted diet for weight loss, found to be fraudulent.
- South Beach Diet: Diet developed by the Miami-based cardiologist Arthur Agatston, M.D., who says that the key to losing weight quickly and getting healthy isn't cutting all carbohydrates and fats from your diet, but choosing the right carbs and the right fats.
- Stillman diet: A carbohydrate-restricted diet that predates the Atkins diet, allowing consumption of specific food ingredients.
- McDougall's starch diet is a high calorie, high fiber, low fat diet that is based on starches such as potatoes, rice, and beans which excludes all animal foods and added vegetable oils. John A. McDougall draws on historical observation of how many civilizations around the world throughout time have thrived on starch foods.
Crash diets are very-low-calorie diets used for the purpose of very fast weight loss. They describe diet plans that involve making extreme, rapid changes to food consumption, but are also used as disparaging terms for common eating habits which are considered unhealthy. This diet is dangerous and can lead to sudden death when not done in a medically supervised setting. Several diets listed here are weight-loss diets which would also fit into other sections of this list. Where this is the case, it will be noted in that diet's entry.
- Beverly Hills Diet: An extreme diet which has only fruits in the first days, gradually increasing the selection of foods up to the sixth week.
- Cabbage soup diet: A low-calorie diet based on heavy consumption of cabbage soup. Considered a fad diet.
- Grapefruit diet: A fad diet, intended to facilitate weight loss, in which grapefruit is consumed in large quantities at meal times.
- Monotrophic diet: A diet that involves eating only one food item, or one type of food, for a period of time to achieve a desired weight reduction.
- Subway diet: A crash diet in which a person consumes Subway sandwiches in place of higher calorie fast foods. Made famous by former obese student Jared Fogle, who lost 245 pounds after replacing his meals with Subway sandwiches as part of an effort to lose weight.
Detox diets involve either not consuming or attempting to flush out substances that are considered unhelpful or harmful. Examples include restricting food consumption to foods without colorings or preservatives, taking supplements, or drinking large amounts of water. The latter practice in particular has drawn criticism, as drinking significantly more water than recommended levels can cause hyponatremia.
- Juice fasting: A form of detox diet, in which nutrition is obtained solely from fruit and vegetable juices. The health implications of such diets are disputed.
- Master Cleanse: A form of juice fasting.
Diets followed for medical reasons
People's dietary choices are sometimes affected by intolerance or allergy to certain types of food. There are also dietary patterns that might be recommended, prescribed or administered by medical professionals for people with specific medical needs.
- DASH diet (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension): A recommendation that those with high blood pressure consume large quantities of fruits, vegetables, whole-grains and low fat dairy foods as part of their diet, and avoid sugar sweetened foods, red meat and fats. Promoted by the US Department of Health and Human Services, a United States government organisation.
- Diabetic diet: An umbrella term for diets recommended to people with diabetes. There is considerable disagreement in the scientific community as to what sort of diet is best for people with diabetes.
- Elemental diet: A medical, liquid-only diet, in which liquid nutrients are consumed for ease of ingestion.
- Elimination diet: A method of identifying foods which cause a person adverse effects, by process of elimination.
- Gluten-free diet: A diet which avoids the protein gluten, which is found in barley, rye and wheat. It is a medical treatment for gluten-related disorders, which include coeliac disease, non-celiac gluten sensitivity, gluten ataxia, dermatitis herpetiformis and wheat allergy.
- Healthy kidney diet: This diet is for those impacted with chronic kidney disease, those with only one kidney who have a kidney infection and those who may be suffering from some other kidney failure. This diet is not the dialysis diet, which is something completely different. The healthy kidney diet restricts large amounts of protein which are hard for the kidney to break down but especially limits: potassium and phosphorus-rich foods and beverages. Liquids are often restricted as well—not forbidden, just less of.
- Ketogenic diet: A high-fat, low-carb diet, in which dietary and body fat is converted into energy. It is used as a medical treatment for refractory epilepsy.
- Liquid diet: A diet in which only liquids are consumed. May be administered by clinicians for medical reasons, such as after a gastric bypass or to prevent death through starvation from a hunger strike.
- Low-FODMAP diet: A diet that consists in the global restriction of all fermentable carbohydrates (FODMAPs).
- Soft diet
- Specific carbohydrate diet: A diet that aims to restrict the intake of complex carbohydrates such as found in grains and complex sugars. It is promoted as a way of reducing the symptoms of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, coeliac disease, and autism.
A fad diet is a diet that is popular for a time, similar to fads in fashion, without being a standard dietary recommendation, and often promising unreasonably fast weight loss or nonsensical health improvements. There is no single definition of what a fad diet is, encompassing a variety of diets with different approaches and evidence bases, and thus different outcomes, advantages and disadvantages, and it is ever-changing. Generally, fad diets promise short-term changes with little efforts, and thus may lack educating consumers about whole-diet, whole lifestyle changes necessary for sustainable health benefices. Fad diets are often promoted with exaggerated claims, such as rapid weight loss of more than 1 kg/week or improving health by "detoxification", or even dangerous claims.
Since the "fad" qualification varies over time, social, cultural and subjective view, this list cannot be exhaustive, and fad diets may continue or stop being fads, such as the mediterranean diet. Some of them have therapeutic indications, such as epilepsy or obesity, and there is no one-size-fits-all diet that would be a panacea for everyone to lose weight or look better. Dieteticians are a regulated profession that can distinguish nutritionally sound diets from unhealthy ones.
- Alkaline diet
- Baby Food Diet
- Cabbage soup diet
- Clean eating
- Cookie diet
- Egg and wine diet
- Food combining diet: A nutritional approach where certain food types are deliberately consumed together or separately. For instance, some weight control diets suggest that proteins and carbohydrates should not be consumed in the same meal.
- Gluten free diet, while essential for people with celiac disease or gluten sensitivity, has also become a fad.
- Grapefruit diet
- Lamb chop and pineapple diet
- Morning banana diet
- Mucusless Diet
- Rhubarb diet
- Superfood diet
- Whole30 diet
Low-carbohydrate / high-fat diets
- Low-carbohydrate diet
- Atkins diet
- Bulletproof diet
- Drinking Man's Diet
- Dukan Diet
- Hamptons Diet
- "Keto" or ketogenic diet (but for the purpose of weight loss instead of epilepsy seizures reduction)
- Pioppi Diet
- Protein Power
- Salisbury diet
- Stillman diet
- Sugar Busters
- Zone diet: A diet in which a person attempts to split calorie intake from carbohydrates, proteins and fats in a 40:30:30 ratio.
- Other high-fat variants.
- Paleolithic diet: Can refer either to the eating habits of humans during the Paleolithic era, or of modern dietary plans purporting to be based on these habits.
- Scarsdale medical diet
- South Beach Diet
- The 4-Hour Body
High-carbohydrate / low-fat diets
- Ornish diet
- McDougall diet·
- Pritikin Diet: A diet which focusses on the consumption of unprocessed food.
- Rice diet
- The Good Carbohydrate Revolution
- 5:2 diet
- Breatharian diet: A diet based on a belief that people can sustain with spirituality and sunlight alone, but leads to starvation and devotees have been spotted eating and drinking in hiding.
- Dubrow Diet
- Intermittent fasting
- Juice fasting
- Protein-sparing modified fast
- The Last Chance Diet
- Detox diet
- Fat Flush Plan ·
- Lemon detox diet
- Activated charcoal diet
- Wheatgrass diet
- Blood type diet: A diet based on a belief that people's diets should reflect their blood types.
- Cotton ball diet
- Immune Power Diet
- Werewolf diet
- Fruitarian diet: A diet which predominantly consists of raw fruit.
- Lacto vegetarianism: A vegetarian diet that includes certain types of dairy, but excludes eggs and foods which contain animal rennet. A common diet among followers of several religions, including Hinduism, Sikhism and Jainism, based on the principle of Ahimsa (non-harming).
- Ovo vegetarianism: A vegetarian diet that includes eggs, but excludes dairy.
- Ovo-lacto vegetarianism: A vegetarian diet that includes eggs and dairy.
- Vegan diet: In addition to the abstentions of a vegetarian diet, vegans do not use any product produced by animals, such as eggs, dairy products, or honey. The vegan philosophy and lifestyle is broader than just the diet and also includes abstaining from using any products tested on animals and often campaigning for animal rights.
- Semi-vegetarianism: A predominantly vegetarian diet, in which meat is occasionally consumed.
- Kangatarian: A diet originating from Australia. In addition to foods permissible in a vegetarian diet, kangaroo meat is also consumed.
- Pescetarian diet: A diet which includes fish but not other meats.
- Plant-based diet: A broad term to describe diets in which animal products do not form a large proportion of the diet. Under some definitions a plant-based diet is fully vegetarian; under others it is possible to follow a plant-based diet whilst occasionally consuming meat.
- Pollotarian: Someone who eats chicken or other poultry, but not meat from mammals, often for environmental, health or food justice reasons.
- Pollo-pescetarian: Someone who eats both poultry and fish/seafood, though no meat from mammals.
- Alkaline diet: The avoidance of relatively acidic foods – foods with low pH levels – such as alcohol, caffeine, dairy, fungi, grains, meat, and sugar. Proponents believe such a diet may have health benefits; critics consider the arguments to have no scientific basis.
- Clean eating
- Climatarian diet: A diet focused on reducing the carbon footprint of the consumed food, particularly through the consumption of locally sourced food and the avoidance of beef and lamb meat.
- Eat-clean diet: Focuses on eating foods without preservatives, and on mixing lean proteins with complex carbohydrates.
- Gerson therapy: A form of alternative medicine, the diet is low salt, low fat and vegetarian, and also involves taking specific supplements. It was developed by Max Gerson, who claimed the therapy could cure cancer and chronic, degenerative diseases. These claims have not been scientifically proven, and they can cause serious illness and death.
- The Graham Diet: A vegetarian diet which promotes whole-wheat flour and discourages the consumption of stimulants such as alcohol and caffeine. Developed by Sylvester Graham in the 19th century.
- Hay diet: A food-combining diet developed by William Howard Hay in the 1920s. Divides foods into separate groups, and suggests that proteins and carbohydrates should not be consumed in the same meal.
- High-protein diet: A diet in which high quantities of protein are consumed with the intention of building muscle. Not to be confused with low-carb diets, where the intention is to lose weight by restricting carbohydrates.
- High residue diet: A diet in which high quantities of dietary fiber are consumed. High-fiber foods include certain fruits, vegetables, nuts and grains.
- Inuit diet: Inuit people traditionally consume food that is fished, hunted or gathered locally; predominantly meat and fish.
- Jenny Craig: A weight-loss program from Jenny Craig, Inc. It includes weight counselling among other elements. The dietary aspect involves the consumption of pre-packaged food produced by the company.
- Locavore diet: a neologism describing the eating of food that is locally produced, and not moved long distances to market. An example of this was explored in the book 100-Mile Diet, in which the authors only consumed food grown within 100 miles of their residence for a year. People who follow this type of diet are sometimes known as locavores.
- Low carbon diet: Consuming food which has been produced, prepared and transported with a minimum of associated greenhouse gas emissions.
- Low-fat diet
- Low glycemic index diet
- Low-protein diet
- Low sodium diet
- Low-sulfur diet
- Macrobiotic diet: A diet in which processed food is avoided. Common components include grains, beans and vegetables.
- Mediterranean diet: A diet based on habits of some southern European countries. One of the more distinct features is that olive oil is used as the primary source of fat.
- MIND diet: combines the portions of the DASH diet and the Mediterranean diet. The diet is intended to reduce neurological deterioration such as Alzheimer's disease.
- Montignac diet: A weight-loss diet characterised by consuming carbohydrates with a low glycemic index.
- Negative calorie diet: A claim by many weight-loss diets that some foods take more calories to digest than they provide, such as celery. The basis for this claim is disputed.
- Okinawa diet: A low-calorie diet based on the traditional eating habits of people from the Ryukyu Islands.
- Omnivore: An omnivore consumes both plant and animal-based food.
- Organic food diet: A diet consisting only of food which is organic – it has not been produced with modern inputs such as synthetic fertilizers, genetic modification, irradiation, or synthetic food additives.
- Prison loaf: A meal replacement served in some United States prisons to inmates who are not trusted to use cutlery. Its composition varies between institutions and states, but as a replacement for standard food, it is intended to provide inmates with all their dietary needs.
- Raw foodism: A diet which centres on the consumption of uncooked and unprocessed food. Often associated with a vegetarian diet, although some raw food dieters do consume raw meat.
- Shangri-La Diet
- Slimming World diet
- Slow-carb diet
- Smart For Life
- Sonoma diet: A diet based on portion control and centered around consuming “power foods”
- SparkPeople diet
- Sugar Busters!: Focuses on restricting the consumption of refined carbohydrates, particularly sugars.
- Tongue Patch Diet: Stitching a Marlex patch to the tongue to make eating painful.
- * Western pattern diet: ’Default’ diet in many developed countries, especially the Anglosphere. The name is from “Western world” and is interchanged with “standard American diet” & “meat-sweet diet” due to the high amount of meat(total), red meats(particularly), dairy, sweets and refined cereals. Subpar intake of whole grains, legumes, tree nuts, produce and seafood is the norm. WPDs are distinguished from other unbalanced diets by heavy inclusion of ‘junk food’ and other ultraprocessed foods that generally provide substantial; empty calories, net carbs, simple carbs, saturated fat, industrial trans fat, added sugar/free sugars, added salt, artificial flavor /sweetener & other processing ingredients. Archetypal examples include; RTE cereals, white breads, fast food, other convenience meals, cured meat dishes, smoked/fried meats, fried dough foods, shallow/deep fried potatoes, other foods intensely fried in rendered fat/refined oil, sugary/fatty discretionary foods (eg.sauce,candy), colas and other sweetened soft drinks.
- "Definition for diet". Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
- Weintraub, Eileen. "Life as a Vegetarian Tibetan Buddhist Practitioner: A personal view". Society of Ethical and Religious Vegetarians. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
- (Dasa, Shukavak N.) "Non Harming: Ahimsa" Archived 8 April 2011 at the Wayback Machine. Devasthanam. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
- "What do Halal, Dhabiha Halal and Haram Mean?". halalcertified.com. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- "Rastafarianism". University of Dundee. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- "Kosher Food 101: the Basics of Which Foods Are Kosher". The Spruce. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
- "LLUMC Legacy: Daring to Care". Adventist Health Study. Loma Linda University. Retrieved 3 February 2016.
- Doctrine and Covenants 89:10-17
- "The Facts on Fad Diets". EverydayHealth.com. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
- "The Beginner's Guide to the 5:2 Diet". Retrieved 11 January 2018.
- Mattson, MP (4 February 2014). "Fasting: molecular mechanisms and clinical applications". Cell Metabolism. 19 (1932–7420): 181–92. doi:10.1016/j.cmet.2013.12.008. PMC 3946160. PMID 24440038.
- "Body for Life Program Review: Does It Work?". Retrieved 19 September 2016.
- Schmall, Emily (17 November 2008). "Bite fight". Forbes. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
- "How does Nutrisystem Diet work?". Retrieved 11 December 2016.
- Devlin, Kate (2 September 2008). "Atkins diet and Weight Watchers 'the best ways to lose weight'". The Telegraph. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
- "Very low calorie diet for rapid weight loss". Calorie Counter. 19 October 2010. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
- "All they need is the air". BBC News. 22 September 1999. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
- Park, Alice. "Tube Feeding: What's Wrong with the Latest Wedding Crash Diet?". Time. Retrieved 18 April 2014.
- Witchel, Alex (27 November 1996). "Refighting The Battle Of the Bulge". New York Times. Retrieved 29 October 2009.
- "Scientists endorse Atkins diet". BBC News. 17 May 2004. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
- "Low carb diet health risk fears". BBC News. 17 March 2006. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
- "What is Atkins Diet?". Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- Samuel, Henry (1 June 2011). "The four stages of the Dukan diet". The Telegraph. Retrieved 14 February 2011.
- "The South Beach Diet". Retrieved 12 December 2016.
- "How to diet". nhs.uk. NHS. 27 April 2018.
- "Take the test: Is an 800-calorie diet right for me?". BBC Food.
- Bonet, Anna (28 November 2018). "Are crash diets ever a good idea for weight loss?". Netdoctor.
'A crash diet is typically a very low-calorie diet, where you eat a very restrictively for a short period of time,' explains Registered Dietician, Helen Bond.
- Isner JM, Sours HE, Paris AL, Ferrans VJ, Roberts WC (December 1979). "Sudden, unexpected death in avid dieters using the liquid-protein-modified-fast diet. Observations in 17 patients and the role of the prolonged QT interval". Circulation. 60 (6): 1401–12. doi:10.1161/01.cir.60.6.1401. PMID 498466.
- Sours HE, Frattali VP, Brand CD, Feldman RA, Forbes AL, Swanson RC, Paris AL (April 1981). "Sudden death associated with very low calorie weight reduction regimens". The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 34 (4): 453–61. doi:10.1093/ajcn/34.4.453. PMID 7223697.
- "New Beverly Hills Diet". EveryDiet.org. Retrieved 29 April 2012.
The original Beverly Hills diet was published in 1981 and is regarded by many as being the first fad diet.
- "Health risk of 'faddy diets'". BBC News. 2 May 2001. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
- "Grapefruit diet 'put leg at risk'". BBC News. 2 April 2009. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- Kingsley, Patrick (10 March 2011). "How a sandwich franchise ousted McDonald's". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
- "Woman left brain damaged by detox". BBC News. 23 July 2008. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
- Moores, Susan. "Experts warn of detox diet dangers". NBC News. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
- "Your guide to lowering your blood pressure with DASH". US Department of Health and Human Services. April 2006. Retrieved 28 December 2011.
- "Elemental diet" Archived 6 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Food Hospital. Channel 4. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
- "The elimination diet" Archived 9 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. National Health Service. 12 January 2010. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
- Ludvigsson JF, Leffler DA, Bai JC, Biagi F, Fasano A, Green PH, Hadjivassiliou M, Kaukinen K, Kelly CP, Leonard JN, Lundin KE, Murray JA, Sanders DS, Walker MM, Zingone F, Ciacci C (January 2013). "The Oslo definitions for coeliac disease and related terms". Gut. 62 (1): 43–52. doi:10.1136/gutjnl-2011-301346. PMC 3440559. PMID 22345659.
- Volta U, Caio G, De Giorgio R, Henriksen C, Skodje G, Lundin KE (June 2015). "Non-celiac gluten sensitivity: a work-in-progress entity in the spectrum of wheat-related disorders". Best Pract Res Clin Gastroenterol. 29 (3): 477–91. doi:10.1016/j.bpg.2015.04.006. PMID 26060112.
After the confirmation of NCGS diagnosis, according to the previously mentioned work-up, patients are advized to start with a GFD . (...) NCGS patients can experience more symptoms than CD patients following a short gluten challenge . (NCGS=non-celiac gluten sensitivity; CD=coeliac disease; GFD=gluten-free diet)
- Mulder CJ, van Wanrooij RL, Bakker SF, Wierdsma N, Bouma G (2013). "Gluten-free diet in gluten-related disorders". Dig. Dis. (Review). 31 (1): 57–62. doi:10.1159/000347180. PMID 23797124.
The only treatment for CD, dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) and gluten ataxia is lifelong adherence to a GFD.
- Hischenhuber C, Crevel R, Jarry B, Mäki M, Moneret-Vautrin DA, Romano A, Troncone R, Ward R (1 March 2006). "Review article: safe amounts of gluten for patients with wheat allergy or coeliac disease". Aliment Pharmacol Ther. 23 (5): 559–75. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2036.2006.02768.x. PMID 16480395.
For both wheat allergy and coeliac disease the dietary avoidance of wheat and other gluten-containing cereals is the only effective treatment.
- Lange, Klaus (1 November 2015). "Gluten-free and casein-free diets in the therapy of autism". Current Opinion in Clinical Nutrition and Metabolic Care. Nov 2015 (6): 18(6):572–575. doi:10.1097/MCO.0000000000000228. PMID 26418822 – via Ovid.
- "Nutrition". 14 October 2014. Archived from the original on 28 June 2014. Retrieved 25 November 2013.
- "Dialysis Diet".
- "Kidney-Friendly Diet & Foods for CKD - American Kidney Fund".
- Huffman J, Kossoff EH (July 2006). "State of the ketogenic diet(s) in epilepsy" (PDF). Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 6 (4): 332–40. doi:10.1007/s11910-006-0027-6. PMID 16822355. Archived from the original (PDF) on 1 December 2006.
- "Maradona has surgery on stomach". BBC Sport. 6 March 2005. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
- "India woman's 10-year fast against anti-insurgent law". BBC News. 3 November 2010. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
- Hart, Katherine (2018). "4.6 Fad diets and fasting for weight loss in obesity.". In Hankey, Catherine (ed.). Advanced nutrition and dietetics in obesity. Wiley. pp. 177–182. ISBN 9780470670767.
- Hankey, Catherine (23 November 2017). Advanced Nutrition and Dietetics in Obesity. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 179–181. ISBN 9781118857977.
- "Fact Sheet—Fad diets" (PDF). British Dietetic Association. 2014. Retrieved 12 December 2015.
Fad-diets can be tempting as they offer a quick-fix to a long-term problem.
- Kraig, Bruce (2013). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Food and Drink in America. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 623–626. ISBN 9780199734962.
- Zoumbaris, Sharon K.; Bijlefeld, Marjolijn (25 November 2014). Encyclopedia of diet fads : understanding science and society (2nd ed.). Greenwood. ISBN 9781610697606.
- Williams, William F. (2 December 2013). Encyclopedia of Pseudoscience: From Alien Abductions to Zone Therapy. Routledge. pp. 107–108. ISBN 9781135955229.
- Shick SM, Wing RR, Klem ML, McGuire MT, Hill JO, Seagle H; Wing; Klem; McGuire; Hill; Seagle (April 1998). "Persons successful at long-term weight loss and maintenance continue to consume a low-energy, low-fat diet". J Am Diet Assoc. 98 (4): 408–13. doi:10.1016/S0002-8223(98)00093-5. PMID 9550162.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
- Flynn MAT (2004). Gibney MJ (ed.). Chapter 14: Fear of Fatness and Fad Slimming Diets. Public Health Nutrition. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 236–246. ISBN 978-1-118-69332-2.
- Katz DL, Meller S (2014). "Can we say what diet is best for health?". Annu Rev Public Health. 35: 83–103. doi:10.1146/annurev-publhealth-032013-182351. PMID 24641555.
- Brown JE, Isaacs J, Krinke B, Lechtenberg E, Murtaugh M (2011). Nutrition Through the Life Cycle (4th ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 410. ISBN 978-1-133-00816-3.
- "What is the Ketogenic Diet". www.eatright.org. April 2019.
- Jensen, MD; Ryan, DH; Apovian, CM; Ard, JD; Comuzzie, AG; Donato, KA; Hu, FB; Hubbard, VS; Jakicic, JM; Kushner, RF; Loria, CM; Millen, BE; Nonas, CA; Pi-Sunyer, FX; Stevens, J; Stevens, VJ; Wadden, TA; Wolfe, BM; Yanovski, SZ; Jordan, HS; Kendall, KA; Lux, LJ; Mentor-Marcel, R; Morgan, LC; Trisolini, MG; Wnek, J; Anderson, JL; Halperin, JL; Albert, NM; Bozkurt, B; Brindis, RG; Curtis, LH; DeMets, D; Hochman, JS; Kovacs, RJ; Ohman, EM; Pressler, SJ; Sellke, FW; Shen, WK; Smith SC, Jr; Tomaselli, GF; American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice, Guidelines.; Obesity, Society. (24 June 2014). "2013 AHA/ACC/TOS guideline for the management of overweight and obesity in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines and The Obesity Society". Circulation (Professional society guideline). 129 (25 Suppl 2): S102-38. doi:10.1161/01.cir.0000437739.71477.ee. PMC 5819889. PMID 24222017.
- Collins, Sonya. "Alkaline Diets". WebMD. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- Wait, Mariane. "The Baby Food Diet Review". WebMD. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- "How to diet". nhs.uk. NHS. 27 April 2018.
- Crosariol, Beppi. 9 January 2014,The Globe and Mail, "Feeling frugal after the holidays? Try these 11 affordable wines". Accessed 3 February 2014.
- Wilson, Bee (11 August 2017). "Why we fell for clean eating". The Guardian. ISSN 0261-3077. Retrieved 10 March 2019.
- Bix, Cynthia Overbeck. (2015). Fad Mania!: A History of American Crazes. Twenty-First Century Books. p. 43. ISBN 978-1-4677-1034-3
- "Experts warn against the controversial 'egg and wine diet'". Retrieved December 5, 2019.
- "Sophisticated diets 'no advantage'". BBC News. 6 April 2000. Retrieved 14 February 2012.
- Davidson, Tish (2007). "Fit for Life diet". In Longe, Jacqueline L. (ed.). The Gale Encyclopedia of Diets: A Guide to Health and Nutrition. Gale, Thomson. pp. 383–385. ISBN 978-1-4144-2991-5.
- "Nutrition for Weight Loss: What You Need to Know About Fad Diets". familydoctor.org. August 2016. Retrieved 21 December 2016.
- Forbes, Gilber, American Academy of Pediatrics, 1980. "[Food Fads: Safe Feeding of Children http://pedsinreview.aappublications.org/cgi/reprint/1/7/207]" Pediatrics in Review. 1980;1:207-210. doi:10.1542/10.1542/pir.1-7-207.
- Lebwohl B, Ludvigsson JF, Green PH (October 2015). "Celiac disease and non-celiac gluten sensitivity". BMJ (Review). 351: h4347. doi:10.1136/bmj.h4347. PMC 4596973. PMID 26438584.
Some population groups seem to be especially wed to the gluten-free diet, with nearly 50% of 910 athletes (including world class and Olympic medalists) adhering to a gluten-free diet, mainly because of the perceived health and energy benefits.
- Gluten-Free, Whether You Need It or Not. New York Times.
- "Gluten-free diet fad: Are celiac disease rates actually rising?". CBS News. 31 July 2012.
People buy gluten-free food "because they think it will help them lose weight, because they seem to feel better or because they mistakenly believe they are sensitive to gluten."
- Bastin, Sandra (March 2004). "Fad Diets" (PDF). University of Kentucky Extension Service.
- Addison, Heather. (2000). Hollywood, Consumer Culture, and the Rise of "Body Shaping". In David Desser, Garth Jowett. Hollywood Goes Shopping. University of Minnesota Press. p. 22. ISBN 0-8166-3512-9
- Toyama, Michiko. Time, 17 October 2008, "Japan Goes Bananas for a New Diet" Accessed 1 July 2011.
- Butler, Kurt; Rayner, Lynn. (1985). The Best Medicine: The Complete Health and Preventive Medicine Handbook. Harper & Row, Publishers, San Francisco. pp. 133-135. ISBN 0-06-250123-2
- Howard, Rosanne Beatrice; Herbold, Nancie Harvey. (1978). Nutrition in Clinical Care. McGraw-Hill. p. 276. ISBN 978-0070305458
- Fad Diets: The Whole30, International Food Information Council Foundation, 25 July 2017
- "Fad diets: Low Carbohydrate Diet Summaries" (PDF).
- Cohen, Larry et al. Prevention Institute, San Jose State University. "The O Word: Why the Focus on Obesity is Harmful to Community Health". Accessed 3 February 2014.
- Daniels, June RN, MSN. Nursing: December 2004 - Volume 34 - Issue 12 - p 22–23, "Fad diets: Slim on good nutrition". Accessed 3 February 2014.
- "The Bulletproof Diet: simplistic, invalid and unscientific". The Telegraph. Retrieved November 24, 2018.
- Tunc, Tanfer Emin. (2018). The “Mad Men” of Nutrition: The Drinking Man’s Diet and Mid-Twentieth-Century American Masculinity. Global Food History 4 (2): 189-206.
- webmd.com, 22 April 2011, "Are Fad Diets Worth the Risk? Archived 21 February 2014 at the Wayback Machine". Accessed 3 February 2014.
- Rastogi, Shweta. (2010). Eat Right To Stay Bright: Manage Diet To Manage Disease. Popular Prakashan. p. 63. ISBN 978-81-7991-582-0
- "Eat beet, lose pounds (and five other dietary fads)". Retrieved December 22, 2019.
- "Top 5 worst celeb diets to avoid in 2018". British Dietetic Association. 7 December 2017.
The British Dietetic Association (BDA) today revealed its much-anticipated annual list of celebrity diets to avoid in 2018. The line-up this year includes Raw Vegan, Alkaline, Pioppi and Ketogenic diets as well as Katie Price's Nutritional Supplements.
- MD, Marcelo Campos (27 July 2017). "Ketogenic diet: Is the ultimate low-carb diet good for you?". Harvard Health Blog.
- British Dietetic Association (7 December 2017). "Top 5 worst celeb diets to avoid in 2018". British Dietetic Association.
- Stare, Fredrick John; Whelan, Elizabeth M. (1998). Protein Power by Michael R. Eades, M.D., and Mary Dan Eades, M.D. In Fad-Free Nutrition. Hunter House Inc. pp. 205-207. ISBN 0-89793-237-4
- Akis, Eric. (2017). "The original low-carb diet". Times Colonist. Retrieved December 2, 2018.
- Kuske, Terrence T. Quackery and Fad Diets. In Elaine B. Feldman. (1983). Nutrition in the Middle and Later Years. John Wright & Sons. p. 297. ISBN 0-7236-7046-3
- "Study backs worth of Atkins diet". BBC News. 7 March 2007. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
- NHS (9 May 2008). "Caveman fad diet". nhs.uk.
- Frassetto, L.; Schloetter, M.; Mietus-Synder, M.; Morris Jr., R.; Sebastian, A. (2009). "Metabolic and physiologic improvements from consuming a paleolithic, hunter-gatherer type diet" (PDF). European Journal of Clinical Nutrition. 63 (8): 947–955. doi:10.1038/ejcn.2009.4. PMID 19209185. Retrieved 13 May 2016.
- Tina Gianoulis, "Dieting" in the St. James Encyclopedia of Popular Culture Ed. Thomas Riggs. Vol. 2. 2nd ed. Detroit: St. James Press, 2013. p106-108. ISBN 978-1-55862-847-2
- Fad Diets Sandra Bastin, Ph.D., R.D., L.D. Cooperative Extension Service. University of Kentucky - College of Agriculture. March 2004. Retrieved August 28, 2015
- Jane E Brody for the New York Times. June 3, 1981 Personal Health: Another Entry in the Annals of Fad Diets
- Southern Nevada Health District. 2015 Back to the 80s: Fad Diets Archived 18 June 2017 at the Wayback Machine
- DeBruyne L, Pinna K, Whitney E (2011). Chapter 7: Nutrition in practice — fad diets. Nutrition and Diet Therapy (8th ed.). Cengage Learning. p. 209. ISBN 978-1-133-71550-4.
'a fad diet by any other name would still be a fad diet.' And the names are legion: the Atkins Diet, the Cheater's Diet, the South Beach Diet, the Zone Diet. Year after year, 'new and improved' diets appear ...
- "People to watch". Nature Medicine. 12 (1): 29. 2006. doi:10.1038/nm0106-29. ISSN 1078-8956.
James Hill wants Americans to shed pounds. But instead of promoting any one fad diet, he embraces most--Atkins, South Beach, grapefruit-only--as relatively effective ways to lose weight.
- Hiatt, Kurtis. 1 March 2011, U.S. News & World Report, "'The 4-Hour Body'—Does It Deliver Results?".
- Speakman, John R. (2003). Obesity:- Part three – failed solutions and new ideas. Biologist 50 (3): 1-6.
- Ayers, Suzan F; Sariscsany, Mary Jo. (2011). Physical Education for Lifelong Fitness: The Physical Best Teacher's Guide. National Association for Sport and Physical Education. p. 65. ISBN 978-0-7360-8116-0
- Stare FJ, Whelan EM (1998). "Book review:The McDougall Program for Maximum Weight Loss by John A. McDougall M.D.". Fad-Free Nutrition. Hunter House. pp. 202–203. ISBN 9780897932363.
- Alters S, Schiff W (22 February 2012). Chapter 10: Body Weight and Its Management. Essential Concepts for Healthy Living (Sixth ed.). Jones & Bartlett Publishers. p. 327. ISBN 978-1-4496-3062-1.
- Wdowik, Melissa (7 November 2017). "The long, strange history of dieting fads". The Conversation. Retrieved 21 October 2019.
- "Top 5 Worst Celebrity Diets to Avoid in 2014". bda.uk.com. 22 March 2014. Archived from the original on 22 March 2014.
- Ask the Expert: Fad Diets in 2019 By Toby Amidor, MS, RD, CDN Today's Dietitian Vol. 21, No. 1, P. 10
- Valiant M (27 May 2015). "Do Juice Cleanses Work? 10 Truths About The Fad". Huffington Post.
- Barrett, Stephen; Herbert, Victor. Questionable Practices in Foods and Nutrition: Definitions and Descriptions. (2002). In Carolyn D. Berdanier. Handbook of Nutrition and Food. CRC Press. p. 1493. ISBN 0-8493-2705-9
- "BDA Releases Top 5 Celeb Diets to Avoid in 2019". www.bda.uk.com. 7 December 2018. Retrieved 28 October 2019.
- Maureen Callahan. "Fat Flush - Diet Fitness". Health.com. Retrieved 2 March 2016.
- Elin, Abby (21 January 2009). "Flush Those Toxins! Eh, Not So Fast". New York Times. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- Knibbs, Kate (28 January 2016). "Gwyneth Paltrow's Goop Consults 'Fat Flush' Diet Quack About 'Cell Phone Toxicity'". Gizmodo. Retrieved 4 March 2016.
- "8 fad diets and how they work". 5 April 2019.
- news.com.au. 8 January 2014, "The worst diets of 2013 - and the best for 2014". Accessed 3 February 2014.
- Newman, Judith. "The Juice Cleanse: A Strange and Green Journey" (PDF). New York Times. New York Times. Archived from the original (PDF) on 15 April 2018. Retrieved 6 May 2016.
- Collins, Clare; Ashton, Lee; Williams, Rebecca (28 August 2019). "The science behind diet trends like Mono, charcoal detox, Noom and Fast800". The Conversation. Archived from the original on 27 August 2019. Retrieved 2 December 2019.
- Wheatgrass Therapy. National Council Against Health Fraud.
- Walden, Celia (16 June 2010). "The blood-type diet: Weight loss need not be in vein". The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
- Bijlefeld, Marjolijn; Sharon K. Zoumbaris (25 November 2014). Encyclopedia of Diet Fads: Understanding Science and Society, 2nd Edition: Understanding Science and Society. ABC-CLIO. pp. 195–. ISBN 978-1-61069-760-6.
- Neporent, Liz (21 November 2013). "Dangerous Diet Trend: The Cotton Ball Diet". ABC News. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
- Barrett, Stephen; Jarvis, William T. (1993). The Health Robbers: A Close Look at Quackery in America. Prometheus Books. pp. 151-152. ISBN 0-87975-855-4
- The Latest Diet Fad That Involves...Werewolves? Oh, And Moons. Retrieved 22 December 2019.
- "What is a vegetarian?". Vegetarian Society. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
- "Let them eat air...". The Guardian. 28 September 1999. Retrieved 10 March 2012.
- Hunter, Fiona (April 2011). "Vegetarian and vegan diets". BBC Health. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
- Fellowes, Jessica (14 November 2008). "The new vegetarianism: introducing the flexitarian". The Telegraph. Retrieved 10 March 2012.
- Barone, Tayissa (9 February 2010). "Kangatarians jump the divide". Sydney Morning Herald. Retrieved 17 January 2012.
- "Plant Based Diets". U.S. News & World Report. U.S. News & World Report Health. Retrieved 11 August 2014.
- Dawson-Hughes, Bess (January 2008). "The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism". Tufts University. Medpagetoday.com Retrieved 2 March 2011.
- "Your Friday Dose of Woo: Acid, base, or woo (revisited)" Archived 11 February 2012 at the Wayback Machine. Scienceblogs.com. 8 June 2007. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
- Moskin, Julia (15 December 2015). "'Hangry'? Want a Slice of 'Piecaken'? The Top New Food Words for 2015". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 6 February 2020.
- Reno, Tosca. (2007). The Eat-Clean Diet. Robert Kennedy Publishing. ISBN 1-55210-038-3.
- "Gerson Therapy". American Cancer Society. Retrieved 22 April 2009.
- "Sylvester Graham (1795-1851)". International Vegetarian Union. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- "High Fiber Diet". Mayo Clinic. 15 August 2009. Retrieved 11 October 2011.
- Gill, Victoria (13 August 2010). "Scientist will live as an Inuit for one year". BBC News. Retrieved 13 February 2012.
- "How Jenny Craig works" Archived 4 March 2016 at the Wayback Machine. Jenny Craig, Inc. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
- Smith, Alisa; Mackinnon, J.B. (March 2007). The 100-Mile Diet: A Year of Local Eating. Random House Canada. ISBN 0-679-31482-2.
- Crace, John (3 June 2009). "The wholefood revolutionary". The Guardian. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
- "Low-fat, Mediterranean and low-carb diets 'help heart'". BBC News. 2 March 2010. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
- Marcason, Wendy (2015). "What Are the Components to the MIND Diet?". Journal of the Academy of Nutrition and Dietetics. 115 (10): 1744. doi:10.1016/j.jand.2015.08.002. ISSN 2212-2672. PMID 26407649.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
- Rhodes, Chloe (21 November 2005). "Diet another day: the Montignac diet". The Telegraph. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
- Snyderman, Nancy (6 May 2009). "There are no negative-calorie foods". Time. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
- "Definition for omnivore". Oxford Dictionaries. Retrieved 13 March 2012.
- Allen GJ, Albala K, eds. (2007). The business of food: encyclopedia of the food and drink industries. ABC-CLIO. p. 288. ISBN 978-0-313-33725-3.
- "Raw food eaters thin but healthy". BBC News. 29 March 2005. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- Green, Emily (31 January 2001). "Meat but no heat". Los Angeles Times. Retrieved 11 March 2012.
- Gorman, Christine (24 June 2001). "Sugar Busters!". Time. Retrieved 12 March 2012.
- "Western diet risk to Asian women". BBC News. 10 July 2007. Retrieved 15 February 2012.
- Bloomfield, HE; Kane, R; Koeller, E; Greer, N; MacDonald, R; Wilt, T (November 2015). "Benefits and Harms of the Mediterranean Diet Compared to Other Diets" (PDF). VA Evidence-based Synthesis Program Reports: 7. PMID 27559560 – via Pubmed.
- "USDA ERS - Charts of Note". www.ers.usda.gov. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
- "Heavily processed foods cause overeating and weight gain, study finds: Small-scale trial is the first randomized, controlled research of its kind". ScienceDaily. Retrieved 20 June 2020.
- Miller, Paige E.; McKinnon, Robin A.; Krebs-Smith, Susan M.; Subar, Amy F.; Chriqui, Jamie; Kahle, Lisa; Reedy, Jill (October 2013). "Sugar-sweetened beverage consumption in the U.S.: novel assessment methodology". American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 45 (4): 416–421. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2013.05.014. ISSN 1873-2607. PMID 24050417.